Tag Archives: New Journal Articles

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “This chapter focuses on books published in the field of black cultural studies in 2011. It is divided into two sections: 1. Visual Culture, which reviews Leigh Raiford’s Imprisoned in a Luminous Glare, Nicole Fleetwood’s Troubling Vision, John Bowles’ Adrian Piper, and Nicholas Mirzoeff’s The Right to Look; 2. Cultural and Literary Theory, which examines works on legal rituals, violence, Du Bois’ mid-century writings, African-American literary history, and post-black identity in America. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper investigates how resident perceptions affect the successful implementation of community-based tourism (CBT) in a least developed country (LDC) scenario. By realizing how past and present experiences of war affect resident perceptions, including how they view themselves, their community and tourism, we can build an understanding of how to assess the capacity for a community to successfully embrace and sustain CBT for development. This will be achieved by exploring two cases of CBT in Cambodia: the Banteay Chmmar subdistrict and Banlung town. These two cases represent a successful and unsuccessful implementation of CBT in Cambodia as an LDC utilizing tourism for development. Learnings from this situation can be applied to other post-war tourism and development destinations. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explores the concept of inclusive community development and its relevance to the ethnogenesis and empowerment of Gypsy and Traveller communities. Critics have asserted that such an approach can hold the danger of encompassing an assimilationist agenda, that seeks to ‘civilize’. The paper argues that community development can be community-driven but ideally should be a gradual process, delivered in stages where external and outsider assistance can in fact be of use. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Applying multilevel analyses to a sample of the Belgian Census (110,208 individuals in 130 municipalities and districts), we study neighbourhood effects on ethnic educational inequality, comparing the Italian, Moroccan, and Turkish second generation with the Belgian majority. Severe ethnic penalties on the completion of upper secondary and tertiary education are largely explained by ethnic differences in family resources. In addition to individual- and household-level predictors in 1991, our analyses of educational attainment, as assessed retrospectively in 2001, focus on ethnic density and co-ethnic resources as neighbourhood-level predictors in 1991. Neighbourhood resources are measured by general and co-ethnic levels of education and housing wealth in one’s municipality or district. Combining migration research on the role of ethnic communities with research on neighbourhood effects, we argue that co-ethnic (relative to general) neighbourhood resources will most effectively support second-generation attainment. Indeed, positive effects of neighbourhood ethnic density and the share of university-educated co-ethnics on attainment account for residual ethnic penalties after taking into account family resources, particularly among the Turkish second generation. Our findings point to the up- and downsides of ethnic residential concentration for second-generation attainment, depending on the presence or absence of co-ethnic neighbourhood resources. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “This article assesses the economic role of refugee settlers in Australia. Refugee-humanitarian labour force participation rates are lower than for other migrant groups or the Australia-born. However, their labour market performance converges toward that of the Australia-born over time. Moreover, the second generation performs at a higher level. There are a number of significant impediments to participation including language, education, structural disadvantage and discrimination. Indeed, there is evidence of a significant refugee gap which can only be explained by discrimination. It is shown that refugees represent a significant stock of human capital that is not being fully realized. They suffer more than other groups through non-recognition and there is substantial “brain waste” with negative results for the economy and the migrants themselves. Finally, it is shown that refugee-humanitarian settlers show greater propensity to form their own business than other migrants and that risk-taking, entrepreneurialism and an ability to identify and take advantage of opportunities is a key characteristic of the group.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights has recently published her much anticipated report on strengthening the United Nations (UN) human rights treaty system. The latest in a series of initiatives launched by the UN over the years to improve the beleaguered treaty system, the report contains a series of recommendations aimed at improving the impact of the treaty system on rights-holders and duty-bearers at the national level. The proposals in the report are based on years of extensive consultations with key stakeholders in the treaty body system that were designed to intensify awareness of the current challenges facing the system as well as to stimulate suggestions for reform. This article considers in detail the potential of the High Commissioner’s proposals to tackle the problems in the system and their overall feasibility in the current political climate. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The proclamation of India’s ‘tryst with destiny’ in 1947 was hailed as a watershed in expanding the possibilities for liberation in the colonized world. This article will assess the changing roles of India in the decolonization process of one such colonized region—Africa. Central to the tales of Indo-African brotherhood that characterize writing on the topic stands one behemoth of the Indian independence movement, Mohandas Gandhi, who famously began his political career in South Africa. In India, this experience was rightfully woven into the broader hagiography of his fight for equality and philosophical transformation into the ‘Mahatma’. In so doing, however, certain anachronistic celebrations of his commitment to African rights have on occasion formed part of the India-Africa narrative.

    It should not be forgotten that the young lawyer was specifically concerned with Indian rights in Transvaal and Natal, as well as the liminal place of South Africa’s Indians within burgeoning concepts of Indian nationhood.2 Indeed, the special position of his infamous night at Pietermaritzburg station in 1893 within the story of satyagraha arguably masks the opinions of the young man on Africans and racial hierarchy. Nevertheless, as in India, so too in Africa did the heroism of the Mahatma live on during the heady days of the freedom struggle. Thus, while many African commentators understandably did not draw directly on Gandhi’s specific African experiences in discussion of Indian roles in African liberation, leaders such as Kwame Nkrumah did pay hearty tribute to the influence of Gandhism on their own protest.3″

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  • “Why have some democracies made considerable progress in prosecuting dictatorship-era human rights violations or in publicly exposing the truth about repression while others still have amnesty laws that prevent, or at least hinder, even the judicial review of such abuses? This article compares Spain, Chile and Argentina to understand the impact of their contrasting histories of repression on how they have dealt with their violent pasts. I assess whether a greater degree of legal repression and direct judicial involvement in repression explains why there is more resistance to prosecuting those responsible for human rights violations, establishing truth commissions or annulling the political sentences of the past during democratization. Once democracy has been consolidated, different dynamics may emerge, but this history of judicial complicity has proved to be a key factor in understanding the continuous lack of judicial accountability in Spain. “

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  • “Persistent immigration towards industrialized countries has challenged traditional conceptions of citizenship. In Germany, immigration has visibly changed the ethic fabric of the national football team, which is one of the few national post-war icons. Although some commentators consider the team to be a role model for successful integration of immigrants, unanimous approval of a multi-ethnic team would be surprising, given substantial xenophobic tendencies in Germany. Therefore, by analysing regional TV ratings, we examine consumer discrimination against the presence of ethnic out-group players in the national football team and explore how such discrimination relates to discriminatory attitudes. We find some but limited evidence for consumer discrimination but also for a trend towards a ‘taste for diversity’, suggesting that the audience gets used to a multi-ethnic team. While identity politics seems to be important for sport consumption, the links between sport, identity, consumer discrimination, and discriminatory attitudes seem more complex than initially assumed. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this contribution, we aim to develop an understanding of the behavioural manifestations of nationalism. Building on social identity theory and ethnic competition theory, we examine to what extent nationalist attitudes and perceived cultural ethnic threat are related to domestic music listening, participating in national celebrations and commemorations and voting for far right parties. We use data from the Social and Cultural Developments in The Netherlands surveys (SOCON, wave 2007). We find that the stronger one’s nationalist attitudes and perceived cultural ethnic threat, the more likely one is to listen to domestic music. With regard to participation in national celebrations and commemorations, only nationalist attitudes have a positive effect, which seems to be mainly driven by feelings of national pride. With respect to voting for far right parties, perceived cultural ethnic threat is most important, whereas nationalist attitudes hardly affect far right voting. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Although home is central to any understanding of displacement, the concept has not been explored as fully as possible in forced migration literature. This may be due, at least in part, to the pervasive logic of the nation-state, which views migrants as a threat to the national and ‘natural’ order. Viewing refugees as a problem to be solved or ignored, as objects rather than subjects, leads to a preoccupation with determining their belonging to a “home” or “host” nation in order to normalise them. However, such Othering rhetoric denies the agency of individual refugees, at the same time as ignoring the complexity and diversity of the meaning of home, especially for those who have experienced displacement. This article moves beyond a “here” or “there” dichotomy to explore the lived experience of home for Cypriots living in protracted exile in London, since political unrest and partition forced them to leave Cyprus in the 1960s and 1970s. The article proposes one possible way of understanding the multi-faceted and often contradictory meaning of home by focusing on four key themes – the spatial, temporal, material and relational home – both before and during exile. “

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  • “This article examines transitional justice in the age of the French Revolution. It argues that the democratizing thrust of the Revolution gave rise to new moral and political dilemmas around accountability and shows how French society faced these dilemmas in the aftermath of the Reign of Terror, an episode of massive repression and violence. In this sense, the article makes a case for a broader view of the history of transitional justice and, indeed, for the inclusion of historians in ongoing debates in the field. In making its case, the article draws on primary sources as well as on the extensive secondary literature on the French Revolution.1”

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  • “This article argues in favour of theorizing transitional justice in established democracies. Using a New Zealand example, the article employs liberal theory to develop a legitimating account of transitional justice. This account not only offers ways of replying to those who critique the transitional justice aspirations of established democracies but also constitutes a response to those who argue against the coherence of transitional justice as a theory. Although transregime legitimation is certainly not transitional justice’s only role, it is an important function and provides resources for a unified political theory of transitional justice. “

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  • “To most women’s rights academics and practitioners, the need to analyse and give weight to the various gender dimensions of any conflict and postconflict context is obvious. Yet, even more recent developments, such as International Criminal Court (ICC) prosecutions, have demonstrated an inability to make substantial progress in addressing gender-based crimes. A growing body of literature over the past decade, and particularly the past five years, has analysed this trend in international law and directed staunch criticisms at the failure of transitional justice to adequately take into account gender and violations of women’s rights in all their forms.

    As has been witnessed globally, gender-based violence is frequently an element of conflict. Impunity is pervasive and women often lack access to justice to address such crimes. While UN Security Council Resolutions 1325, 1820, 1888, 1889 and 1960 on women, peace and security and sexual violence in conflict have helped to garner global commitment to ending violence against women and ensuring women’s participation in postconflict processes, criminal courts have had limited success in prosecuting the many violations of women’s rights that take place in times of conflict.

    Moreover, much of the global discourse on postconflict justice has focused on crimes against women that are of a sexual nature. Even the jurisprudence that emerged from the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia, which has been heralded for redefining how sexual violence is categorized and prosecuted under international law, ignores the many distinct gender-based violations that do not fit the sexual violence victim archetype.1 Furthermore, interventions are often timebound. They fail to step adequately beyond the immediate postconflict period and to support essential long-term social and cultural change that would help to challenge norms around masculinities (and machismo) and femininities (and the ‘inviolability’ of women’s bodies) and to help create … “

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Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “International migration mirrors contemporary society in all its complexity. What has not changed for centuries is the principal motif: people leave their country of origin hoping for a better life. Poland has a long history of emigration: Poles have been migrating for more than 200 years for political, economic and social reasons. In recent decades, Polish migration patterns have undergone dramatic changes. Using online survey data, this article explores new trends in Polish migration since the country’s accession to the European Union in 2004. The survey was focused on Polish migrants who stayed abroad for some time, those who stayed abroad before the accession, those who returned to Poland or those who experienced multiple travels and have an ongoing migration project.

    We conclude that new trends have emerged among Polish migrants. Contemporary migrants are aware of the benefits related to migration and are capable of implementing their migration project quite skilfully. Their high susceptibility to the economic setting proves their flexibility. Polish migrants highly value their new lifestyle abroad and consider friends their most important source of support.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “North Korean defectors have faced significant challenges in finding and keeping jobs in the South Korean labour market due to their many differences from South Korean workers. As the number of defectors has increased, South Korea has experienced an increased need for employment support to assist defectors in overcoming challenges in their employment and leading them to stable economic status. This study aims to develop a needs-centred educational support model for defectors’ career transitions, compare the content of suggested support programmes with the content of currently provided support programmes, and suggest relevant policy implications. Based on this study’s findings, the authors argue that defectors’ employment needs differ from those of other groups of job seekers in Korea; thus, this population should be served differently with consistent educational support. Each stage of the developed model provides appropriate support programmes that reflect the unique employment needs of defectors.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Various authors have begun to address the social impacts of international migration on families left behind. Family disintegration results from two separate factors: family separation and the loss of traditional values. Findings from this research (based on a random survey of over 400 households in three municipios of the central part of the state of Cochabamba, Bolivia, in the autumn of 2007) indicate that economic well-being made possible by migration increases levels of professed family happiness. However, family disintegration resulting from migration decreases family happiness even more, with the net result that migrant households are considerably less happy than non-migrant households. It is suggested that this result can be traced to the dynamic conflict between the traditional, group-focused image of change prior to migration (engendering feelings of togetherness and security) and the modern, ego-focused image of change that is a major social remittance of migration (generating competition and role insecurity).”

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  • “This article offers the first examination of its kind of the content and nature of anti-trafficking policy as it is pursued in Benin. The article draws on data gathered from policy and project documents and from interviews and participant observation with actors integral to the constitution of policy in (and with influence over) the Beninese anti-trafficking community. It attempts to bridge the oft-lamented gap between page and practice by conducting analysis not only of the representation of policy in text, but also of its lived manifestations in processes, interactions and structures. It argues that the various different actors that comprise Benin’s anti-trafficking pantheon seek to accomplish one fundamental goal – to protect children from trafficking – through two overarching strategies – the promotion of ‘healthy’ childhoods and the pre-emptive prevention of child movement. The article examines each of the main strands of policy and concludes by offering a Foucauldian analysis of their operation. It thus fills a major gap in the academic understanding of anti-trafficking policy in the Beninese context.”

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  • “Literature and theory surrounding the informal economy in international contexts suggest that informal work arrangements may entail assuming various levels of risk, and that the higher the level of risk in an employment arrangement, the higher the premium paid to the worker. This study is designed to assess if a wage compensation for risk exists within the United States’ day labour job market – the most visible sector of the United States’ informal economy. Using data from the 2005 National Day Labour Survey we find a statistically significant wage premium indicating that a risk-wage tradeoff within the day labour informal economy exists. Ultimately, we argue that current policy interventions facilitated through day labour centres into the day labour market appear to be effective in mitigating the risks associated with this type of employment.

    Evidence of a risk-wage premium in the day labour market suggests there is an incentive to assume higher levels of risk in work arrangements which presents significant concerns for worker safety.
    Higher levels of work related risks assumed by day labourers, may be minimized if they receive proper safety training through a formal venue such as a worker centre.
    Worker centres only serve 20 per cent of all day labourers in the United States, suggesting a need for the establishment of additional worker centres in other connected or industry based work sites, to help mitigate potential work related risks and injuries in the day labour market.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “On 1 July 2012, Hong Kong (HK) celebrated the 15th Anniversary of its change of sovereignty to the People’s Republic of China (PRC). During this period, migration has diversified greatly. Various new visa categories have been created. People from Mainland China and the rest of the world come to HK for work and settlement and HK people have gone to Mainland and overseas to study and work. To appreciate and better plan the growing diversity of migration to, from, and through HK, this article benchmarks the current legal categorizations of migration and calls for the development of a coherent theoretical approach that can better harmonize research and policy. We believe a transdisciplinary view can help generate the range of evidence needed to plan for diversity, and that this is best coordinated through a new HK Migration Observatory.”

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  • “This article deals with individual and contextual effects on the religiosity of first and second generation migrants in Europe. Noticing that little attention has been directed towards intergenerational transmission of religion in processes of integration, we argue for an intergenerational perspective on immigrant religiosity. Social integration theory is used to derive the hypothesis that second generation immigrants are less religious than the first generation. Perceived discrimination is introduced in the immigrant-religion research to account for the stress buffering capacities of religion. On the contextual level we expect a positive effect of native religiosity and religious diversity. Three aspects of religiosity are examined: (1) religious affiliation, (2) inner religiosity and (3) praying. We use four waves (2002–2008) of the European Social Survey (ESS) in a 3-level random intercept multilevel model with 19,567 individuals, 235 regions and 26 countries. Among others, the most interesting results are that (1) second generation immigrants are less religious than their first generation counterparts, (2) perceived discrimination has a positive effect on immigrant religiosity and the effect is greater for the second generation, (3) native religiosity has a positive effect on immigrant religiosity with a greater effect on the second generation as well and (4) the influence on migrant religiosity is more salient at the regional than at the national level.”

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  • “We compare how religion is present in Portland, Maine and Danbury, Connecticut and how it influences the ways organizations provide social services to recently arrived immigrants. We find that a range of municipal, civic, and religious organizations shape contexts of reception in each city. In Portland, municipal organizations provide most of the services for the large refugee population. Religious organizations are more central in Danbury, and providers speak more often about religion in their work with the city’s economic migrants. Collaboration among organizations is common, although religion sometimes acts as a barrier to collaboration in Portland. We argue that the religious dimensions of cities as contexts of reception are not homogenous and that variation between them is best explained by local factors including history, demographics and organizational ecology.”

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  • “In this article, I use cross-national comparative and ethnographic methods to explore how religion influences the incorporation of Haitian immigrants into the US, Quebec and France. First, I explore the ideological, legal and institutional forces that shape religion-state differentiation in the US, Quebec and France. Using census and immigration data from each site as well as interviews with Haitian leaders and government officials in Miami, Montreal and Paris, I show that the general pattern of consensual differentiation between religion and state in the US favours the more successful symbolic and socio-economic incorporation of Haitians in Miami, whereas secular nationalism in Quebec and assertive secularism in France weaken the incorporation of Haitian immigrants in Montreal and Paris, respectively.”

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  • “Using a representative survey on a municipality in Mexico City, the article explores the relevance of both social networks and place attachments for US migration. By comparing households with and without migrants, the logistic regression models show that social networks make emigration more selective with respect “education”, but less selective regarding “sex” and “marital status”. These results shed new light on the mechanism through which social networks operate in urban settings. Even if a municipality that is very homogeneous in terms of poverty and employment opportunities, variations on the socio-demographic profile of the would-be emigrants to the USA are found depending on the household′s social networks. As for territorial variables, the general impression is one of placelessness, apart from attachment to the municipality, but here again social networks act as an intervening variable.”

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  • “This article adopts a genealogical approach in examining Israeli immigration policy by focusing on the situation confronting African asylum seekers who have been forced back into Egypt, detained and deported but who have not had their asylum claims properly assessed. Based on immigration policies formulated at the time of Israeli independence, whose principle objective was to secure a Jewish majority state, we argue that Israel’s treatment of African asylum seekers as ‘infiltrators’/economic migrants stems from an insistence on maintaining immigration as a sovereign issue formally isolated from other policy domains. Such an approach is not only in violation of Israel’s commitment to the Refugee Convention, it directly contributes to policies which are ineffective and unduly harsh.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “Background

    Former combatants have frequently reported that aggressive behaviour can be appetitive and appealing. This appetitive aggression (AA) may be adaptive for survival in a violent environment, as it is associated with a reduced risk of combat-related psychological traumatization. At the same time, AA might impair motivation for re-integration to civil life after ending active duty. Whereas in Colombia those combatants who volunteered for demobilization were mostly tired of fighting, those who demobilized collectively did so mainly by force of the government. We predicted those who were demobilized collectively would still be attracted to violence, and benefit from the resilience against trauma-related mental suffering, moderated by appetitive aggression, as they would have continued fighting had they not been forced to stop.
    Method

    A sample of 252 former Colombian former combatants from paramilitary and guerrilla forces was investigated. Appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I). We distinguished between individual and group demobilization and assessed reasons for disarmament.
    Results

    Most of the guerrilla troops who demobilized individually and were tired of fighting reported both an attraction to violence as well as increased trauma symptoms, owing to their former engagement in violent behaviour. In contrast, among those who were demobilized collectively, appetitive aggression was associated with a reduced risk of PTSD. However, this effect was not present in those combatants in the upper quartile of PTSD symptom severity.
    Conclusion

    The influence of combat experience on traumatization, as well as the motivation for demobilization, differs remarkably between those combatants who demobilized individually and those who were members of a group that was forced to demobilize. This has important implications for the implementation of re-integration programmes and therapeutic interventions. ”

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  • “The article proceeds from the contention that rights are socially constructed; that social rights are constructed through the naming and claiming of needs; and that social citizenship provides the context for the realisation of such rights. It is argued that needs precede rights, but both are framed within two intersecting dimensions: sociality (the competing meanings that attach to social interdependency) and negotiation (the dynamics of the claiming process). From this premise, the article advances a post-Marshallian concept of citizenship that is truly social; that may be constituted in a variety of modes and at a variety of sites at the points at which competing understandings of needs and rights collide; that may transcend territorial boundaries; that may be shaped by a spectrum of means, ranging from local customs to international covenants; that may be centred on a politics of need as the process whereby needs are translated into rights.”

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  • “International treaties are usually drafted in one negotiated lingua franca and then translated into the other authentic languages. The quality of these translations must be uncontroversial because once authenticated, they become original versions with equivalent legal effect. This paper investigates semantic-pragmatic aspects of performatives in the UN Declaration of Human Rights (UN 1948) and in the more recent EU Charter of Fundamental Rights (EU 2000), in English and Italian. Considering the 50 years elapsing between the publications of the two treaties, the analysis aims at ascertain translational equivalence and equivalent legal effects when rendering similar and in some cases, almost repetitive provisions. The comparison will ideally contribute to reflect on the implications of multilingual translation in the current global environment with special regard to legal instruments.”

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  • “The translation services of the European Union (EU) are meant to guarantee that EU institutions can, and actually do, communicate with member states in these states’ own official languages, as long as they have been bestowed the status of official EU languages (Council Regulation No 1, Articles 1–5). Though it is well-known among EU politicians that reality falls short of this objective, there is no serious discussion about this, let alone an attempt to bring reality in line with the Regulation. As the following study of the EU Commission’s communication with the German national parliament (Bundestag) shows, actual practice does contrast sharply with the EU politicians’ never-ending eulogy on multilingualism. Such eulogy instead seems to be part of an ideology which serves to calm down concerns from traditional competitors of English as an international language such as, in particular, speakers of French, German, Italian or Spanish, the status and function of whose languages suffer most from the present practice.

    Die Übersetzungsdienste der Europäischen Union (EU) sollen gewährleisten, dass die EU-Institutionen mit den Mitgliedstaaten in deren jeweiligen Sprachen kommunizieren, sofern diese zugleich offizielle Sprachen der EU sind (Ratsverordnung Nr. 1, Artikel 1 – 5). Unter EU-Politikern ist bekannt, dass die Wirklichkeit weit hinter diesem Ziel zurück bleibt. Jedoch gibt es weder Debatten darüber noch ernsthafte Versuche, die Wirklichkeit mit den rechtlichen Vorgaben in Einklang zu bringen. Die herrschende Praxis – die hier am Beispiel der Kommunikation der EU-Kommission mit dem Bundestag dargestellt wird – widerspricht deutlich dem fortwährenden Lobpreis der europäischen Sprachenvielfalt. Diese Lobhudelei scheint eher dem Zweck zu dienen, die traditionellen „Konkurrenten” des Englischen als internationale Sprache zu besänftigen, vor allem die Sprecher von Französisch, Deutsch, Italienisch und Spanisch. Diese Sprachen leiden nämlich hinsichtlich Status und Funktion besonders stark unter der gegenwärtigen Praxis.”

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  • “This paper considers whether or not in Tanzania, ethnicity conditions access to health and nutrition during childhood and adolescence. We estimate height-augmented Mincerian earnings functions with data from the 2004 Tanzanian Household Worker Survey. Instrumental variable parameter estimates reveal that when the effects of unobserved investments in health and nutrition during childhood and adolescence on adult height are accounted for, the labor market return on height varies across ethnic groups in our sample. This suggests that in Tanzania ethnicity is a constraint on effective health care policy as there is ethnic discrimination in the provision of health and nutrition investment during childhood and adolescence that constrains adult height, living standards and economic growth. As such, public health policy in sub-Saharan Africa could potentially be more effective through reforms that eliminate any ethnic bias in the provision of health capital during childhood/adolescence.”

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  • “There are long-standing concerns over low fertility levels in Europe and an increasingly important debate on the extent to which migration can compensate for below-replacement fertility. To inform this debate, a wide array of indicators have been developed to assess the joint influence of fertility, mortality, and migration on birth replacement and intergenerational replacement. These indicators are based on various models and assumptions and some are particularly data demanding. In this article we propose a simple method to assess how far migration alters the extent of replacement for a birth cohort as it ages. We term the measure the overall replacement ratio (ORR). It is calculated by taking the size of a female birth cohort at selected ages divided by the average size of the cohorts of mothers in the year of birth. We present estimates of the ORR for a range of European countries representing different replacement regimes. We demonstrate that for many countries net migration has become a key factor in their population trends during the last few decades.”

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  • “On 19 and 20 July 2012, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) organized a Roundtable on Temporary Protection, held in San Remo, Italy, with the support of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law (IIHL). Participants included 19 experts from 15 countries, drawn from NGOs, academia and regional and international organizations. A discussion paper, produced by UNHCR, informed the discussion.1 The roundtable aimed to discuss the scope and meaning of temporary protection, and to examine what it is or should be, what it does or should guarantee, and in what situations it could apply.

    The following summary does not necessarily represent the individual views of participants or of UNHCR, but reflects broadly the themes, issues and understandings emerging from the discussion. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Marriages of convenience have become a central concern in political debates about immigration policy. According to Norwegian regulations, the right to marriage migration only applies to ‘real’ relationships. The notion of a real or genuine marriage, as opposed to a marriage of convenience, raises the question of what characterises a legitimate intimate relationship. Based on interviews with the parties involved, this article investigates how marriage migrants and their partners perceive the application process for marriage migration to Norway, and how they are affected by the idea of marriages of convenience. It argues that the scholarly literature on contemporary intimate relationships is relevant to studies of migration and provides important insights into the narratives of marriage migrants and their partners. On the one hand, ‘the pure relationship’ seems to be one standard against which cross-border marriages are sometimes judged. On the other hand, the ideal of the pure relationship is also used by marriage migrants and their partners to question immigration regulations. The pure relationship is one, but far from the only, normative ideal present in the narratives of my interviewees. Interviewees draw on several different, and sometimes contradictory, norms, ideals and narratives of intimacy when they talk about and justify their own relationships, after being confronted with the immigration regulation’s requirement for a ‘real marriage’.”

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  • “Return migration has recently become an important topic of research within the gender and migration literature. Drawing on multi-sited ethnographic research carried out in Romania and Italy, this paper focuses on the gendered patterns of return, highlighting the relationship between the motivation to return, family life plans, challenges and individual responses to structural factors that shape the decision to return. Based primarily on participant observation and in-depth interviews with women and men from a Romanian village, the findings suggest competing ways in which men and women resettle in their community. While men transfer large amounts of money and make use of their new skills and their contacts with their Romanian peers in Italy in order to gain their livelihoods in the village, women encounter conditions that are deterrents to such economic transfers. Women tend, therefore, to maintain contact with Italian families as an alternative to their imperfect economic reintegration into the village.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Most HIV-infected parents in Western Europe are of African origin. They face a range of problems while adapting to a new culture and previous research has highlighted the lack of studies on how to support them. In order to deepen our understanding of how they experience their parenthood, we conducted qualitative interviews with 12 HIV-infected Ugandan parents. All participants had access to anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment and, as they continued to feel healthy, they tended to be less worried about leaving their children as orphans. We found that the parenting roles of these people undergo radical transformations, where fathers are expected to perform traditionally female tasks, and mothers are expected to take part in important family decisions with their husbands. An ‘African-Swedish method’ was described where parents had integrated a Swedish way of talking and being close to their children while retaining what they described as the Ugandan style of not informing their children about HIV. Healthcare personnel need to appreciate these HIV-infected African parents’ cultural dilemmas and adapt medical information accordingly. We discuss our results from three dimensions of cultural variability: femininity–masculinity, power distance and individualism–collectivism.”

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  • “Geographers have a long-standing interest in citizenship as the link between political and territorial membership. Yet, even when key political processes associated with citizenship, such as voting or lobbying government institutions are carried out from beyond the territory there is a more complex relationship with territory than the simple ‘inside/outside’ division that external voting suggests. This article develops a specifically geographical analysis of the territorial context of voting practices. Although a number of general explanations have been offered for the introduction of external voting, and for the nature of the systems introduced it seems that contextual, country-specific factors concerning the history and nature of the relationship between the government and emigrant groups are usually determinant. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The targeting of criminal offenders for removal has become one of the central priorities of contemporary immigration enforcement in the USA. Scholars have rightly highlighted the importance of a series of laws passed during the 1990s, in particular the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Criminal Responsibility Act, in laying the foundations for this targeting of immigrants. These laws increased the penalties for breaching US immigration laws and expanded the class of non-citizens who could be deported for committing crimes. In this article, I draw attention to an earlier immigration law that has played a key, but less studied, role in laying the groundwork for the contemporary policing and removal of immigrants: the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). IRCA is well-known for having criminalized the hiring of undocumented workers, increasing the resources of the Immigration and Naturalization Service to patrol the nation’s borders, and providing undocumented immigrants with a path toward legalization. But the law also contained a small provision that required the US Attorney General to deport non-citizens convicted of removable offenses as expeditiously as possible. This provision dealing with the removal of ‘criminal aliens’ has turned out to be of monumental significance. In many ways, it has helped to dramatically shape the nature of contemporary immigration enforcement. IRCA basically helped set in motion the contemporary practice of targeting ‘criminal aliens’ for deportation. In turn, this practice has morphed into a mechanism for policing immigrant ‘illegality’ more generally. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article is concerned with the role of debt in contemporary practices of mobility. It explores how the phenomenon of debt-financed migration disturbs the trafficking/smuggling, illegal/legal, and forced/voluntary dyads that are widely used to make sense of migration and troubles the liberal construction of ‘freedom’ and ‘slavery’ as oppositional categories. The research literature reveals that while debt can lock migrants into highly asymmetrical, personalistic, and often violent relations of power and dependency sometimes for several years, it is also a means by which many seek to extend and secure their future freedoms. Financing migration through debt can be an active choice without also being a ‘voluntary’ or ‘autonomous’ choice, and migrants’ decisions to take on debts that will imply heavy restrictions on their freedom are taken in the context of migration and other policies that severely constrain their alternatives. Vulnerability to abuse and exploitation is also politically constructed, and even migrant-debtors whose movement is state sanctioned often lack protections both as workers and as debtors. Indeed, large numbers of migrants are excluded from the rights and freedoms that in theory constitute the opposite of slavery. As argued in the conclusion, this illustrates the contemporary relevance of Losurdo’s historical account of the fundamentally illiberal realities of self-conceived liberal societies. There remain ‘exclusion clauses’ in the social contract that supposedly affords universal equality and freedom, clauses that are of enormous consequence for many groups of migrants, and that also deleteriously affect those citizens who are poor and/or otherwise marginalized. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The efforts of new, former refugee communities to grow their legitimacy as citizens often in hostile host environments puts community needs at odds with individual needs. From an analysis of interviews with service providers across two states in Australia, and borrowing the concept of ‘papering over’, we demonstrate how these tensions impact on women in these communities building resilience to domestic violence. Despite community being vital for building individual resilience, ‘papering over’ operates to keep communities quiet about domestic violence and reliant on definitions of violence that serve to save the face of communities. While this is a challenge for how former refugee communities respond to domestic violence, it is also a challenge for how we conceptualize resilience across intersecting subject positions. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • We examine the gap in registered crime between the children of immigrants and the children of native Swedes. We follow all individuals who completed compulsory schooling during the period 1990–93 in the Stockholm Metropolitan area (N = 63,462) up to their thirties and analyse how family of origin and neighbourhood segregation during adolescence, subsequent to arriving in Sweden, influence the gap in recorded crimes. For males, we are able to explain between half and three-quarters of the gap in crime by reference to parental socio-economic resources and neighbourhood segregation. For females, we can explain even more, sometimes the entire gap. In addition, we tentatively examine the role of co-nationality or culture by comparing the crime rates of randomly chosen pairs of individuals originating from the same country. We find only a small correlation in the crime of individuals who share the same origin, indicating that culture is unlikely to be a strong cause of crime among immigrants.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The central message of Hannah McGlade’s book, Our Greatest Challenge, is this: ‘Addressing child sexual abuse means we need to reject the gammon culture of human rights that has become prevalent in Aboriginal human rights discourse’ (p. 224, emphasis in original).

    ‘Gammon’ is an Australian Aboriginal word, meaning ‘fraudulent or inauthentic’. This is a brave thing to say in the context of twenty-first-century sensitivities surrounding any discussion of Aboriginal cultures and human rights in Australia. It is probably something that can only be said by an Indigenous Australian and it gains credibility when the speaker is herself both a human rights lawyer and a survivor of child sexual abuse. If there is any residual doubt among liberal-minded academics about the extent of child sexual abuse in Aboriginal communities, they will be dispelled once and for all by this book. Whether or not child sexual abuse is any more endemic in Indigenous than non-Indigenous communities is not really the point. The point is that one cannot imagine a judge in 2001 saying of a 50-year-old non-Indigenous defendant, accused of the brutal beating and rape of a 15-year-old girl, that he was surprised he had been charged at all because ‘she [the victim] didn’t need protection … she knew what was expected of her’ (p. 145) having been ‘promised’ to him as his wife by her parents and his community. But this, McGlade tells us, is what was said about an Indigenous man, Jackie Pascoe Jamilmira, in the Northern Territory Supreme Court. Although the case caused widespread outrage, McGlade demonstrates that it … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this article, I contend that asylum should at times act as a form of reparation for past injustice. This function, I argue, stems from states’ special obligation to provide asylum to refugees for whose lack of state protection they are responsible. After suggesting that the development of a theory of asylum as reparation necessitates a diachronic approach, I outline the conditions under which asylum should function reparatively, and draw on the reparations framework within international law to suggest that asylum can provide refugees with meaningful restitution, compensation and satisfaction. In particular, I seek to identify the conditions under which asylum constitutes the most fitting form of reparation for the harm of refugeehood that is available to states. Finally, I explore the question of how direct the causal link between a state’s actions and a refugee’s flight must be for the former to owe asylum to the latter.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “It seems hard to believe that a simple scarf covering women’s hair could stir up so much controversy. But it has done just that time and again in Europe since three girls were expelled from secondary school for refusing to uncover in the French town of Creil in 1989. Thus, we should welcome sophisticated scholarly analysis of the highly salient and complex issue of permitting or banning veiling. Just such analysis does Politics, Religion, and Gender: Framing and Regulating the Veil provide.

    The book represents the final outcome of VEIL, a research project funded by the European Commission from 2006 to 2009, which compared policy regarding veiling in eight countries (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Turkey, and the UK). Herein lies one important strength of Politics, Religion, and Gender (which includes a chapter on Bulgaria as well). The edited volume analyzes a far broader range of policies than the arguably more readable single-author studies concentrating on one country, such as John Bowen’s Why the French Don’t Like Headscarves (2006) or Joan Scott’s The Politics of the Veil (2007), which also spotlights France, or even Christian Joppke’s Veil: Mirror of Identity (2009), … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Jorge Duany is one of the most thoughtful, incisive, and prolific social scientists writing about the Caribbean and Blurred Borders: Transnational Migration between the Hispanic Caribbean and the United States (University of North Carolina Press, 2011) is an excellent example of why. The book describes the unique and evolving relationship between the Spanish-speaking Caribbean and the USA, the unique relationships between Cuba, The Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, the grounding of populations and diasporas in the continental USA, and the enduring and sustained nature of ties and contacts between sending and receiving countries and communities. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Scholars of memory have traditionally relied on their geographic imaginations in their attempts to illuminate the content and effects of both individual and collective memories. This tendency makes sense if we remind ourselves of the intimate relationship of place and memory in the numerous practices that try to locate the past in material and spatial traces: we visit memorials, look at photo albums, comb through archives, hold on to objects, and tour the sites of past events. However, linking the study of memory to the stability of place also has analytical and evaluative functions as it frequently provides the benchmark to differentiate ‘real’ memory from artificial memory, memory from history, and communities (of memory) from society, an inclination probably most powerfully exemplified in Nora’s (1989) influential notion of authentic ‘environments of memory’. Moreover, this priority given to location and the static focus on original events within spatially delineated communities generally goes hand in hand with monolithic views of belonging, often based on homogenous and overly simplified foundation myths. To put it starkly, the role of memory as a ‘handmaiden of nationalist zeal’ (Olick 2003: 1) has traditionally left little room to address the reality of demographic changes within national contexts or to pose normative challenges to culturally narrow views of political membership. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In many globalising cities across Asia, migration is now viewed as a key measure to tackle labour shortages, population ageing, and economic competitiveness. Singapore presents an example of a city-state that has become increasingly reliant on both high-skilled and low-skilled labour migrations, and to an increasing degree, also marriage migration, to fuel its bid to become a cosmopolis occupying a significant site in the globalised economy. The article discusses both state and civil society arrangements and relationships which, to different extents and in different ways, present opportunities for and constraints upon the emergence of cosmopolitanism. While Singapore’s migration history and multi-racial legacy provide a possible framework to build cosmopolitan sensibilities, it charts a pathway ridden with considerable contradictions as the city-state forges its own globalised future. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article reviews the debate on economic and social consequences of immigrant entrepreneurship as well as theories advanced to explain different levels of self-employment among immigrant and ethnic minorities. We examine the impact of professional and entrepreneurial migration on sending countries from the viewpoint of traditional theories of the brain drain as well as from that of the more recent transnational perspective. Finally, we present the latest data on the effects of self-employment on income levels for various immigrant and ethnic groups. Results confirm the conclusion of a consistently positive net effect, both for annual incomes and hourly earnings. Implications of these results for theories of immigrant adaptation and policies implemented by sending and receiving countries are discussed. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article makes two contributions to the literature on the determinants of international migration flows. First, we compile a new dataset on annual bilateral migration flows covering 15 OECD destination countries and 120 sending countries for the period 1980–2006. The dataset also contains data on time-varying immigration policies that regulate the entry of immigrants in our destination countries over this period. Second, we present an empirical model of migration choice across multiple destinations that allows for unobserved individual heterogeneity and derive a structural estimating equation. Our estimates show that international migration flows are highly responsive to income per capita at destination. This elasticity is twice as high for within-European Union (EU) migration, reflecting the higher degree of labor mobility within the EU. We also find that tightening of laws regulating immigrant entry reduce rapidly and significantly their flow. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article contends that our ability to study migration is significantly enhanced by carefully conceived comparative research designs. Comparing and contrasting a small number of cases—meaningful, complex structures, institutions, collectives, and/or configurations of events—is a creative strategy of analytical elaboration through research design. As such, comparative migration studies are characterized by their research design and conceptual focus on cases, not by a particular type of data. I outline some reasons why scholars should engage in comparison and discuss some challenges in doing so. I survey major comparative strategies in migration research, including between groups, places, time periods, and institutions, and I highlight how decisions about case selection are part and parcel of theory-building and theory evaluation. Comparative research design involves a decision over what to compare—what is the general class of ‘cases’ in a study—and how to compare, a choice about the comparative logics that drive the selection of specific cases. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “States and refugee advocates often insist that ‘refugee’ and ‘migrant’ are separate distinct categories, despite ample evidence that these labels blur in practice. However, little attention is paid to the fact that in the past refugees were considered as migrants, with international attention focusing on securing their access to existing migration channels. This article traces this tangled history of refugee and migrant identities through the 1920s to the 1950s, when ‘refugee’ and ‘migrant’ categories were separated. The article argues that treating refugees as migrants in the 1920s and 1930s failed to ensure their protection from persecution because their admission was entirely dependent upon economic criteria. Separating refugees from migrants in the 1950s—by providing refugees with an exceptional right to cross borders and claim asylum—helped to address this protection gap. However, the article shows that in creating a special route for admission deliberately set apart from migration, the humanitarian discourse that protects refugees from harm actually prevents refugees from finding durable solutions, which depend upon securing an economic livelihood and not just receiving humanitarian assistance. The article concludes that, in the interests of refugee solutions, the extent of separation between refugee protection and access to migration should be reversed. Refugee advocates should reconsider the many innovative lessons both from the Nansen era and the decade of experimentation that preceded the establishment of today’s contemporary refugee protection framework in 1951. While asylum and the ‘refugee’ category perform essential roles in admitting those in need of international protection, asylum alone—unlike migration—cannot meet long-term needs. Reconfiguring understandings of on-going refugee protection to facilitate movement and prioritize the securing of sustainable livelihoods would both better reflect the reality of people’s movements in conflict and crisis and offer more opportunities for durable solutions to protracted crises. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Migration studies is entering a new era. The intellectual roots of the field stretch back at least to the nineteenth century, since which time it has focused on the drivers of human mobility and the processes of adaptation that follow. But never before has it drawn such sustained attention from so many researchers across such a broad range of backgrounds. Migration is becoming an increasingly visible and important element of human experience, and more than ever before, migration studies is becoming a distinctive and integrated field of scholarship, with its own approaches and institutions. This journal is being established to help galvanize the field still further. It aims to provide an interdisciplinary forum for leading research that develops the core concepts, data, and methods needed by migration scholars in the twenty-first century and beyond. It has several specific priorities. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper considers the claim that ideas and practices of international development, including community development, are embedded in Western notions of how to organize society. It elucidates some of the main precepts of the westernization thesis, and drawing on several studies of community development projects in Indonesia, it investigates what elements might be considered as ‘Western’ and whether the adoption of so-called Western ways is the result of the dominating power of international agencies or a pragmatic choice of active agents. The paper argues that the westernization thesis is problematic and does little to help us understand the complex interactions involving change at the community level. From a community development perspective, the question of whether the themes of westernization are appropriate is not a matter of the views of outside experts, but whether they are of use to the people at the grassroots in their collective endeavours. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “For refugee communities in the global South, mutual assistance plays a vital role in their economic survival during exile. While the practice of refugees’ informal support tends to be perceived as a positive symptom of their communal solidarity, the important question arises whether such a view still holds legitimacy even in the severe scarcity of available resources within their communities. In the Buduburam refugee settlement in Ghana, the transfer and exchange of resources between different households were essential for the survival of many poor refugee families in the face of decreasing donor support. In particular, there was a strong moral responsibility among the inhabitants for assisting destitute fellow refugees. Although their mutual support networks give the impression of unity within this refugee population, the practice of assisting others was not always carried out in harmonious ways. Especially so when someone had inadequate resources, the obligation to help others generated significant stress in caregivers and often even engendered negative feelings against recipients of internal help. By means of in-depth case studies, the article will delve into the social dynamics hidden in the mutual sharing arrangements in this refugee community and will particularly elucidate the emotional conflicts in internal sponsors. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 2009, after extremely severe bushfires in Victoria, Australia, social welfare agencies initiated recovery programmes. This paper examines the role played by three Catholic agencies over a three-year period as they sought to meet the needs of the bushfire-affected community in the recovery process. The recovery programmes began with the aim of using a community development approach to develop a sustainable response. The concept of community development was not defined at the commencement of the project so that there was flexibility in the way it was operationalized. The approach changed over time in response to changing conditions and the needs and responses of the community. After initially adopting the role of provider, the agencies increasingly adopted the roles of ally, facilitator and advocate. Not all projects received support from the community and others that were initially supported withered over time. The advocacy and capacity building work undertaken by the workers enabled community members to take a greater responsibility for existing and new projects. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper examines the potential of rotating savings and credit associations (RoSCAs) as agents of pro-poor community development and well-being in rural northern Rwanda, the area most severely disrupted during and since the civil war and genocide in the 1990s. The economic gains of membership, effects on social capital, and the inclusiveness of RoSCAs are explored. RoSCAs facilitate mobilization of a variety of resources. Members pool finances that are utilized to support the fulfilment of basic needs at the household level, in addition to building up assets. Social capital is both inherent to and stimulated by membership of a RoSCA, through the building of trust, collective actions undertaken, and the values shared by the members. RoSCAs were found to be relatively inclusive, particularly when compared with more formal credit schemes, often including representatives of the most marginalized, and therefore most vulnerable, socio-economic categories. Membership generally involves relatively small payments while contributing to positive subjective perception as well, thus fostering further human well-being. RoSCAs therefore warrant appraisal beyond the immediate financial opportunities they generate, because of their production and reproduction of values such as democracy, reciprocity, and solidarity, and thus their significant contribution to community development and human well-being. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The challenges of participatory development suggest an explicit role for community development practitioners as ‘translation agents’ across different institutional contexts. This paper illustrates this role in three case studies of rural community development projects in post-war Ethiopia. The case studies highlight the value of local community knowledge and institutions in tackling key development issues: from small-farm productivity, to water access, to animal health. They also demonstrate the frequent need for translation and mediation between community knowledges and institutions and those of outside organizations and professionals. This paper analyses the case studies to show how community development practitioners working in the field can play a central role in creating truly participatory development spaces. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Research on a range of agreements between Indigenous people and extractive industries suggests that equitable benefits from such activity on Indigenous land are rare. In Central Australia, the Central Land Council has piloted a new approach to generating benefits from land use agreements by establishing a community development unit and encouraging Indigenous traditional owners to apply some of the income from land use agreements with mining companies and similar parties to community development activities. This paper discusses the variety of community development projects this unit is undertaking with traditional owners and Aboriginal community members, and the challenges it is facing as it tries to utilize community development principles in its projects. It indicates some of the issues that may need to be considered in government policy which seeks to assist Indigenous landholders gain optimum benefit from land-related payments. In particular, the paper demonstrates that the priorities of Indigenous people to support and promote social and cultural activities, including maintaining micro-communities (outstations) on homelands, may conflict with government views as to how to ‘optimize benefits’ from land use agreements. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “International voluntary service involving people from ‘northern’ countries represents a widespread and growing phenomenon on the African continent, prompting increased interest in the effects of international service on volunteers. Despite this trend, little research has been conducted on the contribution of international service to the development of the host organizations and communities where volunteers live and serve. Drawing on interviews and focus groups conducted with international volunteer host organizations in Tanzania and Mozambique, this paper examines the benefits and challenges for international service to contribute to the development of host organizations and communities. Findings suggest a range of positive benefits to host organizations. However, they also highlight a number of challenges that require additional measures to strengthen the potential benefits of international service. These include a greater critical consciousness of the imbalances between African host and northern sending countries, locating international voluntary service in the context of a colonial legacy, and strategically hosting volunteers in the context of financial and human resource constraints. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The post-Cold War era has seen the increased significance of moral argument as a force in international relations. Arguments such as those developed in Michael Walzer’s Just and Unjust Wars have shaped debates about the relative weights to be given to non-intervention and human rights as core values of international law over the past three decades. This article analyses the form of moral internationalism that is exemplified by Walzer’s work, and the ways in which that moral internationalism has sought to justify humanitarian intervention, foreign involvement in civil wars, regime change, and, most recently, the responsibility to protect concept. It concludes by exploring the political stakes of the turn to what Walzer calls ‘practical morality’ as a basis for reforming international institutions and laws, and the ways in which new forms of internationalism are redrawing the realism/moralism map.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “For Michael Walzer, arguing about war is political rather than philosophical, a matter of persuasion rather than proof. His discussion of humanitarian intervention since the publication of Just and Unjust Wars tracks political events and debates, including the transformation of a debate focused on the right to intervene into one about situations, like those in Rwanda and Libya, in which it might be wrong not to intervene. If there is a duty to thwart atrocities, based on a responsibility to protect, one must consider on whom the duty to intervene falls, whether it goes beyond rescue to repairing the harm or preventing further violence, and whether it might also extend to protecting people from other harms, at least when these are the result of violence. In discussing these issues, Walzer deepens our understanding of humanitarian intervention by treating it both as an aspect of just war theory and as a historic practice able to reconcile the rights of states and persons in the changing circumstances of political choice.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “Discussion of Middle Eastern refugee law and policy has focused largely on Palestinians, with relatively little analysis of non-Palestinian refugees and the legal framework that applies to them in Middle Eastern countries. This article seeks to address this gap through a wide-ranging examination of the treatment of Iraqi refugees in Jordan (a non-signatory state to the Refugee Convention), following the invasion of Iraq in March 2003. In so doing, it also examines certain issues with wider global implications, such as the nature of refugee protection, the importance of identity, and the need for improved ‘burden sharing’. The article provides a brief outline of the background to refugees in Jordan, together with a discussion of the legal regime applicable to asylum seekers and refugees. It assesses the importance of legal status and labelling to the Iraqis in Jordan, not only for access to rights and provision of needs, but also for identity. The tension between UNHCR’s concepts of ‘protection’ and ‘protection space’ and the Jordanian Government’s own approach to sanctuary are explored, with reference to five key areas: employment, health, education, resettlement and return. The article concludes by reflecting on the extent to which the Jordanian case study can assist improved management of mass flight in the future. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In introducing her latest book, Climate Change, Forced Migration, and International Law, Jane McAdam makes the observation that the relationship between climate change and forced migration has recently emerged ‘as an increasingly studied – but contested – field of inquiry’. This may be the understatement of the decade. In political as well as scientific discourse, climate change has spawned what, after John Connell, McAdam calls a ‘garbage can’ effect, ‘where once isolated phenomena become systematically inter-related’. Likewise, on the advocacy front, in which the weapons of international law and global justice have been used without moderation, the climate change platform has become the ultimate bandwagon, to the legitimate irritation of those who have a clear sense of priorities – the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions being first and foremost among these. The causal chains both upstream and downstream (the famous ‘impacts’) of climate change are extraordinarily complex, and the risk of over-simplification is pervasive. Forced migration is a contested label in its own right – and the environmental/climate refugee discourse has fanned the flames of an old and rather sterile debate over voluntariness versus compulsion in human mobility, triggering in the process defensive, often parochial, reactions from both ‘refugee’- and ‘IDP’-centric communities.

    Finally, whether international law is able, as suggested by the book’s title, to capture and inform the complex connections between climate change and human displacement, is far from obvious, owing to the disciplinary constraints which McAdam acknowledges, including international law’s core objective to ‘universalize – to create norms that take the “particular” to a level of general applicability, that make individual rights “human rights” at one and the same time’. In short: it takes a brave person to engineer, with full knowledge of the dangers involved, conceptual, legal and policy bridges over such troubled waters. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The scale and complexity of the contemporary challenges of refugee protection and humanitarianism may not have been envisaged over sixty years ago, but the drafters of UNHCR’s statute1 did have the foresight to create a role for the organization that would allow it to guide and influence international refugee law. In doing so, as meticulously chronicled by Corinne Lewis, UNHCR has had significant influence on how international refugee law has evolved.

    Lewis takes a largely chronological approach to the link between UNHCR and international refugee law by beginning with an examination of the predecessors to UNHCR in order to demonstrate how the lessons learnt from their experience and ultimate demise influenced the strong emphasis on legal protection in UNHCR’s statute. Early emphasis in the book is on UNHCR’s statutory role, which Lewis identifies as comprising two separate functions, being the ‘development’ and ‘effectiveness’ of international refugee law. These functions, which are based upon paragraph 8(a) of UNHCR’s statute,2 are used throughout the book as the foundation for an examination of the evolution and challenges of UNHCR’s statutory role.

    As the focus shifts to the evolution of this role, which Lewis explores by reference to UNHCR’s statute, the means by which the organization interprets its own functions (that is, implied powers) and the development of ‘UNHCR doctrine’, the reader begins to get a sense of UNHCR as a dynamic and autonomous organization, rather than, as has been argued, a mere ‘handmaiden’ for states’ concerns.3″

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article analyzes the Canadian Federal Court and Federal Court of Appeal decisions assessing the Safe Third Country Agreement between Canada and the United States (STCA). It examines how each court’s treatment of the location and operation of the Canada–US border influences the results obtained. The article suggests that both in its treatment of the STCA and in its constitutional analysis, the Federal Court decision conceives of the border as a moving barrier capable of shifting outside Canada’s formal territorial boundaries. The effect of this decision is to bring refugee claimants outside state soil within the fold of Canadian constitutional protection. In contrast, the Federal Court of Appeal decision conceives of the border as both static and shifting. In its treatment of the STCA, the Court conceives of the border as a moving barrier that shifts outside Canada’s formal territorial boundaries to extend state power outwards. Yet, in its constitutional analysis, the Court conceives of the border as a static barrier that remains fixed at the state’s geographic perimeter to limit access to refugee rights. By simultaneously conceiving of the border in these opposing ways, the Court of Appeal decision places refugee claimants in an impossible legal bind: it requires them to present at the (static) border to claim legal protection, but at the same time shifts the border in ways that preclude them from doing so. The decision thus suspends refugee claimants between two opposing directives, deprives them of otherwise actionable rights, and denies them recourse to meaningful legal action under Canadian law. The article argues that, in this key way, the Federal Court of Appeal decision does much more than clarify the executive discretion of the Governor-in-Council, as it purports. Rather, it redefines the Canadian refugee regime as fundamentally exclusionary towards STCA claimants, and calls into question the central principles by which this regime is distinguished and defined. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Article 5 of the United Nations Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea, and Air, to which Australia is a state party, requires states not to criminalize migrants for being the object of migrant smuggling. This international obligation raises questions about Australia’s response to migrant smuggling and its treatment of asylum seekers. This article examines the principle that smuggled migrants should not be punished for seeking refuge through illegal entry to a receiving state. It explores the extent of the obligations created by article 5, and, on that basis, assesses the compatibility of Australia’s legislative and practical responses to the smuggling of migrants. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “We test with a field experiment in a Nairobi slum whether violence suffered during the 2007 political outbreaks affects trustworthiness when interethnicity becomes salient and participants face opportunism in common pool resource games (CPRGs) between two subsequent trust games (TGs). Our findings do not contradict previous one-shot results but qualify and extend them to a multi-period setting, enriching our understanding of the effects of violence on social preferences. More specifically, the victimized exhibit higher trustworthiness in the first trust game but also a significantly stronger trustworthiness reduction after experiencing opportunism and interethnicity in the CPRG game. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Unaccompanied refugee mothers—young mothers living in another country and separated from their parents—are, in research and migration policies, often defined in terms of four social categories: refugee, unaccompanied, adolescent and mother. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty unaccompanied refugee mothers from different countries of origin and now living in Belgium to listen, first, to their feelings and experiences. These narratives revealed four central themes in the mothers’ experiences (constrained and constraining daily living conditions, emotional challenges, connectedness and motherhood as a turning point), which appeared to be, in a second analysis, related to intersections between the four social categories. However, the intersectional analysis revealed large gaps between the mothers’ and migration policies’ interpretations of these categories: the mothers not only define the categories differently, but also set other priorities as they identify themselves first as mothers, while the policies prioritise their status as refugees. These findings, together with reflections on the value of adopting an intersectional perspective, lead to several recommendations for research, social work practices and migration policies. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Older works on ‘the British and the Balkans’ traditionally focused on foreign policy and its role—whether benign or sinister, interventionist or absenteeist—in the development of national states in the region. More recently, especially in the 1990s against the background of the Yugoslav conflicts and issues of contested identities, a cultural turn was inaugurated, not only by literary historians Ludmilla Kostova (Tales of the Periphery, 1997), Vesna Goldsworthy (Inventing Ruritania, 1998), and David Norris (In the Wake of the Balkan Myth, 1999), but also by mainstream historians of the region such as Maria Todorova (Imagining the Balkans, 1997) and Mark Mazower (The Balkans, 2000). All these books identified stereotype-forming processes in British and other literature about the region and pondered their consequences. Subsequent books, such as Božidar Jezernik’s Wild Europe (2004) and Andrew Hammond’s The Debated Lands (2007), focused on travel writing; but while they brought … “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “David Glover has written a magnificent book. It is a virtuously slim volume deriving from serious scholarship. Much could be said about it, but space permits me to address just a few of the most pertinent themes. First, the emergence of the figure of the ‘undesirable alien’ and its various cognates: the ‘destitute alien’; the ‘alien sweater’; with rather more precision, the ‘alien anarchist’; and, underwriting all these usages, the ’Jew’, and its derivative, the ‘indigent Jew’. These terms arose, in their modern meanings, from the intensification of global migration from the 1870s, which sparked the emergence of a new network of restrictions on where, and which people, could travel and settle, based on the putative imperatives of racial classification. Outside Europe the principal fear of white settlers turned on the role of the Chinese—the so-called ‘yellow peril’—while in Britain these anxieties came primarily to be articulated by the idea of the Jew, or of the destitute Jew. Here, as Glover shows, two discursive currents converged: the terminology of anti-Semitism, which entered the English language in the early 1880s, originally signifying a peculiarly continental distemper, and the notion of alien itself, which accreted a new set of racial–national associations. In consequence, the figure of the Jew evolved into the quintessential foreigner, a shift accompanied by the development of specialist knowledges wielded by socially recognized experts in the field: esteemed public figures who travelled to eastern Europe to investigate the ‘problem’ at first-hand; new public functionaries, … “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Race Relations Act of 1965 has been remembered by historians as one prong of a governmental strategy to deal with the impact of black and Asian post-war immigration to Britain, an attempt to improve inter-group relations at the same time as efforts were being made to restrict Commonwealth immigration. This iconic Act was the first to criminalize racial discrimination and outlaw the incitement of racial hatred. This article focuses on the creation and use of one part of this new law, Section Six, the incitement clause. It argues that early patterns of prosecution under this legislation reveal a government agenda which was not solely focused on the protection of black and Asian Britons but instead on longer-running issues relating to the tolerance of political violence. Far from simply outlawing racism, this article argues that the incitement clause ultimately enabled a re-articulation of racial discourse, tweaking the linguistic parameters of racist agitation while consciously allowing for its continuation. In doing so, it reflected a nation which was still unsure about the merits of multiculturalism, where it remained largely acceptable to argue that black and Asian Britons did not belong. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “A large percentage of professionals, including social workers, practise in a country other than where they obtained their professional qualification. Reasons for migration have been well documented and vary by country and population. Common migrating factors for social workers include employment challenges and opportunities related to the aging population, increased government expenditure on health and social care services, and insufficient numbers of new graduates entering the profession. This article draws on research about the experiences of migrant social workers in New Zealand. It highlights this population’s perceptions of the status of social work as a profession and their own professional identity. The study utilised a combination of qualitative and quantitative strategies in a three-phased project. The findings provide insights into the nature of the transitional experience for migrant professionals and new vantage points on views of social work as practised in different contexts. We identified perceptions reflecting what we term ‘enduring professional dislocation’, and argue that maintaining a broad view of social work is the foundation for understanding the profession in a new country. We advocate for strategies to facilitate migrant social workers’ adjustment to a new setting, especially where some degree of social and cultural contextualisation in social work practice is required. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Food insecurity and hunger, which are on the rise in affluent Western countries, may negatively affect children’s physical, social, emotional and cognitive functioning. Although there is growing evidence of the high rate of food insecurity and hunger among Bedouin families and their children in Israel, little is known about how the children themselves experience the problem and how it impacts their life. The present study sought to explore and clarify children’s experience of food insecurity. The research population included forty-two Israeli Bedouin impoverished children, aged nine to eleven. The analysis of children’s drawing was chosen as the research instrument because it enabled psychological as well as phenomenological insight into the children’s experience of food insecurity. This study, however, goes beyond the use of art to assess children’s emotional state, because enabling the children to draw food insecurity gave them a strong and communicative public voice of their own. After the study had been completed, the drawings also proved useful in efforts to promote awareness about the personal, community, cultural and social dimensions of the problem and the need for community action and policy change to mitigate and eliminate it. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community education on immigration issues, and political action toward a more humane immigration reform. Detailed examples of human rights abuses and the WICIR activities described in response to the abuses serve as illustrations of social work advocacy, education, and policy formulation that affect the general public, policymakers, and law enforcement officials. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study examines xenophobic attitudes of secondary school pupils in the Netherlands. This study builds upon a previous research in three ways. First, attitudes of pupils from both the ethnic majority and minority groups are examined. Second, the impact of positive as well as negative inter-ethnic contacts both within and outside the school environment is determined. Finally, hypotheses about inter-ethnic contacts are tested while simultaneously reckoning with alternative mechanisms that might explain xenophobic attitudes. Cross-classified multilevel regression analyses show that the level of xenophobia is lower when pupils evaluate their inter-ethnic contacts as positive, and higher when they perceive these contacts as negative. However, the impact of positive inter-ethnic contact in class disappears or even reverses when multiculturalism is more emphasized during lessons. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article analyses migration from East to West Germany, focusing on the influence of education on migration and on the self-selection processes involved in decisions regarding education and migration. Using human capital, signalling, and segmentation theory, hypotheses are derived on the influence of education on migration. The migration patterns for men and women are investigated on the basis of the German Socio-economic Panel data from 1992 to 2007. The results of the hierarchical logit regression models show that the level of education influences the migration decisions of both men and women. However, Heckman selection models reveal that only the migration patterns of women are defined by a selection of upper secondary education. For women, the results suggest that the same mechanisms drive their participation in upper secondary education and in migration. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study attempts to further our understanding of the contextual sources of anti-immigrant sentiments by simultaneously examining the impact of immigrant group size, negative immigration-related news reports and their interaction on natives’ perceived group threat. We test our theoretical assumptions using repeated cross-sectional survey data from Spain during the time period 1996–2007, enriched with regional statistics on immigrant group size and information from a longitudinal content analysis of newspaper reports. Drawing on multilevel regression models, our findings show that a greater number of negative immigration-related news reports increases perceived group threat over and above the influence of immigrant group size. Additionally, our findings indicate that the impact of negative immigration-related news reports on perceived group threat is amplified (weakened) in regions with a smaller (larger) immigrant group size. Collectively, these results testify to the importance of immigrant group size and negative immigration-related news reports as key contextual sources of natives’ perceived group threat. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explores the conceptual basis for the recognition of a right to information. It commences by reviewing developments in the recognition of a right to information in international human rights law. The role of the right to freedom of expression in furthering the recognition of a right to information is highlighted while the engagement of other rights in such recognition is also explored. The article considers the contribution made by the instrumental approach to the recognition of a right to information in international human rights law. Finally it explores whether there might exist an intrinsic right to information independent of other rights. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article argues that the fate of veil bans under European law is uncertain. It shows that European commitments to free speech and freedom of religion cannot accommodate an absolute ban justified solely on grounds of the offensiveness of the veil. However, a ban that applies to public face-covering in general (rather than a ban that only targets the veil), that relates to the specific (though admittedly broad) context of social life and that provides some exceptions allowing the veil to be worn in specific religious or expressive contexts, has a reasonable chance of being upheld by European courts despite the significant infringement of personal autonomy it would involve. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article contrasts the approach of the ICJ with two other international courts/tribunals when, in disputes before them, they have had to consider Islam as a source of legal norms. The article assesses the approach of the ICJ to Islam; when it has referred to Islam; why the ICJ may not have done so more frequently; and what the risks and benefits of the ICJ referring to it are. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Legal judgments concerning equality or human rights and religion or belief have frequently provoked controversy in Britain. This article examines why this has occurred. It does not attempt a detailed analysis of the case law; rather, it discusses how the law has been understood and invoked in public discourse. It argues that debate about religion or belief and its place in society has been unduly dominated by particular—and sometimes partial—understandings of legal judgments. It proposes that the most productive level of engagement for those who wish to advance debate, practice and understanding in relation to religion or belief is with ‘front line’ decision-makers, such as public servants and workplace managers. It ventures that in the long term an approach based on human rights principles is likely to be more satisfactory than one which is based principally on equality. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “We analyse the difference in average wages (the so called ‘wage gap’) of selected ethno-religious groups in Great Britain at the mean and over the wage distribution with the aim of explaining why such wage gaps differ across minority groups. We distinguish minorities not only by their ethno-religious background, but also by country (UK or abroad) in which people grew up and acquired their qualifications. We find that within all minority ethno-religious groups the second generation achieves higher wages than the first generation, but the amount that is explained by characteristics does not necessarily increase with generation. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines the changing uses of political rhetoric around the burial of Julius Nyerere in 1999. It argues that the ruling party uses rhetoric as a means of ‘soft power’, but also documents how this rhetoric, though geared towards legitimizing Nyerere’s successors, employed tropes that were rejected by some people and were used by others to critique leaders who were perceived to lack the selfless integrity attributed to Nyerere. The article compares funerary songs by a government-sponsored band, popular at the time of Nyerere’s death, with memories of Nyerere in rural areas in the early to mid-2000s. While the image of Nyerere in the funeral songs as a benign family patriarch writ large still persists, it coexists with strongly divergent constructions of Nyerere as an authoritarian ruler or a self-seeking profiteer. Moreover, the ‘official’, benign Nyerere has been employed not only by government and party faithful, but also by striking workers, opposition politicians, and critical newspapers as a measure of the shortcomings of his successors. The invocation of Nyerere as a paragon of an endangered ideal of virtue in public office indicates widespread anxieties towards a state that often disappoints but occasionally delivers, in unpredictable turns, and the limits of the government’s ability to shut down dissent. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The African Union’s new offices in Addis Ababa stand upon the site of the city’s former central prison, known as Alem Bekagn, where thousands of people suffered and died. This article traces the history of the prison and examines efforts to create a memorial at the site. These initiatives illustrate the African Union (AU) in transition. They echo AU commitments to act against atrocities and in support of rights and justice and suggest a distinct vision of pan-African community and a corresponding institutional culture. But, much like the AU itself, the meaning of the planned memorial is ambivalent and contested. The fact that the AU bulldozed Ethiopia’s most notorious prison in order to establish its new offices and a conference hall is richly symbolic of ‘buried memory’ – the tendency of post-colonial elites to suppress the memory of victims of state violence while celebrating chosen heroes. The AU still venerates leaders and is quiet about current violations, but the organization’s promise and process to remember the ordinary victims of state violence indicate a political opening and may contribute a novel space for the recounting of human rights abuses. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Article 5 of the United Nations Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea, and Air, to which Australia is a state party, requires states not to criminalize migrants for being the object of migrant smuggling. This international obligation raises questions about Australia’s response to migrant smuggling and its treatment of asylum seekers. This article examines the principle that smuggled migrants should not be punished for seeking refuge through illegal entry to a receiving state. It explores the extent of the obligations created by article 5, and, on that basis, assesses the compatibility of Australia’s legislative and practical responses to the smuggling of migrants. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In recent conversations about ethics in oral history, most of the topics tend to fall into two main categories—legislated or voluntary. Interactions with Institutional Review Boards and the nature and content of consent and release forms tend to fall into the former, being controlled by legal constraints. Some of the more complex ethical issues often belong to the “voluntary” group, however, as they are driven largely by individual and institutional consciences rather than by hard-and-fast written guidelines. These dilemmas tend to be more situational in nature, and they include privacy concerns, responsibility to narrators, and accountability to communities in the new digital era. This article discusses some of the ways in which these ethical quandaries are being addressed, as well as some new considerations that are currently emerging. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Front line social work in non-government organisations (NGOs) providing services for refugees and asylum seekers is demanding and challenging. Increasing numbers of social workers work with newly arrived communities; however, there are few studies that examine the demands and issues they face. Asylum seekers and refugees face restricted access and limited entitlement to health and social care. This article draws on evidence from a qualitative study conducted in 2006–11 that analysed the narratives of thirty front line workers to identify the challenges faced in delivering effective services and support. It was found that immigration policy in Australia and the UK placed pressure on social workers working with those who are subject to tight state controls and who experience poverty and destitution. In most NGOs in the UK, there is no supervision or structural support for front line social workers, whereas Australian NGOs are informed by a culture of supervision. This article highlights the demands social workers face in their work and recommends improved conditions in NGOs, and targeted social work education, training and research. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “For the past thirty years, Palestinian historian Nur Masalha has been at the forefront of scholars writing about the Nakba, the catastrophe that befell indigenous Palestinians with the creation of Israel sixty-five years ago. Long an advocate of the importance of oral history, and the Director of the Centre for Religion and History at St. Mary’s University College (UK), Masalha has been mentoring a new generation of historians of Palestine whose fresh approaches are guided by their use of oral history.

    As a work of both history and historiography, Masalha’s current book should appeal both to those interested in Palestinian and Israeli history and to oral history practitioners. Drawing on a wide range of scholarship, he explores how the formation of Israeli identity was premised on the erasure of Palestinian history and identity. While not explicitly discussed in the opening chapters, oral history’s role in historical reclamation is an underlying theme throughout the book. As Masalha argues, it is at the heart of the challenge to hegemonic Israeli discourse and to reasserting Palestinian memory. Moreover, it also subverts the silencing of ordinary people’s voices by the early male-dominated Palestinian nationalist leadership. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “‘Post-national’ scholars have taken the extension of social rights to migrants that are normally accorded to citizens as evidence of the growing importance of norms of ‘universal personhood’ and the declining importance of the nation-state. However, the distinct approach taken by the state toward another understudied category of non-citizen – stateless people – complicates these theories by demonstrating that the state makes decisions about groups on different bases than theory would suggest. These findings suggest the need to pay more attention to how the state treats other categories of ‘semi-citizens’. This article examines the differential effects of universal healthcare reforms in Thailand on citizens, migrants, and stateless people and explores their ramifications on theories of citizenship and social rights. While the state has expanded its healthcare obligations toward people living within its borders, it has taken a variegated approach toward different groups. Citizens have been extended ‘differentiated but unambiguous rights’. Migrants have been granted ‘conditional rights’ to healthcare coverage, dependent on their status as registered workers who pay mandatory contributions. Large numbers of stateless people, however, saw their right to state welfare programs disenfranchised following passage of the new universal healthcare law before later being granted ‘contingent rights’ through a new program.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The theme of this article is political citizenship among people with disabilities. Political citizenship on the basis of gender and ethnicity has received attention internationally. However, there has been little attention on political citizenship of persons with disabilities. The article sheds light on political representation at the local level in Norway. The data used are from a survey sent to 767 political representatives in local politics and 50 administrative representatives. Our study shows that disabled people are under-represented in local political assemblies, and thus, their political citizenship is not fully acknowledged. We apply Fraser (N. Fraser, 1997. Justice Interruptus. Critical Reflections on the ‘Postsocialist’ Condition. New York and London: Routledge) concepts of redistribution and recognition to analyse the lack of representation of disabled people. According to the dimension of redistribution, the analysis shows that neither the physical conditions nor the organization of the different meetings is particularly well adapted for disabled people. The dimension of recognition shows that disabled representatives are expected to be more occupied with issues concerning disability than other representatives. The analysis also shows that over time it has become more important for elected disabled representatives to put issues concerning disability on the agenda.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines the democratic status of irregular immigrants from the vantage point of different models of democratic inclusion. The argument developed is that irregular immigrants are in fact members of the democratic state by virtue of being subjected to the legally binding norms in the territory of the state. The extension of the vote and other political rights to irregular immigrants nevertheless remains problematic due to their ‘illegal’ status. Because this status follows from the restrictive border policies implemented by most contemporary states, it shows that the ideal of democratic inclusion is scarcely reconcilable with a policy of restrictive cross-border movement. The conclusion defended in the article is that the interest in keeping borders restricted reduces the prospects for democratic inclusion in contemporary states.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “With the growth of immigrant population over the past couple of decades, a ‘multicultural’ discourse has emerged in Japan. A notable point is that immigrants are expected to be incorporated into the host society primarily as foreigners rather than as Japanese nationals with full citizenship rights. The purpose of this article is to understand this prevailing mode of immigrant incorporation and to consider the comparative implications. By examining the discursive aspects of claims-making on behalf of both old-timer and newcomer immigrants, I argue that the underlying opportunity structures have been reproduced in each phase of immigration-related development in Japan, facilitating the use of the ‘foreigner’ category in advocacy efforts. Official recognition of the category has also helped to further institutionalize it as the main target of immigrant policy. In comparative perspective, ‘incorporation as foreigners’ can be understood as a variant of the ethnic model of immigration regimes in that it tends to reinforce the dominant ethnocultural conception of Japanese nationhood.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Drawing upon qualitative fieldwork, this paper analyzes the occupation of an abandoned park in the south of Buenos Aires by the city’s urban poor, delineating the implications of this incident for notions of citizenship in the context of deeply fragmented social rights. While public space has historically been understood as an expression of the universality of rights bearing membership in a political community, I show how this universalism became the object of struggle during a conflict over the park between the local middle class and squatters, many of which were of immigrant origin. The discourses mobilized by various social groups blurred the distinction between citizenship as a set of legal–formal rights versus a project of normative inclusion. While public space is juridically constructed as universal, particularistic claims to these spaces are imbued with increased legitimacy in a context in which social rights – conceived as a set of provisions guaranteed by the state under a regime of liberal citizenship – are unrealizable. By claiming this space for particularistic uses, squatters drew attention to the contradictions embedded in public space’s democratic pretensions in a setting in which putatively universal rights are ignored by the state.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Discussing new or recently reformed citizenship tests in the USA, Australia, and Canada, this article asks whether they amount to a restrictive turn of new world citizenship, similar to recent developments in Europe. I argue that elements of a restrictive turn are noticeable in Australia and Canada, but only at the level of political rhetoric, not of law and policy, which remain liberal and inclusive. Much like in Europe, the restrictive turn is tantamount to Muslims and Islam moving to the center of the integration debate.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explores the idea of the Mujahideen in Bosnia as ‘cosmopolitan citizens’. During the Balkan War in the early 1990s, these foreign fighters flocked to Bosnia in order to take up arms alongside those whom they understood to be their besieged Muslim brethren. Although this act of transborder mobilization can be framed as an act of cosmopolitan citizenship, the subsequent ‘problem’ of the Mujahideen in a post-9/11 context destabilized their original cosmopolitan act through a re-enactment of borders and the revocation of their (literal) citizenship. Within the larger post-9/11 narrative, where the Mujahideen must necessarily be understood as terrorists/potential terrorists, they are an interesting point of study in an examination of what can be seen as the sinister side of transnational citizenship, and they expose what Appadurai (A. Appadurai, 2006. Fear of small numbers: an essay on the geography of anger. Durham: Duke University Press.) calls our ‘fear of small numbers’. Particularly compelling is that the post-9/11 Mujahid is an unsympathetic figure, and is always already a questionable candidate for ‘citizenship’ as it is commonly understood. Furthermore, his (sic) original ‘cosmopolitan’ act suggests that, although the ‘cosmopolitan ideal’ is the achievement of a citizenship that transcends or escapes borders, the cosmopolitical must nevertheless be assigned value in order to be ethically intelligible.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Refugee studies rarely address historical matters; yet understanding ideas about sanctuary, refuge, and asylum have long roots in both Western and Eastern history and philosophy. Occasionally the Nansen era of the 1920s is examined or the opening years of, say, the Palestinian refugee crisis is addressed. But by and large the circumstances, experiences, and influences of refugees and exiles in modern history are ignored. This article attempts to contribute to an exploration of the past and to examine the responses of one State – the late Ottoman Empire – to the forced migration of millions of largely Muslim refugees and exiles from its contested borderland shared with Tzarist Russia into its southern provinces. The article focuses on one particular meta-ethnic group, the Circassians, and explores the humanitarian response to their movement both nationally and locally as well as their concerted drive for assisted self-settlement. The Circassians are one of many groups that were on the move at the end of the 19th century and their reception and eventual integration without assimilation in the region provide important lessons for contemporary humanitarianism. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Palestinian refugees’ right of return is an inalienable right enshrined in international law. Palestinian refugees are united in their demand that this right must be recognized, but their proposed political narratives and scenarios differ on how exactly it should be implemented. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in refugee camps in the West Bank, Lebanon, and Jordan from 2008–2011 I trace and compare different political cultures on the right of return as articulated and practiced by refugees themselves across these three different locations and across different generations. While members of the Nakba generation tend to long for a permanent return to their homes, identities, and status in their villages of origin, many from the middle generation follow a rights-based approach, using United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 and other international legal instruments to call for the implementation of the right of return. Young Palestinian refugees often formulate the most innovative political imaginaries on return. They tend to frame the right of return within broader struggles of justice, democratisation, human rights, and equality and can also imagine more flexible scenarios for a future Palestinian nation-state. By going beyond a territorially-based nationalist frame, their political narratives thus offer critiques to classic political theory as well as to elite (Palestinian, host country, as well as regional and international) politics. Doing so, they urge us to rethink what – doing and imagining – politics for Palestine means today. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Kenyan elections of 2007 and their violent aftermath inspired a burst of academic productivity, including a number of articles that have informed the pages of African Affairs over the past five years. Having told us much about the causes and consequences of what has become known as the ‘Kenya crisis’, this work also has a great deal to say about the dynamics of Kenyan politics today and the prospects for conflict and instability around the next general elections, scheduled for 4 March 2013. It is because these articles remain so relevant – for policy makers and Kenyan political leaders as much as for the academic community – that we decided to collate the best of our recent publications on Kenya into a free-access Virtual Issue.

    It is hard to overestimate the impact of the 2007 elections on Kenya. Following largely peaceful voting on 27 December, the counting process descended into farce, sparking accusations of malpractice by the opposition and European Union election observers. Against this backdrop, the controversial announcement on 30 December that President Kibaki had won a second term in office, coupled with a hastily arranged swearing-in ceremony, sparked a wave of violence in which over 1,000 people lost their lives and 600,000 more were displaced. There were multiple sites of conflict. Some ethnic communities supportive of the main opposition candidate, Raila Odinga, rioted and attacked communities assumed to have supported Kibaki, most notably in the Rift Valley. In response, the police violently repressed the protests, while militias aligned with the ruling party carried out ‘revenge attacks’. In the space of just a few weeks, public trust in political leaders and institutions, which had been building gradually since Kenya’s first democratic transfer of power in 2002, was shattered. Inter-communal relations also rapidly deteriorated as violence hardened … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Like other commemorative landmarks, the fiftieth anniversary of Algerian independence in 2012 was preceded by an array of new publications, each seeking to cast light on a hitherto neglected aspect of the War of Independence (1954–62) and the legacies of this conflict. David Porter’s substantial volume, Eyes to the South, joined this trend by offering an impressively detailed overview of how French anarchists have understood and engaged with events in Algeria over the past six decades. This work builds on and combines Porter’s longstanding interests in both anarchism and Algeria; interests which previously have led him to produce volumes on Emma Goldman and Spanish anarchism, as well as doctoral fieldwork on Algerian worker self-management (autogestion) in the early years of Ben Bella’s post-independence regime.

    In Eyes to the South Porter pursues three interrelated projects by offering ‘an alternative history of contemporary Algeria, an introduction to the French anarchist movement since the 1950s, and a heavy plateful of major generic anarchist theoretical and strategic issues’ (p. 475). These three strands are placed within a five-part chronological structure divided according to key … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Markakis has produced a magisterial work that synthesizes a half-century’s research into Ethiopia’s state formation, assessing the achievements and successes of the ruling elites of the imperial, Afro-Marxist, and Federalist regimes. Going against the conventional stance, which assumes that the Ethiopian state long ago passed the threshold of state formation and has moved beyond consolidating control over its territory and citizens, Markakis argues that the ‘nation-state building project’ which began in the late 1890s ‘has made much progress but is nowhere near an end’ (p. 1). Surveying the long and violent history of the empire he argues for the belated acknowledgment of ‘warfare [as] … the crimson thread’ that has stitched together the polity and institutionalized a hierarchical society predominantly based on Abyssinian norms and values (p. 3). The author strips away the mythical and ideological veils of the Ethiopian state and lays bare the legacies of slave raids, military conquest, settler colonialism, and armed insurgencies. He …”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Background

    Concepts of ‘what constitutes mental illness’, the presumed aetiology and preferred treatment options, vary considerably from one cultural context to another. Knowledge and understanding of these local conceptualisations is essential to inform public mental health programming and policy.
    Methods

    Participants from four locations in Burundi, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were invited to describe ‘problems they knew of that related to thinking, feeling and behaviour?’ Data were collected over 31 focus groups discussions (251 participants) and key informant interviews with traditional healers and health workers.
    Results

    While remarkable similarities occurred across all settings, there were also striking differences. In all areas, participants were able to describe localized syndromes characterized by severe behavioural and cognitive disturbances with considerable resemblance to psychotic disorders. Additionally, respondents throughout all settings described local syndromes that included sadness and social withdrawal as core features. These syndromes had some similarities with nonpsychotic mental disorders, such as major depression or anxiety disorders, but also differed significantly. Aetiological concepts varied a great deal within each setting, and attributed causes varied from supernatural to psychosocial and natural. Local syndromes resembling psychotic disorders were seen as an abnormality in need of treatment, although people did not really know where to go. Local syndromes resembling nonpsychotic mental disorders were not regarded as a ‘medical’ disorder, and were therefore also not seen as a condition for which help should be sought within the biomedical health-care system. Rather, such conditions were expected to improve through social and emotional support from relatives, traditional healers and community members.
    Conclusions

    Local conceptualizations have significant implications for the planning of mental-health interventions in resource-poor settings recovering from conflict. Treatment options for people suffering from severe mental disorders should be made available to people, preferably within general health care facilities. For people suffering from local syndromes characterized by loss or sadness, the primary aim for public mental health interventions would be to empower existing social support systems already in place at local levels, and to strengthen social cohesion and self-help within communities. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Despite official discourses of donors, the most corrupt countries receive the highest amounts of foreign aid. The most corrupt countries are however also the poorest, and this is why they may receive more aid. This paper provides the first theoretical and empirical grounds for this rationale. The key is that corruption is not exogenous but, instead, an equilibrium phenomenon. We build a multi-country model of optimal aid in which we disentangle the correlation between aid and corruption into two components: the first reflects variations in the quality of institutions and the second variations in productivity levels. The data suggest that both components of the correlation are significant; however the effect of variations in productivity levels is stronger. Because the cross-country heterogeneity in productivity is more important than the heterogeneity in institutional quality, it is optimal to give more foreign aid to more corrupt countries. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “Julie Macfarlane explores how North American Muslim communities manage marriage and divorce processes. She draws from interviews with 212 Muslims in the United States and Canada, including imams, religious scholars, community leaders, social workers, and divorced men and women. Macfarlane uncovers a dedication to Islamic marriage and divorce practices across ethnic origins, class, and educational backgrounds and focuses on individual interpretations and applications of shari’a law shaped by encounters with Western culture. Her interviews provide detailed accounts of the complexity of ethnic religious identity, specifically for Muslims in a post-9/11 society shaped by fear of Islamic beliefs and practices. The book is important in several ways. It contributes to the scant qualitative literature on divorce and religious experience. It counters media and widespread assumptions of Islamic marriage and divorce as backward and anti-American. The book also offers valuable knowledge for those interested in applied Islamic family law a”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “As part of the recent wave of immigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU), about 300,000 non-Jews came to Israel as spouses of Jews or partly-Jewish offspring of ethnically-mixed families. The purpose of this article is to examine the experiences of non-Jewish women, wives of Jewish husbands, who came to Israel after 1990 under the Law of Return. The study is based on the qualitative analysis of 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews with these immigrant women, aiming to explore their perceptions of religious practices, Jewish holidays, conversion (giyur), and their political views – in order to understand their constructions of Israeli citizenship. The issues of citizenship and loyalty to the Jewish state are resolved by Russian immigrant women in a variety of ways. Some women (a small minority) opt for ethno-national citizenship through religious conversion – giyur, typically for the children’s sake. Others prefer to become part of Israeli society through experiences connected to the military service of their children and grandchildren, which can be seen as a version of republican citizenship. For most women in this study, the process of getting closer to the Israeli society and its traditions often occurred via embracing local culinary customs and specific holiday foods. In any case, the gender roles as wives and mothers appeared to be central in our informants’ understanding of Israeli citizenship. The adoption of political views of Israeli Right and militant anti-Arab discourse also served as a venue for their ‘nationalization’ through republicanism. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “We describe a method for producing annual estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population in the United Sates and components of population change, for each state and DC, for 1990–2010. We quantify a sharp drop in the number of unauthorized immigrants arriving since 2000, and we demonstrate the role of departures from the population (emigration, adjustment to legal status, removal by the Department of Homeland Security [DHS], and deaths) in reducing population growth from one million in 2000 to population losses in 2008 and 2009. The number arriving in the U.S. peaked at more than one million in 1999–2001 and then declined rapidly through 2009. We provide evidence that population growth stopped after 2007 primarily because entries declined and not because emigration increased during the economic crisis. Our estimates of the total unauthorized immigrant population in the U.S. and in the top ten states are comparable to those produced by DHS and the Pew Hispanic Center. However, our data and methods produce estimates with smaller ranges of sampling error.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Background
    Recent initiatives by international health and humanitarian aid organizations have focused increased attention on making HIV testing services more widely available to vulnerable populations. To realize potential health benefits from new services, they must be utilized. This research addresses the question of how utilization of testing services might be encouraged and increased for refugees displaced by conflict, to make better use of existing resources.

    Methods
    Open-ended interviews were conducted with HIV-infected refugees (N=73) who had tested for HIV and with HIV clinic staff (N=4) in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in southwest Uganda. Interviews focused on accessibility of HIV/AIDS-related testing and care and perspectives on how to improve utilization of testing services. Data collection took place at the Nakivale HIV/AIDS Clinic from March to July of 2011. Observations of clinical activities were also carried out. An inductive approach to data analysis was used to identify factors related to utilization.

    Results
    In general, interviewees report focusing daily effort on tasks aimed at meeting survival needs. HIV testing is not prioritized over these responsibilities. Under some circumstances, however, HIV testing occurs. This happens when: (a) circumstances realign to trigger a temporary shift in priorities away from daily survival-related tasks; (b) survival needs are temporarily met; and/or (c) conditions shift to alleviate barriers to HIV testing.

    Conclusion
    HIV testing services provided for refugees must be not just available, but also utilized. Understanding what makes HIV testing possible for refugees who have tested can inform interventions to increase testing in this population. Intervening by encouraging priority shifts toward HIV testing, by helping ensure survival needs are met, and by eliminating barriers to testing, may result in refugees making better use of existing testing services.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Court’s case law on the applicability of the prohibition of discrimination of Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights has always been ambivalent. From the 1970s onwards, there are two parallel lines of case law, one allowing complaints about almost all differences in treatment, regardless of their grounds, and another allowing only complaints about discrimination based on personal status or personal characteristics. Although the Court tried to bring its case law together in the cases of Carson and Clift, an analysis of subsequent cases makes clear that its approach is still confused. It is argued here that the inconsistencies in the definition of grounds of discrimination reflect a fundamental ambivalence as to the theoretical principles underlying Article 14. The article sets out two different rationales for non-discrimination law that may provide a sound basis for a certain approach towards the definition of grounds of discrimination. Both rationales have important but radically opposed consequences for the way Article 14 is applied as well as for the position of the Court. Although the Court may not want to do so, and although both conceptions are defensible, it will need to make a choice in order to guarantee a transparent and predictable non-discrimination case law.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article discusses how security must be understood from a human rights perspective. It is submitted that human rights law—i.e. classic civil human rights—in fact presupposes four different concepts of security: international security; negative individual security against the state; security as justification to limit human rights; and positive state obligation to offer security to individuals against other individuals. These concepts are explained, discussed and criticised individually and in combination. Reasons are given why several of the concepts insufficiently substantiate what security encompasses: not all concepts are mutually reinforcing; in some cases they even undermine each other. This implies that international human rights law fails to provide a comprehensive, balanced view of what security means from a human rights perspective. As a result, human rights law offers less substance and direction to the security discourse than it potentially should be able to; and, moreover, this is harmful to the capacity of human rights to protect the individual. Throughout the article suggestions are made to remedy these weaknesses.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article argues that the fate of veil bans under European law is uncertain. It shows that European commitments to free speech and freedom of religion cannot accommodate an absolute ban justified solely on grounds of the offensiveness of the veil. However, a ban that applies to public face-covering in general (rather than a ban that only targets the veil), that relates to the specific (though admittedly broad) context of social life and that provides some exceptions allowing the veil to be worn in specific religious or expressive contexts, has a reasonable chance of being upheld by European courts despite the significant infringement of personal autonomy it would involve.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 1997, the Supreme Court of Canada issued a landmark decision on the admissibility of Aboriginal oral narratives. In Delgamuukw v. British Columbia (Delgamuukw III), the Supreme Court declared that oral tradition evidence should no longer be considered inferior to written sources. Trial judges were to be more flexible and culturally sensitive when evaluating oral narratives and to develop guidelines favoring optimum admissibility. The Court’s decision was hailed by many in both Canada and internationally as a major breakthrough for Aboriginal societies that were trying to use the legal system to regain or protect rights that had been either taken away or were currently threatened.

    Unfortunately, as Professor Bruce Granville Miller points out in this thorough and incisive monograph, the promise of Delgamuukw III has been largely unrealized. Although he lays much of the responsibility for this at the feet of the attorneys for the Crown, he also recognizes that …”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “There is a critique of research conducted in communities which fails to include communities in its design and undertaking. In parallel, academic research is increasingly being measured according to its benefit to the wider society. Co-productive research is a response to these challenges which offers a way of recognizing the resource contribution of communities to research and emphasizing the conduct of research ‘with’ communities rather than ‘on’ communities. This article identifies the reliance on ‘text’ in the research process as a barrier to delivering meaningful co-productive research with communities. ‘Beyond-text’ tools are emerging across academic disciplines and include story-telling, performance, art and photography. Recent research emphasizes the empowering potential of these methods by facilitating greater reflection on the lived experience of those involved. This article looks at examples of research which have employed ‘beyond text’ methods to consider their potential to deliver co-produced research with communities. It also asks whether it is the application of specific technical approaches and methods, or the underlying ethos within which research is conducted that is most critical to challenging unequal power relationships. It argues that beyond-text methods need to be applied within a wider set of values which re-conceptualize the role of the researcher working with communities.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “This article is about the city as home for people living in diaspora. We develop two key areas of debate. First, in contrast to research that explores diasporic homes in relation to domestic homemaking and/or the nation as home or ‘homeland’, we consider the city as home in diaspora. Second, building on research on transnational urbanism, translocality and the importance of the ‘city scale’ in migration studies, we argue that the city is a distinctive location of diasporic dwelling, belonging and attachment. Drawing on interviews with Anglo–Indian and Chinese Calcuttans who live in London and Toronto, we develop the idea of ‘diaspora cities’ to explore the importance of the city as home rather than the nation as ‘homeland’ for many people living in diaspora. This leads to an understanding of the importance of migration and diaspora within cities of departure as well as resettlement, and contributes a distinctively diasporic focus to broader work on comparative urbanism.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this article, I explore the interactions between transnational activities (in the form of return visits) and integration, for Afghan refugees living in the USA. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in California and Kabul, I look at why return visits take place and the difficult experiences Afghan-Americans had of being a stranger in what might they might otherwise consider their ‘home’. I argue that return visits can serve as a transnational strategy to help integration in California through, for example, the investment of ‘reverse’ remittances. In doing so, I highlight the importance of multi-directional transnational flows, particularly those from Afghanistan to the USA.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Our understanding of the impact of gender on refugee determination has evolved greatly over the last 60 years. Though many people initially believed that women could not be persecuted qua women, it is now frequently recognized that certain forms of gender-related persecution are sufficient to warrant asylum. Yet despite this conceptual progress, many states are still reluctant to consider certain forms of gender-related persecution to be sufficient to warrant asylum or refugee status. One reason for this continued bias is the lack of a framework with which to understand gender-related persecution. I argue that we ought to understand gender-related persecution as resulting from the intersection of individual or state persecution and structural injustice. Structural injustice can be understood as the kind of everyday injustice, harm, and violence that women experience that makes possible the more extraordinary kinds of violence that women are likely to claim as the basis of asylum. Understanding gender-related persecution within the context of structural injustice will, I argue, help us to see it as a legitimate form of persecution and thus allow more just outcomes for women refugees.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Using 2004-2008 data from the American Time Use Survey, we show that sharp differences between the time use of immigrants and natives become noticeable when activities are distinguished by incidence and intensity. We develop a theory of the process of assimilation—what immigrants do with their time—based on the notion that assimilating activities entail fixed costs. The theory predicts that immigrants will be less likely than natives to undertake such activities, but conditional on undertaking them, immigrants will spend more time on them than natives. We identify several activities—purchasing, education and market work—as requiring the most interaction with the native world, and these activities more than others fit the theoretical predictions. Additional tests suggest that the costs of assimilating derive from the costs of learning English and from some immigrants’ unfamiliarity with a high-income market economy. A replication using the 1992 Australian Time Use Survey yields remarkably similar results. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Using 1995–2011 Current Population Survey and 1970–2000 Census data, we find that the fertility, education and labor supply of second generation women (US-born women with at least one foreign-born parent) are significantly positively affected by the immigrant generation’s levels of these variables, with the effect of the fertility and labor supply of women from the mother’s source country generally larger than that of women from the father’s source country and the effect of the education of men from the father’s source country larger than that of women from the mother’s source country. We present some evidence that suggests our findings for fertility and labor supply are due to at least in part to intergenerational transmission of gender roles. Transmission rates for immigrant fertility and labor supply between generations are higher than for education, but there is considerable intergenerational assimilation toward native levels for all three of these outcomes. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Within the economics literature, the “psychic costs” of migration have been incorporated into theoretical models since Sjaastad (1962). However, the existence of such costs has rarely been investigated in empirical papers. In this paper, we look at the psychic costs of migration using alcohol problems as an indicator. Rather than comparing immigrants and natives, we look at the native-born in a single country and compare those who have lived away for a period of their lives and those who have not. We use data from the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) which is a large, nationally representative sample of older Irish adults. We find that men who lived away are more likely to have suffered from alcohol problems than men who stayed. For women, we again see a higher incidence of alcohol problems for short-term migrants. However, long-term female migrants are less likely to have suffered from alcohol problems. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “We investigate how emigration flows from a developing region are affected by xenophobic violence at destination. Our empirical analysis is based on a unique survey among more than 1000 households collected in Mozambique in summe 2008, a few months after a series of xenophobic attacks in South Africa killed dozens and displaced thousands of immigrants from neighbouring countries. We estimate migration intentions of Mozambicans before and after the attacks, controlling for the characteristics of households and previous migration behaviour. Using a placebo period, we show that other things equal, the migration intention of household heads decreases from 37 to 33 percent. The sensitivity of migration intentions to violence is larger for household heads with many children younger than 15 years, decreasing the migration intention by 11 percentage points. Most importantly, the sensitivity of migration intentions is highest for those household heads with many young children whose families have no access to social networks. For these household heads, the intention falls by 15 percentage points. Social networks provide insurance against the consequences young children suffer in case the household head would be harmed by xenophobic violence and consequently could not provide for the family. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article sets out to challenge a core assumption of much of the recent literature on the role of the European Union in conflict resolution, namely that the Union’s approach aims at the transformation of conflicts over and above their management. It does so through an analysis of the EU’s engagement with the process of constitutional reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Making use of discourse analysis of EU policy documents and speeches by key actors, supplemented by interviews with policy-makers in Brussels and in Bosnia, I argue that the EU’s approach is based on the acceptance and attempted accommodation of distinct and antagonistic ethnic identities rather than any attempt at their transformation. While EU officials are highly critical of nationalist politicians in Bosnia and praise the efforts of civil society organisations that attempt to overcome ethnic divisions, they nonetheless view Bosnia through an ‘ethnic conflict’ paradigm that sees resistance to constitutional reform by nationalist elites as an inevitable symptom of deeper divisions in Bosnian society. Based on this reading, I conclude that EU conflict resolution policy is much more conservative than those stressing the Union’s transformative power in conflict situations envisage.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This essay argues that Underground America, a collection of fi rst-person narratives of undocumented immigrants, advances the premise that the immigrants it represents are already part of the US “nation,” and that their claim to human rights ought therefore to be recognized on the grounds of national belonging.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study explores hostile media bias and third-person perceptions of the influence of media coverage of immigrants using data (N = 529) from North Carolina, where the Latino population grew almost 400% in two decades. As hypothesized, anti-immigrant sentiment was significantly related to perceptions of “hostile” (pro-immigrant) news coverage. However, anti-immigrant sentiment was not directly related to belief in coverage effects on others. Analysis revealed two “paths” for relationships among anti-immigrant sentiment, exposure and attention to media coverage, perceived media bias, and presumed media influence or third-person perceptions.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article builds on the insights of the contact hypothesis and political socialization literatures to go beyond recent findings that racial and ethnic diversity have overwhelmingly negative effects on social capital, particularly generalized trust. Using the Canadian General Social Survey (2003), our results show that despite a negative relationship among adults, younger Canadians with racial and ethnic diversity in their social networks show higher levels of generalized trust. The results seem to confirm that youth socialization experiences with rising diversity and the normalization of diversity in a multicultural environment contribute to beneficial (instead of detrimental) effects of diverse social networks.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper discusses the right of migrant live-in, 24-hour-care, domestic workers to a family life, particularly in relation to recent efforts to strengthen their rights. My argument is that national and EU policies that tolerate the irregular work situation of migrant domestic workers are a functional response to the specific intersection of family and paid work in this field. The familialisation of work implies the defamilialisation of the worker and the deprivation of the right to a family life. In order to understand the experience of defamilialisation, I discuss the specific tensions entailed in familialised, paid, domestic and care work and how these motivate migrant domestic workers to develop specific coping strategies. Beyond these strategies, I argue that broader social structures sustain the defamilialisation of the workers. Finally, I ask how the right to a family life appears in recent debates about the realisation of rights for migrant domestic workers, especially at the level of the recent negotiations for an ILO Convention on ‘Decent Work for Domestic Workers’.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Abstract. With this paper we draw conclusions from the contributions to this theme issue that all explored the links between environmental change, migration, and governance. We have three objectives. The first is to identify key themes emerging from each of the papers and to consider their significance. The second is to specify overarching implications of the work gathered in this theme issue. The third is to identify areas where future research would be beneficial in further enhancing understanding of the links between environmental change, migration, and governance in the context of adaptation. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study analyses gender differences in the intergenerational earnings mobility of second‐generation migrants in Germany. Thereby it takes into account the influence of assortative mating and the parental integration. First, intergenerational earnings elasticities are estimated at the mean and along the earnings distribution. The results do not reveal large differences in the mobility — neither between natives and migrants nor between men and women. Second, intergenerational changes in the relative earnings position are analysed. These results confirm that migrants are mostly as (im)mobile as the native population. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Migration studies in South Africa have partially taken the spatial turn, giving some attention to questions of territoriality and spatial relationships. Recent literature has drawn on de Certeau’s distinction between the strategies of the powerful and the tactics of the subordinate, revealing for example how migrants occupy hidden spaces to evade control and social hostility. Within the broad aegis of de Certeau’s work, we engage the historical and contemporary spaces of the Chinese diaspora in Johannesburg. We describe a highly differentiated grouping of migrants that has deployed, and continues to deploy, varying tactics over time and across space. There are, for example, processes of clustering and processes of dispersal. There is also the use of visibility and cultural marking as a spatial tactic, as well as of invisibility and hidden spaces. We also reveal that the spatial practices of the Chinese migrants do not only relate to the strategies of the powerful but are also a response to the competition and threats posed by other subordinate individuals and groupings in society, including other Chinese migrants.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Does the local organisational presence of anti-immigrant parties affect their chances for electoral success? In order to answer this question, the article explores the potential of a supply-oriented explanation to anti-immigrant party success by examining the electoral advancements the Sweden Democrats (SD) made in the 2006 and 2010 elections. Our results indicate that traditional demand-side explanations to anti-immigrant party success can be successfully complemented by an ‘internal supply-side argument’ to make the electoral fates of these parties more intelligible. Whether the SD had a local organisational presence had a substantial effect on its results in the national election and on the probability of gaining representation in local councils. Thus, the party’s fate in the national as well as local elections was largely determined by whether or not it had a local organisational presence in Swedish municipalities.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this article, I am interested in the different types of boundaries emerging in a city characterized by a highly diverse population. The analysis of the personal social networks of 250 inhabitants of a small Swiss City—different types of migrants as well as non-migrants—supplemented by data from qualitative interviews brings to light the important categories for the creation of boundaries and the place of ethnicity among them. The inhabitant’s network structures display specific network boundaries that are translated into symbolic and also social boundaries: four different clusters emerge among the population, pointing to their stratified social positioning in this city. Hereby an interplay of nationality, education, local establishment, mobility type, “race,” and religion are the most important structuring factors. It becomes clear that the common ideas of assimilation cannot grasp the complexity of the “categorical game” at place in this city when it comes to migrant’s incorporation.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Italy, especially in its richer regions and cities, is experiencing a profound contradiction in its relationship with the immigrant component of its population: it is becoming even more multi-ethnic in terms of the number of residents (5.3 million), participation in the labor market (more than 3 million), transitions to selfemployment (213,000 business owners), and immigrant students in schools (about 670,000). In their cultural representations, Italians tend to deny this reality. They do not want multi-ethnic cities. Faced with the widespread use of a workforce of regular and irregular immigrants, in families and enterprises of the urban economy, the prevailing opinion rejects the idea of giving a place to immigration in the nation’s social organization, and this position is strengthened by political forces and media that reflect and exacerbate the reaction. Immigrants seem to be accepted, perhaps, on an individual plane, where they have a name and a definite place in society—helpful, modest, possibly invisible. They are frightening when they become visible communities, when they settle in urban settings, when they look for places and opportunities for socialization. Italian society, as a result of tensions between markets, politics, and culture on the issue of immigration, is facing a dilemma: how to reconcile interests and feelings, head and heart, individuals and communities: how to rebuild sufficient social cohesion in a society that is increasingly differentiated and heterogeneous.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article critiques the predominant opinion that aid undermines the sovereignty of African states. This claim implies not only that a recipient state’s policy autonomy is curtailed by development assistance, but also more fundamentally that the politico-legal independence of the state itself is being challenged. While the former is often the case, the latter is not. Drawing a conceptual and analytical distinction between sovereignty as a right to rule and national control over policy and outcomes, the article develops a more accurate identification of the areas in which aid, as a particular form of external influence, does and does not have an impact on recipient states. It argues that sovereignty as a right to rule constitutes the very basis of the aid relationship, and endows African states with the agency with which to contest the terms of aid deals. The article thus provides a new reading of the politics of aid and, by reasserting the centrality of sovereignty as an organizing institution in contemporary aid relations, supports rather than questions the relevance of the discipline of International Relations to African studies. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Why has the plight of “war refugees” been problematized? The Handbook of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees describes them as “special cases”. Neither International Refugee Law nor International Humanitarian Law finds a happy home for them. Article 15(c) of the European Union Qualification Directive 2004/83/EC, denotes them in a way that one commentator has described as “nonsensical”. “War refugees” languish precisely when their numbers increase in Afghanistan, Iraq to Syria. Yet, the international community provides at best muted protection for them. There is consequently complete and utter confusion over key questions, such as how “armed conflict” is defined’? Whether, “indiscriminate violence” is proven by its intensity, the frequency of its attacks, or its cumulative effects? Or, what should be the basis for “individual threat” to civilian life? This Essay argues that if there is any hope of achieving the “minimum standards” of “international protection” which the Qualification Directive envisages, it lies in focusing on communities that are “imperilled by endemic violence”. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article is based on the hypothesis that the relationship between politics and borders is being reshaped as a consequence of the movement of people between States. This process of redefining the concept of “border”, present in both the new approaches to managing migration and the public perception of immigration, is closely linked with the image of “border” projected by politics. For this reason, the ability to manage borders can create or modify a particular image of migration. Against this backdrop, this article seeks to explore the link between the concept of the “border” and policies aimed at managing human mobility from the perspective of political theory. Assuming that there is still no Political Theory of Borders in the strict sense, in this article I will argue that in order to establish its foundations, border must be considered as a concept and as an approach (section 3), as well as a political category (sections 4 and 5). Finally, I will review some arguments regarding human mobility and border control (section 6). “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Lebanon has very few legal provisions addressing refugees’ and asylum-seekers’ concerns, thus the majority of them (with the exception of Palestinians) rely on the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees for social assistance – 96 per cent of the registered refugees being Iraqis. This article aims to provide information that relates to the socio-economic status of registered refugees, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the social and economic services provided to support them. We present results of a representative household survey conducted in February 2012 covering 700 refugee households living in Lebanon registered at the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, mainly in and around Beirut. More than a quarter (27 per cent) live below the poverty line, and less than half are economically active. Furthermore only about 7 per cent hold a higher education degree. Almost a fifth of registered refugees suffer from a chronic illness. In the short term it is unlikely that refugees will return to their home country and settlement in Lebanon is legally impossible. Hence, third country resettlement and a prolonged refugee status are likely, implying that refugees will rely on the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees services and protection for some time, to come. The effectiveness of their programmes, briefly reviewed in this paper, are hence of crucial importance. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In the summer of 2009, focus groups and interviews were conducted with Liberian refugees living in the Buduburam Refugee Camp, Ghana. The purpose of this study was to learn about the national identity of individuals in protracted refugee situations, and how this influences attitudes towards durable solutions. Using a grounded theory approach, I develop a framework of Liberian national identity and evaluate how these conceptions of identity generate support or opposition to United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees-supported local integration programme. Three main themes regarding identity are identified by the participants: ethnic or cultural identity, civic identity, and liberal identity. The results indicate that national identity is an important indicator about a refugee’s desire to remain in Ghana, and those with strong ethnic and liberal national identities, as opposed to civic national identities, are the least likely candidates for local integration. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Burundi has made comprehensive efforts to find durable solutions for those who were forced to flee their homes in the 1990s and 2000s as a result of civil war. In the aftermath of the conflict, which erupted in 1993 and lasted for 12 years, the Government initially focused on the reintegration of more than 500,000 returning refugees. It then developed a socio-economic reintegration strategy and set up a working group to implement durable solutions for the 100,000 internally displaced people who, as of 2005, were still living in settlements the Government established for them during the war. This article covers the latest developments in the strategy, including the elaboration of an action plan on durable solutions based on a comprehensive profiling exercise of the internally displaced population. Drawing on extensive interviews with Burundian Government officials, representatives of United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations, displaced people themselves, and members of their host communities, it presents the main findings of the profiling exercise and analyses the options pursued thus far. It then makes recommendations to further reintegration, with a focus on land issues and tenure security, which are crucial to achieving durable solutions in Burundi. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explores the outcome of longitudinal research conducted in Italy between December 2005 and March 2007 with nine women from four Romanian Roma communities. Specifically, the study investigated the links between the economic strategies of Roma women settled in Rome and the dynamics of gender identity within the Italian anti-Roma context. The qualitative fieldwork for this research was conducted during the political campaign for the election of a new prime minister in April 2008. At the time, immigration and anti-Roma feelings were being strategically employed by both left- and right-wing coalitions in order to gain political consensus. To do so, openly racist and xenophobic anti-immigration laws were enacted and aimed to “sanitise” Italian society from the “dangerous” foreign presence. Roma communities, coming from Eastern Europe, were identified as one of the main targets of the political campaign, transforming Italy into what Agamben calls a temporary “state of exception”. The aim of this article is to highlight particular forms of agency enacted by some Roma women in this hostile environment. Through processes of mediation and negotiation between moral values demanded by their “belonging” community and new economic tools and opportunities offered by the host society, these women have excavated exploitable economic niches in order to achieve a better lifestyle, despite the racism and segregation experienced in everyday life. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This collaborative article examines how two academic institutions and one nongovernmental organization cooperated to map recent trial activity for past human rights violations, applying social science techniques to assist survivors’ and relatives’ groups as well as litigators in making informed strategic choices in their interactions with the formal justice system. The article discusses how methodologically rigorous data collection and data requests to public bodies can be used to advance a proaccountability agenda. The authors show how a range of civil society and state actors have changed justice system outcomes in Argentina, Chile and Peru and highlight some lessons learned about engaged, policy-relevant research. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In the 20 or so years since transitional justice first emerged as a field of practice, its objectives and the contexts in which it is applied have expanded greatly. However, its dual role of acknowledging the commission of past violence and human rights violations and seeking to prevent their recurrence remains central. Recent scholarship has begun to explore the impact of transitional justice in practice and also to critique its purported narrow focus on civil and political rights. Recommendations have emerged that transitional justice should address a broader range of violations, such as violations of economic, social and cultural rights, on the basis that this would more appropriately acknowledge the full ambit of past violence and also provide a stronger basis for preventing a return to the violence of the past. Through the case study of torture, this article suggests that before expanding, stock should be taken of transitional justice’s current contribution to prevention. It suggests that while transitional justice has generally prioritized certain types of torture, it has not taken a preventative approach by failing to identify and analyse the full extent of the practice and the way in which it supports institutional structures. The article assesses the extent to which transitional justice can overcome these deficiencies and proposes a possible framework for doing so. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Canadian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) on Indian residential schools allows us to rethink the scope and bounds of transitional justice. Once we expand our notions of injustice and transition, the Canadian case is not so far apart from paradigmatic cases, which too often overlook structural violence. The article argues for settler decolonization as a path of reconciliation and in so doing directly engages structural violence and instantiates theoretical arguments to more securely anchor the field of transitional justice to positive peace. The article analyzes the decolonizing potential of the TRC in its ability to invoke ‘social accountability’ through its approach to truth and in its grassroots potential. Although the TRC has some capacity to advance decolonization, its progress is hampered by the conservative political environment, its weak public profile and to some degree its own emphasis on survivor healing, which provides a ready focal for settlers to individualize Indian residential schools violence as something of the past. Yet, Indigenous healing is intrinsically connected to structural transformation and reconciliation depends upon remedying colonial violence in the present. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article considers the case of Timor-Leste, occupied by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999, to elucidate the conditions that bedevil transitional justice processes in the aftermath of massive and long-running political violence, when a perpetrator state enjoys impunity because its wartime strategies facilitated denial of its responsibility, political violence was organized through the militarization of local society and individuals operated between the state and the resistance. The continuing social memory and knowledge of such conflict coupled with its judicial invisibility have significant consequences for rebuilding everyday lives. International agencies and processes have not only failed to attend to these dynamics in Timor-Leste but also replicated and perpetuated them, making the restoration of trust on which social reconstruction depends even more difficult. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This is an interrogation into what an international(ized) court can hold. Expressivism teaches us that by trying those responsible for mass losses, criminal courts send moral messages on the value of the rule of law that strengthen community attachments. In this performance of ritualized grief and condemnation, the court must hold the victim: the dead victim who remains in images inside and outside the court; the surviving victims whose desire to bear witness stands in tension with the constraints of the legal process in victim participation; and the communities whose victimization is the court’s focus as they are engaged through outreach programs. In this article, I question whether expressivism is a viable rationale for international criminal law by examining victim appearance at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. I argue that expressivism relies on simplified representations of victimhood that do not adequately address victims. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Memorials remain a relatively under-investigated dimension of transitional justice. Seeking to address this gap, this empirical article focuses on the Croatian town of Vukovar to examine whether war memorials can aid postconflict reconciliation, defined as the restoration and repair of relationships and the rebuilding of trust. It argues that Vukovar’s numerous war memorials are obstructing reconciliation between the town’s Croats and Serbs in two main ways. First, they are encouraging selective memory through the erasure of Serb victims. Second, they are contributing to a problem of too much memory, which is preventing society from moving forward. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “How do memorials shape who we think we are? And how are our identities involved when we debate, create and interact with memorials? This article engages in a conversation with scholarship on intersectional identities and memorial practices in Berlin. Intersectionality scholarship, with its roots in US critical race feminism, has much to offer for thinking about the complexity of identities, yet it does not consider the role of memory, time and temporality. The scholarship on memory and memorials, in turn, does not sufficiently consider the complexity of identities of those who are memorialized and of those who visit memorials. The article asks how two different memorials for Nazi victims in Berlin allow for or facilitate the memory of complex identities, illustrates that memorial practices can be crucial in contemporary identity politics and social movements and calls for a more self-reflexive approach to the role of identities and complexity in memorial scholarship and practice. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “There has been considerable and protracted debate on whether a formal truth recovery process should be established in Northern Ireland. Some of the strongest opposition to the creation of such a body has been from unionist political elites and the security forces. Based on qualitative fieldwork, this article argues that the dynamics of denial and silence have been instrumental in shaping their concerns. It explores how questions of memory, identity and denial have created a ‘myth of blamelessness’ in unionist discourse that is at odds with the reasons for a truth process being established. It also examines how three interlocking manifestations of silence – ‘silence as passivity,’ ‘silence as loyalty’ and ‘silence as pragmatism’ – have furthered unionists’ opposition to dealing with the past. This article argues that making peace with the past requires an active deconstruction of these practices. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The field of transitional justice theory has, since its rapid expansion in the 1980s and 1990s, become inundated with interventions. The two books under review supply reliable compasses for navigating the vast, murky waters of this literature. What is more, they deliver powerful accountings of their own. Marked by elegant phrasing, supple insight and rigorous research, Bronwyn Leebaw’s Judging State-Sponsored Violence is a timely and welcome contribution. The book is a triumph – beautifully rendered and rich with provocations that will likely quake the foundations of thinking on transitional justice. Yasco Horsman’s Theaters of Justice, expansive in its range and scope and populated with articulate and careful readings, is likewise vivifying for the field.

    The two authors hail from similar schools of thought. For both, reconciliation in the aftermath of historical violence ought not to resolve or foreclose the past. Surviving trauma does not mean mastering the past but rather, as Horsman puts it, confronting a force ‘in the face of which we are thrown out of joint’ (p. 140). On this reading, transitional justice measures are not neutral devices through which commonly accepted legal standards can be applied. Rather, they actively shape and reshape what constitutes justice and injustice in an ongoing way. They engage in a process of reimagining the very basis of political community.1

    Leebaw and Horsman both rely on close examinations of legal trials conducted in the aftermath of atrocity and are interested in illuminating what gets hidden by these institutional frameworks. Political and moral judgment stand at the center of both discussions of what engagement with responsibility, mediation and justice means for societies working through past abuses. At stake for the authors is nothing less than a radical revisioning of what reconciliation means. For Leebaw and Horsman, inhabiting an aftermath that refuses to … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The rapid growth of transitional justice, in both scholarship and practice, has generated an increasing interest in explanatory and evaluative studies of transitional justice dilemmas confronted by transition elites.1 In particular, postcommunist encounters with transition witnessed the emergence of various practices of lustration, criminal trials and truth commissions. Thus, it is not surprising that the region’s diverse historical and political experiences provide rich ground for the study of transition. The books reviewed here build upon a long tradition of scholarly engagement with postcommunist transitional justice to provide political science perspectives on dilemmas of transition that taken together provide important contributions to transitional justice scholarship through context-rich and lucid multicountry case studies.2

    To be sure, both Brian Grodsky’s and Roman David’s texts are ambitious in scope. Grodsky’s Costs of Justice provides cross-national case studies that attempt to address two underlying weaknesses in transitional justice scholarship identified by the author: a tendency to focus on single-country case studies and a narrow focus on transitional justice dilemmas that does not take into account the broad range of policy challenges facing transitional elites, from establishing new institutions of governance to economic restructuring. David’s Lustration and Transitional Justice, like Grodsky’s text, presents multicountry case studies. Unlike Grodsky, however, David seeks to explain the emergence and effects of lustration in particular and offers policy-relevant advice as to how to deal with the legacy of inherited personnel.3

    Explanatory studies of transitional justice are at the core of political science inquiry into the field.4 They were initially embedded within a wide body of literature that sought to understand the political transitions in Latin America, East Asia and Central and Eastern Europe during the latter half of the 20th century. While attempts to understand, or evaluate, the social and political effects of transitional justice … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Turkey has experienced several different internal migration periods since its foundation in 1923. However, the internal displacement of the 1990s brought to the forefront the divergent discussions on whether this wave of internal displacement can be approached from a traditional developmentalist approach or whether critical issues pertaining to the Kurdish Question also need to be addressed, requiring a broader understanding of what peace means to IDPs and different actors. This article studies these two approaches which are taken by the Turkish state, local non-governmental organizations and international organizations. It discusses Turkey’s internal displacement issue and Kurdish Question and analyses these actors’ different perspectives on the policies related to the areas affected by the conflict, and to addressing internal displacement. It argues that internal displacement is an important issue to be addressed in peace processes. Without acknowledging different perspectives presented by different actors neither peace nor development is possible.
    Key words

    internal displacement
    Kurdish Question in Turkey
    Non-Governmental Organizations
    International Organizations
    peace process

    “IDPs are the proverbial ‘canaries in the coal mine’—their conditions and prospects are key barometers of whether peace will take root and development will take off, or whether conflicts will re-emerge and another spiral of violence will ensue (O’Neill 2009: 152).”

    © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

    This Article

    Journal of Refugee Studies (2012) doi: 10.1093/jrs/fer057 First published online: February 17, 2012

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    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • In Part I of this article, US President, Barack Obama, is reported as saying to his inner circle that their objective in Afghanistan is not to build a Jeffersonian democracy. Part II is about the idea that a more Jeffersonian architecture of rural republicanism in tune with Afghan traditions is a remedy to limits of the Hobbesian analysis of cases like Afghanistan in Part I. Anomic spaces where policing and justice do not work are vacuums that can attract tyrannical forms of law and order, such as the rule of the Taliban. Peace with justice cannot prevail in the aftermath of such an occupation without a reliance on both local community justice and state justice that are mutually constitutive. Supporting checks on abuse of power through balancing local and national institutions that deliver justice is a more sustainable peace-building project than regime change and top-down re-engineering of successor regimes.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article views Afghanistan less as a war, and more as a contest of criminalized justice systems. The Taliban came to power because they were able to restore order to spaces terrorized by armed gangs and Mujahideen factions. After the Taliban’s ‘defeat’ in 2001, their resurgence was invited by the failure of state justice and security institutions. The Taliban returned with a parallel court system that most Afghans viewed as more effective and fair than the state system. Polls suggest judges were perceived as among the most corrupt elements of a corrupt state. Police were widely perceived as thieves of ordinary people’s property, not protectors of it. While the US diagnosis of anomie in Afghanistan up to 2009 was aptly Hobbesian, its remedy of supporting President Hamid Karzai as a Leviathan was hardly apt. The West failed to ask in 2001 ‘What is working around here to provide people security?’. One answer to that question was jirga/shura. A more Jeffersonian rural republicanism that learnt from local traditions of dispute resolution defines a path not taken.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Although numbers of individuals seeking asylum in the UK have significantly reduced since the late 1990s ( House of Commons, 2007), it remains the case that people continue to flee conflicts, war and other ‘push’ factors, to seek sanctuary in a safer land. At the same time, border controls, particularly in Western countries such as the UK, have become ever more tightly controlled and policed with the apparent aim of excluding ‘outsiders’ ( Bohmer and Shuman, 2008; Friedman and Klein, 2008). The profession of social work has a long association of service to people in need. However, the prevailing academic discourse thus far, particularly in the UK context, largely depicts social workers, usually in the statutory sector, as collaborating with immigration controls that are accused of being inherently racist and exclusionary ( Humphries, 2004a, 2004b, 2004c; Hayes, 2005, 2009). In this paper, we suggest that the reality of social work with adult asylum seekers is much more complex, challenging and potentially transformative than a discourse of social workers as colluders with restrictive immigration controls implies. The authors, both qualified social workers, draw on their experiences of work with adult asylum seekers within a voluntary agency in north-west England. We argue that the approach of the work undertaken provides a useful template for social workers for hospitality-based practice in work with adult asylum seekers. This we feel to be consonant with the values that the profession purports to hold towards the people it serves. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four epistemological markers (addressing theory, paradigm, reflexivity, and power dynamics), and (5) the implications presented. Results underscore the exploratory nature of qualitative social work research; authors were most likely to use the word “explore” and least likely to use the term “understand” to describe their aims. The most common rationale given for the research was a gap in the literature (77%), followed by the severity or extent of the problem (50%). Authors emphasized the perspectives of respondents, who were most likely to be social work practitioners (39%) or clients (28%). Among the epistemological markers examined, authors were most likely to mention use of theory (55%) and a research paradigm (51%) and least likely to apply reflexivity (16%) or acknowledge power dynamics inherent in research (7%). Finally, authors were most likely to identify practice implications in their work (90%), followed by research (60%), theory (38%), and policy (29%). “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Turkey has experienced several different internal migration periods since its foundation in 1923. However, the internal displacement of the 1990s brought to the forefront the divergent discussions on whether this wave of internal displacement can be approached from a traditional developmentalist approach or whether critical issues pertaining to the Kurdish Question also need to be addressed, requiring a broader understanding of what peace means to IDPs and different actors. This article studies these two approaches which are taken by the Turkish state, local non-governmental organizations and international organizations. It discusses Turkey’s internal displacement issue and Kurdish Question and analyses these actors’ different perspectives on the policies related to the areas affected by the conflict, and to addressing internal displacement. It argues that internal displacement is an important issue to be addressed in peace processes. Without acknowledging different perspectives presented by different actors neither peace nor development is possible. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “South Sudan’s separation from the Sudan on 9 July 2011 abundantly illustrated the relevance of Randall Fegley’s Beyond Khartoum. Focusing on subnational politics and the consequences of its continuous mismanagement, this monograph sets out to outline political developments in the former Sudan. The first four chapters appear to be based on Fegley’s PhD research. With a case study of the Northern Region as its centrepiece, this part of the book focuses on government reforms in the period 1976–85. Chapters 5 and 7 outline changes in the Sudan’s government structures during the second civil war (1983–2005) and the peace process in South Sudan (2002–10). Political changes within the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army also receive attention. A case study of NGO operations in the southern county of Kajo-Keji is the focus of Chapter 6. Short presentations of subnational politics in other … “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “With the approval on 27 October 2011 of Law 18.831, the Uruguayan parliament voted to overturn the 1986 Expiry Law, a law long criticized by human rights advocates because it prevented the criminal prosecution of human rights abuses committed during the country’s military dictatorship (1973–1985). By overturning what many considered the lynchpin of institutionalized impunity in Uruguay, the new law restores the state’s capacity to prosecute human rights violations. Although a number of factors contributed to this surprising outcome, including a more permissible opportunity structure (the successive election of two left-wing governments) and the willingness of some judicial operators to challenge the Expiry Law, this article argues that the key explanatory variable to understanding these recent developments is the persistent demands of civil society groups over time. Civil society groups developed innovative strategies and incorporated new groups that gave renewed strength to the resurgent struggle against impunity in Uruguay. The article concludes with reflections on the significance of Uruguay’s renewed accountability efforts for transitional justice debates. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “At the outset, this article describes in detail how the European Union has replaced the nation-state concept of equality with a transnational idea of equality for all European citizens. It then investigates the extent to which German respondents support the idea of non-discrimination between German nationals and other Europeans. The existing literature argues that the process of opening up the borders of the nation-states will challenge the traditional symbolic code of equality held by citizens, and impact negatively on the existing distribution of resources. In particular, those people who lack economic resources and hold more traditional or right wing political orientations are likely to oppose the notion of Europe-wide equality. However, the empirical results show that the majority of the German population supports the idea that citizens from other European countries should enjoy the same rights as nationals. Most of this paper’s hypotheses are either falsified or correlations are rather weak, and these findings bring us to the conclusion that, at least as far as the German population is concerned, there is no evidence for a strong socio-structural or value-orientated cleavage with regard to equal rights for all Europeans. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “By utilizing the natural experiment of migration, this article attempts to answer whether generalized trust in other people is the result of cultural heritage or institutional quality. Looking at immigrants having migrated from a broad range of countries of origin to destination countries in Western Europe, I examine how their generalized trust is affected by the culture of their country of origin (in terms of the level of trust of this country) as well as institutional quality in the country they have migrated to (in terms of freedom from corruption). The results show that controlling for confounding variables, both factors have a highly significant impact on trust and hence that generalized trust appears to have both cultural and institutional foundations. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Unlike in the case of refugees, there is neither an international convention nor a dedicated UN agency in place to protect internally displaced persons. This discrepancy has, however, not stopped the law on internal displacement from emerging, filling the normative void around internal displacement. The UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement of 1998, a soft law instrument on the protection of the rights of internally displaced persons, is a success story, having faced disapproval in the past but now being an internationally recognized standard. Most importantly, the principles have become the point of reference for states developing national laws and policies addressing internal displacement. These national developments across the globe are an expression of the recognized and assumed responsibility of national authorities for the displaced and, although such instruments show shortcomings and weaknesses, their greater good for the better protection of internally displaced persons is undeniable. While national instruments on the protection of internally displaced persons are a still emerging tool of protection, they are also the future of the UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article takes Italy’s widely-debated 2009 push-backs to Libya campaign as a point of reference to address whether bilateral agreements for technical and police cooperation provide the legal foundation for the forced return of intercepted refugees to countries of embarkation. Through a detailed analysis of both the facts and the texts of the published and unpublished bilateral accords, it concludes that, although push-backs do not have a clear legal basis, the agreements between Italy and Libya constitute a fundamental component of the multifaceted legal and political framework underpinning Italy’s practice of interdiction and return.

    Moreover, by entrusting a non-EU third country with the authority and legal competence for the maritime operations, bilateral agreements for migration control may distance the responsibility (for international wrongful acts) of the outsourcing state. Migrants and refugees are autonomously intercepted by the third country in international waters, or in its coastal waters, before their arrival at the EU’s gateways. By venturing into the labyrinth of state responsibility in general international law, this article considers Italy’s possible liability for ‘aiding and assisting’ Libya, in a variety of ways, in the unlawful containment of irregular migration by sea and the resulting refoulement of intercepted refugees ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article addresses a relatively new area of interest for refugee scholars: the effect on refugee law and policy of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The article explains the paradigm shifts that this Convention represents for persons with disabilities who find themselves displaced by war or persecution. It focuses on the two broad areas of most concern to refugee advocates and adjudicators working with persons with disabilities seeking protection as refugees: status determination processes and the interpretation of the definition of refugee. It considers the threshold legal question of whether the obligations enshrined in the Disabilities Convention are owed in respect of refugees – and thus whether they are relevant to refugee status determinations. The issues surrounding the determination of refugee status at a procedural level are examined, outlining the implications that the Disabilities Convention has for decision makers charged with adjudicating asylum claims. Finally, the article looks at the Refugee Convention to consider how disability can affect a person’s ability to qualify for protection under that instrument. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The European Union is currently in the process of revising the central directives that make up European Union refugee law, a project that will touch on almost every aspect of seeking asylum in Europe. This article will focus on the implementation of one doctrine, the internal protection or internal flight alternative, under the recently recast Qualification Directive. The article will first examine the application of the internal protection alternative, based on the text of the 1951 Convention, and UNHCR and academic commentary. Following this examination, the article will critique the recast Qualification Directive, concluding that, by effectively providing two alternative standards for IPA, it is unlikely to result in greater harmonization in Europe, and that both standards are problematic from the perspective of international law. Despite these shortcomings, recent European Court of Justice jurisprudence has clarified and improved previous interpretations of EU asylum law. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In recent years an increasing number of North Korean escapees have attempted to claim asylum outside of South Korea. One of the principal legal questions that tribunals face when addressing these claims is whether these asylum seekers should be considered as dual North/South Korean nationals, and, if so, whether that would disqualify them from refugee status due to article 1(A)(2) of the 1951 Refugee Convention. This states that an asylum seeker who is a dual national must fear persecution in both of his or her countries of nationality in order to be considered a refugee. This dilemma exists because under South Korean law, North Korean escapees are usually considered to be South Korean nationals, as the South Korean Constitution defines the country’s territory as encompassing the entire Korean peninsula. However, South Korean nationality is often viewed as merely theoretical, as it arguably does not automatically provide a right to actually enter or reside in South Korea. This article examines recent court cases from Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom dealing with the issue of North Korean asylum seekers’ possible dual nationality. In each country, tribunals have employed different analytical frameworks to come to different conclusions. This article argues that these recent cases represent largely unsatisfying attempts to deal with a challenging issue, and that it would make more sense for tribunals to analyze the potential dual nationality of North Korean asylum seekers using the principle of ‘effective nationality’, which has often been endorsed by commentators but less commonly used by tribunals in recent years. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The case HJ (Iran) and HT (Cameroon) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] UKSC 31 was celebrated as a ‘fundamental shift in asylum law’. In this decision, the UK Supreme Court rejects the ‘reasonably tolerable test’ that had been applied in the case of the gay men HJ, a 40-year-old Iranian, and HT, a 36-year-old citizen of Cameroon. On the basis that the claimants could be reasonably expected to tolerate being discreet about their sexual identity in order to avoid persecution, their applications had been unsuccessful. This ‘reasonably tolerable test’, which was fairly well established in case law, was much contested and its rejection was overdue. Yet in their decision, the Justices not only reject this old test, they go a step further and formulate a new approach to be followed by tribunals in asylum claims on grounds of sexual orientation.

    This article argues that this new approach fails to discard ‘discretion’ as a concept in asylum cases as a whole, contrary to the submissions of the intervening parties in the case, namely, UNHCR and the Equality and Human Rights Commission. The new test continues to be constructed on ‘discretion logic’ – which is not tenable for a series of reasons. First, the test creates two distinguishable categories, openly demonstrated sexuality and concealed sexuality. Secondly, it assumes that this distinction and the underlying choice are relevant for assessing whether the applicant is at risk of persecution. Finally, the case relied heavily on the subjective element of assessing the ‘fear’ of persecution, which leads to a stricter test than necessary. The assessment of the existence of a well-founded fear of persecution in LGBT cases should instead be made without reference to whether or not the applicants would conceal their sexual orientation. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This opinion addresses the question of whether international humanitarian law (IHL) prohibits the forced displacement of civilians during armed conflict. It argues that the relevant rules of IHL do not take as their starting point a general prohibition of displacement. Rather, the author contends that the laws of war depart from an understanding of this phenomenon as a sad and often inevitable fact of war. As a result, only certain forms of forced displacement are directly regulated by this body of rules. The opinion is written in a concise format with the non-specialist humanitarian practitioner in mind. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Hearing Date: 10th – 17th October 2012

    Date of Judgment: 12th November 2012

    SPECIAL IMMIGRATION APPEALS COMMISSION

    Before:

    The Honourable Mr Justice Mitting (Chairman)

    Upper Tribunal Judge Peter Lane

    Dame Denise Holt

    MOHAMMED OTHMAN (ABU QATADA)

    Appellant

    and

    SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE HOME DEPARTMENT

    Respondent

    For the Appellant: Mr E Fitzgerald, QC & Mr D Friedman

    Instructed by: Birnberg Peirce & Partners Solicitors

    For the Respondent: Mr R Tam, QC, Mr T Eicke, QC & Ms J Wells

    Instructed by: The Treasury Solicitor

    Special Advocates: Mr A McCullough, QC, Mr M Chamberlain

    Instructed by: The Special Advocates’ Support Office”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Recalling all previous resolutions on internally displaced persons adopted by the General Assembly, the Commission on Human Rights and the Human Rights Council, including Assembly resolution 66/165 of 19 December 2011 and Council resolution 14/6 of 17 June 2010,

    Recalling also General Assembly resolution 46/182 of 19 December 1991 on the strengthening of the coordination of humanitarian emergency assistance of the United Nations, and the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement annexed thereto,

    Recalling further General Assembly resolution 64/290 of 9 July 2010 and Human Rights Council resolution 15/4 of 29 September 2010, in which the Assembly and the Council emphasized the right to education of internally displaced persons and in emergency situations, such as armed conflicts or natural disasters,

    Deeply disturbed by the alarmingly high numbers of internally displaced persons throughout the world, for reasons including armed conflict, violations of human rights and natural or human-made disasters, who receive inadequate protection and assistance, and conscious of the serious challenges that this is creating for the international community,

    Emphasizing that States have the primary responsibility to provide protection and assistance to internally displaced persons within their jurisdiction, as well as to address the root causes of the displacement problem in appropriate cooperation with the international community,

    Recognizing that internally displaced persons are to enjoy, in full equality, the same rights and freedoms under international and domestic law as do other persons in their country,

    Reaffirming that all persons, including those internally displaced, have the right to freedom of movement and residence and should be protected against being arbitrarily displaced,

    Noting the international community’s growing awareness of the issue of internally displaced persons worldwide and the urgency of addressing the root causes of their displacement and finding durable solutions, including voluntary return in safety and with … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “It is difficult to categorize exactly this lively, accessible, topical and obviously well-informed discussion of the current state of play regarding the protection of human rights in the European context. The book comprises a fairly substantial personal/professional reflection (described in the sub-title as ‘viewpoints’) by Thomas Hammarberg, based largely on his experience since 2006 as the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, and as such presents informative and insightful bite-sized discussions of a range of contemporary issues within the context of the European (and more exactly Council of Europe) protection regime.

    The text is largely based on reports and recommendations written following visits to Council of Europe member states and meetings there with victims of human rights violations and their families, politicians, officials, lawyers, judges, religious leaders, journalists, civil society representatives and inmates of prisons and other institutions. In terms of presentation, a major virtue of the book is its readability and immediate clarity, so that it can be read equally well by more expert researchers and teachers seeking reference material, students at a number of different levels and more general readers looking to be better informed. In this way, Hammarberg’s discussion will complement and add to the systematic technicality of a textbook or the focussed and more penetrating analysis of … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “‘Where now? Who now? When now?’1

    The very phrase ‘human rights’ became for all concerned – victims, perpetrators, and onlookers alike – the evidence of hopeless idealism or fumbling feeble-minded hypocrisy.2

    Hannah Arendt learned from experience just how hollow ‘humanity’ could sound. She experienced ‘statelessness’ and witnessed the consequences everywhere in her world, just as she knew how cruel and merciless organized political communities could become. When reliance rested on the very thing said to be foundational, people always seemed most vulnerable. She was persuaded that:

    … human dignity needs a new guarantee which can be found only in a new political principle, in a new law on earth, whose validity this time must comprehend the whole of humanity while its power must remain strictly limited, rooted in and controlled by newly defined territorial entities.3

    For Arendt, and many of those within the republican tradition, the ‘new guarantee’ required anchorage in membership and belonging attached to organized communities committed to making a reality of idealized principles. Nationality and citizenship, in their substantive senses, thus assumed fundamental significance as a way of embracing humanity properly. Arendt’s thinking explicitly guides and shapes the critique advanced in Alison Kesby’s impressive book. In particular, Arendt’s notion of the ‘right to have rights’ is subjected to extended consideration, in a work that makes a necessary and substantial contribution to legal scholarship.

    The ‘right to have rights’ has attracted much attention. The jarring nature of the phrase still stands; people think they have them ‘as of right’. Arendt concluded that what really mattered was grounded political community for the purpose of rendering ‘rights’ meaningful – in the general project of building better and secure lives. Wherever she looked ‘humanity’ ended up as a flimsy and inadequate basis for ensuring guarantees and protection.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Exclusion from refugee status pursuant to Article 1F of the CSR51 becomes relevant in only a very small share of cases concerning refugee status; the author estimates that share to be less than half of one per cent of all cases in the countries examined in his study (p 369). Yet, exclusion represents a very important aspect of international refugee law: it plays a vital role in preserving the integrity of the asylum system by denying the benefits accorded by the CSR51 to those who have committed horrendous crimes, while at the same ensuring that fugitives do not escape legitimate prosecution. Exclusion cases often have a high profile and severe concern, if not outrage, is voiced when it turns out that a person who should have been excluded from refugee status managed to enjoy asylum until his or her criminal activity was discovered. What is more, exclusion from refugee status also marks one of the most difficult fields of law for refugee adjudicators due to its inherent connection to international and domestic criminal law.

    Rikhof’s book, a most comprehensive and thorough contribution to the subject, will hence be of great benefit to all those dealing with asylum seekers with a criminal background. After unrolling the historical background of exclusion from refugee status, the author embarks upon a meticulous examination of the law and practice of exclusion from refugee status. With regard to Article 1F(a) of the CSR51, the author first sets out the crimes defined as war crimes, crimes against humanity and crimes against peace, … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This collaborative article examines how two academic institutions and one nongovernmental organization cooperated to map recent trial activity for past human rights violations, applying social science techniques to assist survivors’ and relatives’ groups as well as litigators in making informed strategic choices in their interactions with the formal justice system. The article discusses how methodologically rigorous data collection and data requests to public bodies can be used to advance a proaccountability agenda. The authors show how a range of civil society and state actors have changed justice system outcomes in Argentina, Chile and Peru and highlight some lessons learned about engaged, policy-relevant research. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In the 20 or so years since transitional justice first emerged as a field of practice, its objectives and the contexts in which it is applied have expanded greatly. However, its dual role of acknowledging the commission of past violence and human rights violations and seeking to prevent their recurrence remains central. Recent scholarship has begun to explore the impact of transitional justice in practice and also to critique its purported narrow focus on civil and political rights. Recommendations have emerged that transitional justice should address a broader range of violations, such as violations of economic, social and cultural rights, on the basis that this would more appropriately acknowledge the full ambit of past violence and also provide a stronger basis for preventing a return to the violence of the past. Through the case study of torture, this article suggests that before expanding, stock should be taken of transitional justice’s current contribution to prevention. It suggests that while transitional justice has generally prioritized certain types of torture, it has not taken a preventative approach by failing to identify and analyse the full extent of the practice and the way in which it supports institutional structures. The article assesses the extent to which transitional justice can overcome these deficiencies and proposes a possible framework for doing so. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • The Canadian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) on Indian residential schools allows us to rethink the scope and bounds of transitional justice. Once we expand our notions of injustice and transition, the Canadian case is not so far apart from paradigmatic cases, which too often overlook structural violence. The article argues for settler decolonization as a path of reconciliation and in so doing directly engages structural violence and instantiates theoretical arguments to more securely anchor the field of transitional justice to positive peace. The article analyzes the decolonizing potential of the TRC in its ability to invoke ‘social accountability’ through its approach to truth and in its grassroots potential. Although the TRC has some capacity to advance decolonization, its progress is hampered by the conservative political environment, its weak public profile and to some degree its own emphasis on survivor healing, which provides a ready focal for settlers to individualize Indian residential schools violence as something of the past. Yet, Indigenous healing is intrinsically connected to structural transformation and reconciliation depends upon remedying colonial violence in the present.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article considers the case of Timor-Leste, occupied by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999, to elucidate the conditions that bedevil transitional justice processes in the aftermath of massive and long-running political violence, when a perpetrator state enjoys impunity because its wartime strategies facilitated denial of its responsibility, political violence was organized through the militarization of local society and individuals operated between the state and the resistance. The continuing social memory and knowledge of such conflict coupled with its judicial invisibility have significant consequences for rebuilding everyday lives. International agencies and processes have not only failed to attend to these dynamics in Timor-Leste but also replicated and perpetuated them, making the restoration of trust on which social reconstruction depends even more difficult. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This is an interrogation into what an international(ized) court can hold. Expressivism teaches us that by trying those responsible for mass losses, criminal courts send moral messages on the value of the rule of law that strengthen community attachments. In this performance of ritualized grief and condemnation, the court must hold the victim: the dead victim who remains in images inside and outside the court; the surviving victims whose desire to bear witness stands in tension with the constraints of the legal process in victim participation; and the communities whose victimization is the court’s focus as they are engaged through outreach programs. In this article, I question whether expressivism is a viable rationale for international criminal law by examining victim appearance at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. I argue that expressivism relies on simplified representations of victimhood that do not adequately address victims. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Memorials remain a relatively under-investigated dimension of transitional justice. Seeking to address this gap, this empirical article focuses on the Croatian town of Vukovar to examine whether war memorials can aid postconflict reconciliation, defined as the restoration and repair of relationships and the rebuilding of trust. It argues that Vukovar’s numerous war memorials are obstructing reconciliation between the town’s Croats and Serbs in two main ways. First, they are encouraging selective memory through the erasure of Serb victims. Second, they are contributing to a problem of too much memory, which is preventing society from moving forward. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “How do memorials shape who we think we are? And how are our identities involved when we debate, create and interact with memorials? This article engages in a conversation with scholarship on intersectional identities and memorial practices in Berlin. Intersectionality scholarship, with its roots in US critical race feminism, has much to offer for thinking about the complexity of identities, yet it does not consider the role of memory, time and temporality. The scholarship on memory and memorials, in turn, does not sufficiently consider the complexity of identities of those who are memorialized and of those who visit memorials. The article asks how two different memorials for Nazi victims in Berlin allow for or facilitate the memory of complex identities, illustrates that memorial practices can be crucial in contemporary identity politics and social movements and calls for a more self-reflexive approach to the role of identities and complexity in memorial scholarship and practice. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “There has been considerable and protracted debate on whether a formal truth recovery process should be established in Northern Ireland. Some of the strongest opposition to the creation of such a body has been from unionist political elites and the security forces. Based on qualitative fieldwork, this article argues that the dynamics of denial and silence have been instrumental in shaping their concerns. It explores how questions of memory, identity and denial have created a ‘myth of blamelessness’ in unionist discourse that is at odds with the reasons for a truth process being established. It also examines how three interlocking manifestations of silence – ‘silence as passivity,’ ‘silence as loyalty’ and ‘silence as pragmatism’ – have furthered unionists’ opposition to dealing with the past. This article argues that making peace with the past requires an active deconstruction of these practices. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The rapid growth of transitional justice, in both scholarship and practice, has generated an increasing interest in explanatory and evaluative studies of transitional justice dilemmas confronted by transition elites.1 In particular, postcommunist encounters with transition witnessed the emergence of various practices of lustration, criminal trials and truth commissions. Thus, it is not surprising that the region’s diverse historical and political experiences provide rich ground for the study of transition. The books reviewed here build upon a long tradition of scholarly engagement with postcommunist transitional justice to provide political science perspectives on dilemmas of transition that taken together provide important contributions to transitional justice scholarship through context-rich and lucid multicountry case studies.2

    To be sure, both Brian Grodsky’s and Roman David’s texts are ambitious in scope. Grodsky’s Costs of Justice provides cross-national case studies that attempt to address two underlying weaknesses in transitional justice scholarship identified by the author: a tendency to focus on single-country case studies and a narrow focus on transitional justice dilemmas that does not take into account the broad range of policy challenges facing transitional elites, from establishing new institutions of governance to economic restructuring. David’s Lustration and Transitional Justice, like Grodsky’s text, presents multicountry case studies. Unlike Grodsky, however, David seeks to explain the emergence and effects of lustration in particular and offers policy-relevant advice as to how to deal with the legacy of inherited personnel.3″

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “At the outset, this article describes in detail how the European Union has replaced the nation-state concept of equality with a transnational idea of equality for all European citizens. It then investigates the extent to which German respondents support the idea of non-discrimination between German nationals and other Europeans. The existing literature argues that the process of opening up the borders of the nation-states will challenge the traditional symbolic code of equality held by citizens, and impact negatively on the existing distribution of resources. In particular, those people who lack economic resources and hold more traditional or right wing political orientations are likely to oppose the notion of Europe-wide equality. However, the empirical results show that the majority of the German population supports the idea that citizens from other European countries should enjoy the same rights as nationals. Most of this paper’s hypotheses are either falsified or correlations are rather weak, and these findings bring us to the conclusion that, at least as far as the German population is concerned, there is no evidence for a strong socio-structural or value-orientated cleavage with regard to equal rights for all Europeans. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “With the approval on 27 October 2011 of Law 18.831, the Uruguayan parliament voted to overturn the 1986 Expiry Law, a law long criticized by human rights advocates because it prevented the criminal prosecution of human rights abuses committed during the country’s military dictatorship (1973–1985). By overturning what many considered the lynchpin of institutionalized impunity in Uruguay, the new law restores the state’s capacity to prosecute human rights violations. Although a number of factors contributed to this surprising outcome, including a more permissible opportunity structure (the successive election of two left-wing governments) and the willingness of some judicial operators to challenge the Expiry Law, this article argues that the key explanatory variable to understanding these recent developments is the persistent demands of civil society groups over time. Civil society groups developed innovative strategies and incorporated new groups that gave renewed strength to the resurgent struggle against impunity in Uruguay. The article concludes with reflections on the significance of Uruguay’s renewed accountability efforts for transitional justice debates. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Large numbers of migrants daily decide to undertake an often risky and protracted journey to leave their country, escaping from violence and poverty, in an effort to reach their ultimate goal: building a better life. Although extensive evidence shows how pre- and post-flight experiences can significantly threaten migrants’ wellbeing, little research investigates the impact of the flight itself and the way migrants cope with these flight experiences while ‘on the way’. The study took place in the waiting rooms of the police station near the Belgian port of Zeebrugge, where intercepted migrants stay for some time. Because of the constraints inherent in the study setting, we relied on the messages that migrants themselves chose to leave—in their mother tongues—on the police station’s walls and furniture. A discourse analysis of 179 inscriptions made by intercepted migrants revealed how these migrant communities show great solidarity, agency and resilience in dealing with their feelings and experiences in a political and social context that is marginalizing, depersonalizing or criminalizing them. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Turkey has experienced several different internal migration periods since its foundation in 1923. However, the internal displacement of the 1990s brought to the forefront the divergent discussions on whether this wave of internal displacement can be approached from a traditional developmentalist approach or whether critical issues pertaining to the Kurdish Question also need to be addressed, requiring a broader understanding of what peace means to IDPs and different actors. This article studies these two approaches which are taken by the Turkish state, local non-governmental organizations and international organizations. It discusses Turkey’s internal displacement issue and Kurdish Question and analyses these actors’ different perspectives on the policies related to the areas affected by the conflict, and to addressing internal displacement. It argues that internal displacement is an important issue to be addressed in peace processes. Without acknowledging different perspectives presented by different actors neither peace nor development is possible. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Sexuality and Gender Politics in Mozambique is a fascinating and important book that spans three decades of ethnographic research in northern Mozambique. It is especially rich in empirical evidence of women’s perspectives on matrilineal society and the initiation rituals by which female-bodied persons become social women who hold considerable authority (and sexual autonomy). It also offers thoughtful reflections upon the contested meanings of feminist activism and scholarship in Africa, written in an easy and engaging style. Fourteen chapters are introduced by beautiful reproductions of local examples and, in many cases, pertinent details of the author’s personal research experience that contextualize the questions and analysis.

    The two stated goals of the book are to contribute to African feminist theory and to shed light on a much-neglected topic in African ethnography. Matriliny has tended to be interpreted as a somewhat puzzling but not especially significant form of patriarchy. Arnfred convincingly shows how appearances of men’s public authority are paralleled by female-controlled institutions and rituals through which real decisions are made in consultation with ancestral spirits. Those working towards women’s empowerment today could benefit from a better understanding of the ways that traditional society supports mature women’s self-confidence and autonomies. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “I Say to You is a timely book, a must-read as Kenya heads into a critical 2013 election. A rich, historically rooted account of the politics and politicking of Kenya’s ‘big men’ from Kalenjin-speaking communities, it offers a strong analytical narrative that helps explain the roots and contemporary manifestations of ethno-nationalist sentiments in the region. It also explores how the Kalenjin political class has experienced, harnessed, and debated these ethno-nationalist and related territorial agendas over time. This illiberal politics in Kenya’s breadbasket, along with other factors, could still push the country into civil war – as it nearly did in 2007–8 when Kenya experienced murder, rape, massacre, and mass displacement.

    Drawing on fieldwork, historical analysis, and a fairly extensive review of past scholarship, Lynch sets out to get to the roots of Rift Valley politics. She persuasively applies a widely accepted view about the complex and contingent nature of identity and the way politicians feel pressure from and draw on genuine sentiments of loss, exclusion, and fear in their mobilization strategies.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “This paper draws on postcolonial feminist theory, and sociology of work and migration in understanding the ways in which identity practices of a group of Malaysian migrant women working in the Australian educational context are reworked under conditions of mobility. Malaysia is one of the main Southeast Asian source countries of migration to Australia. These women have migrated from the highly stratified, ethnicized and politicized Malaysian context to Australia, which is seen to be a ‘western’, post-industrial, neo-liberal and capitalist society. In-depth interviews with this group of Malaysian migrant women show how they draw on multiple educational and cultural resources in the (re)making of their cultural and work identities. The analysis shows these women use essentialist definitions of cultural binaries to understand their transnational material realities. Yet at the same time, their identities are shaped by discourses of a dynamic and becoming self that extended beyond these stereotypes. The ways these women engage in on-going processes of interpretation, particularly in regard to re-negotiating social positions and boundaries, provides insights into the complexities of transnational identities in these globalizing times.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Across the globe, academic work is changing in order to meet the demands of the global knowledge economy. This process of change is characterised by the dominant discourses of competition, accountability and excellence, which produce an imaginary of a seemingly disembodied researcher. Departing from a Swedish higher education and research policy landscape, the aim of this article is to explore how, in comparison with their Swedish colleagues, women academics with a migrant background make representations of the good researcher in their work practices. This involves exploring how processes of racialisation – including processes of whiteness – are at work when different layers of migration are read through a white Swedish normality. The results indicate that whiteness is an attributed quality and contributes to constructing success, and that racialised researchers stand out as being particularly invisible representations within a Research Excellence framework. In this article I suggest that this visibility/invisibility paradox (Mirza 2009) can be interpreted not only as a reflection of the number of racialised researchers in Swedish higher education, but also as a general discourse of colour-blindness and Swedish white privilege.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The inability of Congress to provide a solution to address illegal immigration have left states to shoulder the economic and social costs associated with the nearly 11 million unwelcomed guests within their borders. This Paper examines the current legislative efforts in Arizona and eight other states intended to curb illegal immigration.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Unlike in the case of refugees, there is neither an international convention nor a dedicated UN agency in place to protect internally displaced persons. This discrepancy has, however, not stopped the law on internal displacement from emerging, filling the normative void around internal displacement. The UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement of 1998, a soft law instrument on the protection of the rights of internally displaced persons, is a success story, having faced disapproval in the past but now being an internationally recognized standard. Most importantly, the principles have become the point of reference for states developing national laws and policies addressing internal displacement. These national developments across the globe are an expression of the recognized and assumed responsibility of national authorities for the displaced and, although such instruments show shortcomings and weaknesses, their greater good for the better protection of internally displaced persons is undeniable. While national instruments on the protection of internally displaced persons are a still emerging tool of protection, they are also the future of the UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article takes Italy’s widely-debated 2009 push-backs to Libya campaign as a point of reference to address whether bilateral agreements for technical and police cooperation provide the legal foundation for the forced return of intercepted refugees to countries of embarkation. Through a detailed analysis of both the facts and the texts of the published and unpublished bilateral accords, it concludes that, although push-backs do not have a clear legal basis, the agreements between Italy and Libya constitute a fundamental component of the multifaceted legal and political framework underpinning Italy’s practice of interdiction and return.

    Moreover, by entrusting a non-EU third country with the authority and legal competence for the maritime operations, bilateral agreements for migration control may distance the responsibility (for international wrongful acts) of the outsourcing state. Migrants and refugees are autonomously intercepted by the third country in international waters, or in its coastal waters, before their arrival at the EU’s gateways. By venturing into the labyrinth of state responsibility in general international law, this article considers Italy’s possible liability for ‘aiding and assisting’ Libya, in a variety of ways, in the unlawful containment of irregular migration by sea and the resulting refoulement of intercepted refugees ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article addresses a relatively new area of interest for refugee scholars: the effect on refugee law and policy of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The article explains the paradigm shifts that this Convention represents for persons with disabilities who find themselves displaced by war or persecution. It focuses on the two broad areas of most concern to refugee advocates and adjudicators working with persons with disabilities seeking protection as refugees: status determination processes and the interpretation of the definition of refugee. It considers the threshold legal question of whether the obligations enshrined in the Disabilities Convention are owed in respect of refugees – and thus whether they are relevant to refugee status determinations. The issues surrounding the determination of refugee status at a procedural level are examined, outlining the implications that the Disabilities Convention has for decision makers charged with adjudicating asylum claims. Finally, the article looks at the Refugee Convention to consider how disability can affect a person’s ability to qualify for protection under that instrument. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The European Union is currently in the process of revising the central directives that make up European Union refugee law, a project that will touch on almost every aspect of seeking asylum in Europe. This article will focus on the implementation of one doctrine, the internal protection or internal flight alternative, under the recently recast Qualification Directive. The article will first examine the application of the internal protection alternative, based on the text of the 1951 Convention, and UNHCR and academic commentary. Following this examination, the article will critique the recast Qualification Directive, concluding that, by effectively providing two alternative standards for IPA, it is unlikely to result in greater harmonization in Europe, and that both standards are problematic from the perspective of international law. Despite these shortcomings, recent European Court of Justice jurisprudence has clarified and improved previous interpretations of EU asylum law. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In recent years an increasing number of North Korean escapees have attempted to claim asylum outside of South Korea. One of the principal legal questions that tribunals face when addressing these claims is whether these asylum seekers should be considered as dual North/South Korean nationals, and, if so, whether that would disqualify them from refugee status due to article 1(A)(2) of the 1951 Refugee Convention. This states that an asylum seeker who is a dual national must fear persecution in both of his or her countries of nationality in order to be considered a refugee. This dilemma exists because under South Korean law, North Korean escapees are usually considered to be South Korean nationals, as the South Korean Constitution defines the country’s territory as encompassing the entire Korean peninsula. However, South Korean nationality is often viewed as merely theoretical, as it arguably does not automatically provide a right to actually enter or reside in South Korea. This article examines recent court cases from Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom dealing with the issue of North Korean asylum seekers’ possible dual nationality. In each country, tribunals have employed different analytical frameworks to come to different conclusions. This article argues that these recent cases represent largely unsatisfying attempts to deal with a challenging issue, and that it would make more sense for tribunals to analyze the potential dual nationality of North Korean asylum seekers using the principle of ‘effective nationality’, which has often been endorsed by commentators but less commonly used by tribunals in recent years. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The case HJ (Iran) and HT (Cameroon) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] UKSC 31 was celebrated as a ‘fundamental shift in asylum law’. In this decision, the UK Supreme Court rejects the ‘reasonably tolerable test’ that had been applied in the case of the gay men HJ, a 40-year-old Iranian, and HT, a 36-year-old citizen of Cameroon. On the basis that the claimants could be reasonably expected to tolerate being discreet about their sexual identity in order to avoid persecution, their applications had been unsuccessful. This ‘reasonably tolerable test’, which was fairly well established in case law, was much contested and its rejection was overdue. Yet in their decision, the Justices not only reject this old test, they go a step further and formulate a new approach to be followed by tribunals in asylum claims on grounds of sexual orientation.

    This article argues that this new approach fails to discard ‘discretion’ as a concept in asylum cases as a whole, contrary to the submissions of the intervening parties in the case, namely, UNHCR and the Equality and Human Rights Commission. The new test continues to be constructed on ‘discretion logic’ – which is not tenable for a series of reasons. First, the test creates two distinguishable categories, openly demonstrated sexuality and concealed sexuality. Secondly, it assumes that this distinction and the underlying choice are relevant for assessing whether the applicant is at risk of persecution. Finally, the case relied heavily on the subjective element of assessing the ‘fear’ of persecution, which leads to a stricter test than necessary. The assessment of the existence of a well-founded fear of persecution in LGBT cases should instead be made without reference to whether or not the applicants would conceal their sexual orientation. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This opinion addresses the question of whether international humanitarian law (IHL) prohibits the forced displacement of civilians during armed conflict. It argues that the relevant rules of IHL do not take as their starting point a general prohibition of displacement. Rather, the author contends that the laws of war depart from an understanding of this phenomenon as a sad and often inevitable fact of war. As a result, only certain forms of forced displacement are directly regulated by this body of rules. The opinion is written in a concise format with the non-specialist humanitarian practitioner in mind. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In recent years, the Madrid Region (Comunidad de Madrid) has experienced a huge increase in immigrants accessing the labour market. In this paper, a dynamic input-output exercise is presented, yielding the direct and indirect effects of this migration inflow on the Madrid GDP. In addition, the induced demand effect is estimated, offering a complete estimate framework of the impact of migrant access on regional value added.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper examines theoretical propositions regarding the social mechanisms that produce hostility and discriminatory attitudes towards out-group populations. Specifically, we compare the effect of perceptions of socio-economic and national threats, social contact and prejudice on social distance expressed towards labour migrants. To do so, we examine exclusionary views held by majority and minority groups (Jews and Arabs) towards non-Jewish labour migrants in Israel. Data analysis is based on a survey of the adult Israeli population based on a stratified sample of 1,342 respondents, conducted in Israel in 2007. Altogether, our results show that Israelis (both Jews and Arabs) are resistant to accepting and integrating foreigners into Israeli society. Among Jews, this is because the incorporation of non-Jews challenges the definition of Israel as a Jewish state and poses a threat to the homogeneity of the nation. Among Arabs, this is probably due to threat and competition over resources. The meanings of the findings are discussed within the unique ethno-national context of Israeli society and in light of sociological theories on ethnic exclusionism.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Immigrants’ economic assimilation in host countries is determined by patterns of self-selection on both – observed attributes (mainly human capital) and unobserved attributes of the immigrants from their source countries. In the present study immigrants’ economic assimilation in the United States and Israel are compared. More specifically, the study compares the impact of immigrants’ unobserved characteristics on their earnings in both countries by applying a model for decomposing difference in differentials. It makes use of United States and Israeli decennial census data for comparing self-selection patterns on unobserved attributes of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) who arrived in the United States and Israel during the 1970s. The results indicate that FSU immigrants who chose the United States have significantly higher levels of unobserved earnings determinants than those who chose Israel. These results are discussed in light of migration theories.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Researchers have long posited that immigrant social structures play an important role in the settlement and adaptation of immigrants in most host countries, including Canada. Recent studies report that immigrant organizations can have divergent effects on the economic outcomes of the communities they serve. However the topic has yet to be addressed adequately for lack of systematic information on immigrant organizations. This article proposes to partially fill this gap by measuring the impact of several new variables drawn from infrequently used, but readily available administrative data collected by the Canadian government on three census labour market variables: income, unemployment, and self-employment. This addresses a specific part of the labour market impact of immigrant social structures: the role of officially recognized charitable organizations serving specific ethno-immigrant communities in fostering their labour market integration. The results of descriptive analysis and regression models show that organizational density is positively associated with self-employment and negatively associated with income and unemployment.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this paper we study the factors altering the probability of migrants to acquire additional on-the-job skills while abroad, and the determinants of their earnings level, using a sample of 6120 returned migrants from Bosnia, Bulgaria, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Romania, and Tadjikistan. We use a two-stage procedure to estimate a system of two equations where on-the-job skills and earnings are determined simultaneously. The probability of acquiring skills on-the-job is found to be positively affected by the level of earnings. It is also higher for migrants who are employed in the same sector (pre- and during migration), and for migrants with lower initial financial status. Interestingly, the probability is lower for migrants with university education. The earnings level is positively affected by acquired on-the-job skills, the level of education, and the duration of migration. Women have lower earnings while those (males and females) who have learned the language of the destination country have higher earnings. The country variables are statistically significant in all cases but one, indicating that there are differences in the acquisition of skills and earnings reflecting unspecified differences among the countries of origin.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Our study drew on a data set of 513 Chinese immigrants that was collected in Toronto in 1998 and 1999. We looked at how prior experiences in the ethnic economy affect current job transitions. Our analysis went beyond previous studies by situating job transition in the context of the economic integration of immigrants, with consideration of possible competing job transition outcomes and previous recurrent job transitions. Descriptive information in the study showed evidence of both forms of job transition outcomes, that is, either shifting away from or staying in the ethnic economy. Based on the competing risks model of event history analysis, which simultaneously considers different job transition outcomes, the results confirm that prior experience in the ethnic economy increases the likelihood of job transition away from and also remaining in the ethnic economy. However, the results also clearly suggest that those who have a higher level of English language ability are more likely to shift away from the ethnic economy. Results from the repeated events model show that the recurrent job transition experience does change the effects related to job transitions within the ethnic economy, where a customary working environment is expected.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Most studies of temporary labour migration use economic models or examine the economic rationales of migrants to explain why people are moving. Although in migration research new approaches and perspectives have been introduced lately, temporary labour migration, especially in the global South, is still defined primarily as purely economic in nature. This article concentrates on the migrants and their rationalities for migrating, their networks as well as their perceptions and interpretations of the situation they are confronted with abroad to argue that concentrating solely on economic aspects means to lose sight of the tremendous role images and myths about migration in general and receiving countries in particular do play. Bangladeshi migrant workers in Malaysia, who have contributed to the remarkable economic success of the country during the last decades, are in the focus. The construction of the images and the role networks play within these processes will be analysed using data gathered from field research in both settings. Of special interest in this context is the construction of a Muslim brotherhood between the countries for an understanding of the migration flows. This article intends to broaden the current discussions on temporary labour migration by analysing not only the different motives and rationalities but relating them to the constructed images in the new spaces that temporary labour migration has constituted. This important link is missing so far in studies on this global phenomenon.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper explores the development of the labour mobility provisions within the multilateral GATT–WTO system in parallel with smaller regional and bilateral agreements. Because expanded labour mobility provisions have failed to generate a critical mass of support within the WTO, it is argued that developing countries seeking market access for lower-skilled workers are better off seeking alternative venues, even though this is a more costly strategy. At the same time, it is useful for states to continue labour mobility negotiations within the WTO system because the regime serves as an important forum for the negotiation of common administrative processes and definitions. Multilateral efforts to increase transparency and reduced administrative costs will not only help to improve effective market access for commitments already in place, but will increase confidence in the ability of the WTO system to contribute to the management of global labour mobility.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • [Full-Text]

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study examines the relationship between symbolic racism and native-born citizens’ policy opinions toward legal and undocumented immigration. With data from the 1994 General Social Survey and the NPR/Kaiser Foundation/Kennedy School of Government 2004 Immigration Survey, the results from logit regression models indicate that symbolic racism significantly predicts opposition to legal immigration, immigrant access to federal aid, and standard costs for college, citizenship for U.S.-born children, and work permits for undocumented immigrants. The effects are independent of group threat and other factors. Symbolic racism explained more variation in policy opinions toward government assistance, while group threat explained more variation toward immigration levels and citizenship status. Depending on the issue, native-born citizens likely derive their immigration policy opinions from moral ideologies in addition to intergroup competition.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In spring 2006, the United States witnessed immigrant marches throughout the nation. Although Latina/os are often depicted as the “face” of the immigrant marches, we know little about how racial and citizenship statuses shaped Latina/os’ perceptions of how the marches influenced public perceptions of undocumented immigrants. Using logistic regression on data from the 2006 National Survey of Latinos, we find that Latina/os identifying as white are less likely to be supportive of the immigrant marches than those who defied standard racial classifications, and instead identified as “Latina/o.” Moreover, Latina/os who are born in the United States are not as supportive of the immigrant marches in comparison with naturalized citizens and non-citizen Latina/os, accounting for demographic and human capital factors. This study suggests there is a “racial- and citizenship divide” among Latina/os that fragments perceptions on the immigrant mobilizations in the United States.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Many key development outcomes depend on women s ability to negotiate favorable intrahousehold allocations of resources. Yet it has been difficult to clearly identify which policies can increase women’s bargaining power and result in better outcomes. This paper reviews both the analytical frameworks and the empirical evidence on the importance of women’s bargaining power. It argues that there is sufficient evidence from rigorous studies to conclude that women’s bargaining power does affect outcomes. But in many specific instances, the quantitative evidence cannot rigorously identify causality. In these cases, a combination of quantitative and qualitative evidence may suggest policy levers. Taken together, there are sufficient data in place to support a greatly expanded focus on intrahousehold outcomes and bargaining power. Additional data at the individual level will allow for further and more detailed research. A growing literature supports the current conventional wisdom — namely, that the patterns of evidence suggest that women s education, incomes, and assets all are important aspects of women s bargaining power. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Does the existing evidence support policies that foster growth by reducing gender inequality? We argue that the evidence based on differences across countries is of limited use for policy design because it does not identify the causal link from inequality to growth. This, however does not imply that inequality-reducing policies are ineffective. In other words, the lack of evidence of a causal link is not in itself evidence that the causal link does not exist. Detailed micro studies that shed light on the mechanisms through which gender inequality affects development and growth are needed to inform the design of effective policies. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Although numbers of individuals seeking asylum in the UK have significantly reduced since the late 1990s ( House of Commons, 2007), it remains the case that people continue to flee conflicts, war and other ‘push’ factors, to seek sanctuary in a safer land. At the same time, border controls, particularly in Western countries such as the UK, have become ever more tightly controlled and policed with the apparent aim of excluding ‘outsiders’ ( Bohmer and Shuman, 2008; Friedman and Klein, 2008). The profession of social work has a long association of service to people in need. However, the prevailing academic discourse thus far, particularly in the UK context, largely depicts social workers, usually in the statutory sector, as collaborating with immigration controls that are accused of being inherently racist and exclusionary ( Humphries, 2004a, 2004b, 2004c; Hayes, 2005, 2009). In this paper, we suggest that the reality of social work with adult asylum seekers is much more complex, challenging and potentially transformative than a discourse of social workers as colluders with restrictive immigration controls implies. The authors, both qualified social workers, draw on their experiences of work with adult asylum seekers within a voluntary agency in north-west England. We argue that the approach of the work undertaken provides a useful template for social workers for hospitality-based practice in work with adult asylum seekers. This we feel to be consonant with the values that the profession purports to hold towards the people it serves. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The concept of integration is central for understanding the experiences of groups in marginalized positions in contemporary urban societies. Research on integration has primarily focused on international migrants, especially immigrants. Yet internal migrants like rural-urban migrant workers in China also face formidable institutional, economic, cultural, and social barriers in the host society. Informed by integration theory, and drawing on a questionnaire survey of 1,100 migrants conducted in Wuhan, this research effort examines how institutional barriers intersect with economic, social/cultural, and identity integration to explain the experiences of rural migrant workers in Chinese cities. The authors’ analysis, based on OLS and logit regressions, shows that the hukou system is a persistent barrier to migrant workers, despite improvement over time of their economic, social/cultural, and identity integration into urban society. Their findings also indicate that human capital is important for migrants’ economic and identity integration. Moreover, migrant workers who are socially and culturally adapted, speak the dialect of the host society, and have the financial resources to be self-employed (or buy an apartment in the city) are more likely to develop a sense of belonging in the city than other migrants.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The typical refugee has not only fled her native country and been evicted from her native social architecture, but also her sense of personhood has been displaced. She is faced with the daunting need to relocate self in a new cultural space. Re-establishing a life after the crisis often means resettlement in a new home country where smooth resettlement often hinges on the refugee’s ability to rebuild her social network in the host culture. The purpose of this study is to describe the social architecture of female refugee identity. A multiple case study of seventeen (N = 17) female refugees, representing 135 relational ties, is used to explore the composition of refugee social networks from 14 different countries in order to understand intercultural identity from a socio-structural perspective. The study demonstrates that refugees occupy a relationally thin identity space; commonly that means a high-density, low-heterogeneity, small network that leaves very little flexibility for new identity formation. The mean network heterogeneity across all cases was 0.27, indicating a low presence of host nationals in the networks. Working from their stories of liminality and the search for communitas, the study provides insight into the variability within social architectures for refugee identity and the particular acculturation narratives represented within a socio-structural space of redefinition. The study furthers our understanding of the interconnections between structural properties and communicative properties of identity formation through the depiction of female refugee-immigrant ethno-graphs.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “As a result of the growing presence of foreign immigrants settling in Italy, recent years have seen a significant increase in the number of mixed unions. However, little research has been carried out on the subject in this country, in part due to insufficient availability of suitable data. The aim of this study is to investigate the “market” of formal and informal mixed unions and to understand whether ethnic origin contributes a new element to the marriage/union market, and to verify the applicability of the “exchange theory” to the Italian context. We analyzed a particular segment of the marriage market – mixed parental couples included in the 2005 Sample Surveys of Births. The results showed a clear gender divide in the ethnic preferences of Italian spouses, a high rate of previous marital experience for both Italian and foreign people in mixed pairings, and a high frequency of unmarried and casual mixed relationships. Compared with endogamous couples, the foreign male or female spouse/partner in mixed couples is young and more educated relative to the Italian partner, but is less present in the work market and, when employed, often occupies a less well-qualified position. The “informal union market” works in very similar ways to the “marriage market”; the slight attenuation of relationships observed in the former being attributable to the lesser degree of security guaranteed by an unofficial union. Therefore, the mechanism of mate selection implies that foreigners’ appreciated qualities such as youth and high education may be offered in exchange for economic security, upward socio-economic mobility and access to the social network of the native partner: this is a variant of the exchange theory that was found to apply well to transnational marriages/unions in Italy.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Many anti-sex trafficking analyses use the term institution in a narrow meaning, comprising mainly formal-legal political structures (public laws and governmental organizations). However, by bringing in the new institutionalism approach, it is argued that an anti-sex trafficking institution should refer to a relatively enduring collection of rules – including also informal rules such as norms and routines – and organized practices that prescribe appropriate behaviour for any actor, public or private, combating sex trafficking. Based on a review of current research it is concluded that anti-sex trafficking institutions in the early 21st century tend to focus on behaviour that aims at detection, prevention, protection, crisis management, consequence management, and response. Finally, reflecting different strands of the new institutionalism approach, it is argued that the design of anti-sex trafficking institutions depends on path-dependencies, social constructions, international institutions, and domestic politics.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper explores the attitudes to work and experiences seeking employment of professionally qualified refugees enrolled on a course to enhance their employability skills in Leeds, United Kingdom (UK). We analyse the results within the framework of conceptual models describing the transition of refugees into employment (which are essentially linear) and those that categorize refugees according to their resettlement styles based on their social features and the host society’s response. Our data reinforce that these people are (initially at least) highly motivated to work, strongly identify with their profession and suffer considerable loss of self-esteem as they are unable to secure appropriate employment. Attitudes to securing employment were often related to their length of time in the UK. Recent arrivals were more positive about returning to their profession, even if this meant retraining, developing skills and time spent in alternative employment. Many of those here for longer were resigned to retraining, and the worst cases felt despair and feelings of betrayal. Our work showed that many had poor job search strategies and a lack of knowledge of the culture and norms of their chosen profession. We argue that the generic support of statutory employment services or the voluntary sector is inappropriate and that there is a role for professional bodies to be more active in their engagement with these groups of people. The results suggest that conceptual models need to be more nuanced to capture the experiences of these refugees: attitudes to work can cycle from optimism to disillusionment, so a linear model will not capture the full complexity, and we also found evidence of shifting among categories of resettlement styles.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The United States has been a top destination country for science and engineering (S&E) graduate education for foreign talent for many years. Despite the clear existence of foreign students in the USA, relatively little is known about the factors influencing the flow of foreign students. In this study, we examine foreign doctoral students in science and engineering, and test whether “ethnic affinity” plays a role in the ethnic composition of research laboratories (in what follows, “labs”) in US universities. In order to test this hypothesis, we conduct a web search, and select 164 science and engineering laboratory web pages for analysis. Among these 164 labs, 82 are directed by foreign-born faculty (Korean, Chinese, Indian or Turkish). These 82 are matched with labs that are in the same department of the same university, but directed by a native (US origin) faculty member. We find strong evidence that labs directed by foreign-born faculty are more likely to be populated by students from the same country of origin than are labs directed by native faculty. The percentage of students working in a lab from a nationality (foreign or native) is higher when they share nativity with the director. We seek to draw attention to the effect of affinity on the ethnic composition of research labs at the micro level that translates into the ethnic composition of the scientific community at the macro level. Further, these results emphasize the role of lab directors in future enrolments, creating scientific human capital, and contributing to the “brain circulation” phenomenon in the global context.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The impact of orthodox, free market reforms on emigration was contested by two schools of thought. Following the standard comparative advantage argument, the dominant school maintained that trade, capital, and labour market liberalization would serve as substitutes for emigration, especially as capital flows complemented abundant and ‘flexible’ labour endowments. Another school argued that liberalization would generate short-run frictions, causing a temporary emigration increase or ‘hump’ until it assumed greater efficiency and growth diminished migrant flows. Using Mexico and Ecuador as case studies, it is argued that both schools were incorrect. Instead, the productive modes and stabilization policies that accompanied market reforms assured labour market failures and persistent emigration from both countries.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “A salutogenic approach explored themes of strength and well-being in life stories of Burmese refugees (N = 18) in Australia. Previous refugee studies have tended to focus on negative responses to traumatic events (e.g. posttraumatic stress disorder, depression). To widen the scope of refugee related research the focus of the current study was informed by a salutogenic perspective, exploring sources of strength that may facilitate well-being. Semi-structured narrative interviews explored: the participant’s life before fleeing Burma, the journey of exile, and post-migration in Australia. Eight women and 10 men (Mage = 39 years) were interviewed and transcriptions analysis of narratives was conducted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with major themes being explicated. Super-ordinate themes pertaining to strength during times of hardship were identified and explicated as: support from interpersonal relationships, the pivotal role of values, a sense of future and agency, and reliance on spiritual or religious beliefs. Results indicate the existence of sources of strength that may contribute to human responses in times of hardship. Recognition and reflection of strengths may be incorporated into therapeutic and resettlement approaches for people from refugee backgrounds.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “We present findings from an anthropological field study on the role of language and language policy in migration from Poland to Norway, and the larger implications for emerging language and immigration policy in Europe. Initial fieldwork in Norway found that Polish workers without knowledge of the Norwegian language struggled to secure employment in the formal economy. The 2008 financial crisis intensified competition in the labour market and underscored fluency in Norwegian as a means of discriminating among workers. Comparative case studies of language schools revealed that these organizations are active participants in channeling Polish migrants’ movements into a segmented labour market, often in ways that involve cooperation between private companies and the State. We frame the Norwegian case within the larger context of Europe and the trend there toward favoring integration over multiculturalism. The emergence of restrictive language policies in Europe may be interpreted as a legally and culturally acceptable means for discouraging access to rights associated with permanent residency or citizenship by work migrants from CEE countries, while at the same time permitting them access to the labour market for temporary work. The long-term consequences of such policies for European society are uncertain.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article juxtaposes theoretical notions concerning the relationship between migrant remittances and socio-economic inequality with an anthropological case study of remittances in Cape Verde. Contemporary theorizing involves, firstly, the idea that remittances do not benefit the poorest; secondly, the conclusion that the impact of remittances changes over time; thirdly, the notion that family structure influences the distribution of remittances; and fourthly the proposition that remittances have a stronger impact on social stratification when linked to the return of a migrant. The primary aim of the article is to use these theoretical notions as entry-points for analysing how remittances interplay with patterns of inequality in Cape Verde. A second aim is to examine the explanatory power of the theories through applying them to this specific case.

    The article demonstrates that remittances in some cases benefit the poorest in Cape Verde and that this has to do with the long history of migration, which means that nearly everyone, irrespective of class, has a close relative abroad. It also shows that Cape Verdeans generally receive quite small amounts of money, which implies that they are seldom able to improve their economic situation in a more substantial way.

    In conclusion, the article contends that in order to fully appreciate the complex relationship between remittances and socio-economic inequality it is necessary to take into account the importance of other sources of income. Moreover, it argues that the contemporary restrictive immigration regimes in receiving countries have a fundamental impact on the socio-economic distribution of remittances. In studies of the relationship between remittances and inequality, this is an aspect that has been left out. Instead, theorizing tends to focus on factors that are internal to the countries of origin, and on the migrants’ links to these countries.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this article, we analyse the process of migration by applying a social network methodology. Using the personal network approach, we focus on a case study of the Brazil-US migration system to analyse the formation of the so-called “industry of illegal migration”. We suggest that in migration systems, brokerage evolves not only because of historical and cultural changes, but also because the changes emerge within a structured environment in which brokerage can thrive, and this, in turn, causes the social networks to support and produce specialized actors (individuals and organizations) embedded in the “right positions” of the social structure in the migration process. In this particular case study, we suggest that brokerage seems to take place through gender-oriented networks and the personal experience and structural power of returned migrants. These returned migrants usually have more varied social contacts and types of relationships from which they can obtain richer information about the migration system.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study examines Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs in Greece in order to identify patterns of ethnic entrepreneurship and socio-economic challenges faced by ethnic entrepreneurs. The research aims to enhance understanding of the characteristics and business profiles of Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs in Greece’s capital, Athens, and make recommendations for the development of a follow-up three-year longitudinal study of Pakistani immigrant businesses in Athens. A survey administered to 13 Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs recorded a wide range of data from which frequency distributions were processed as well as cross-tabulations and Chi-square tests, to reveal strong associations. Findings of note reveal that Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs set up enterprises with their own capital rather than turning to the private financial sector, are mostly well-educated despite earlier research noting the opposite, Greece is the terminal migration destination of choice for Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs, their market-share of work permits is proportionately larger than their residence permit share, they differ from other ethnic groups by substantial preference for operation of call centers, and they are very much bound to their ethnic enclaves. This body of research offers a unique contribution to an area which has until now been largely ignored.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Historically migrants have been constructed as units of labour and their social reproductive needs have received scant attention in policy and in academic literature. The growth in ‘feminist-inflected’ migration research in recent decades, has provoked a body of work on transnational care-giving that poses a challenge to such a construction, at least as it relates to female migrants in general and mothers in particular. Researchers, however, have demonstrated less interest in how migrant men give meaning to and perform their fathering roles. Such neglect is increasingly problematic in the context of rising social, political and academic interest in the significance of fathering in European (and other) societies. With the purpose of making a preliminary contribution to knowledge on migrant men’s fathering narratives, practices and projects, this article draws on findings from interviews conducted with recent migrants from Poland to the UK. By focusing on migrant fatherhood, we add to the understanding of transnational care-giving by illuminating the many parallels between migrant mothering and fathering. Our findings are consistent with much of the literature on transnational mothering, highlighting tensions between breadwinning and parenting and the various strategies fathers deploy to reconcile these tensions. Nevertheless, we find that migrant men’s fathering narratives, practices, and projects, while challenging the construction of male migrants as independent and non-relational, remain embedded within the dominant framework of the gendered division of labour. More uniquely, the article also demonstrates the importance of situated transnational analyses, in this case the institutional arrangements between the UK and European Union new Member States, which gave the Polish migrants privileged labour market access and social rights within the UK’s highly differentiated migration regime. This access allowed mobility, settlement and or family reunion according to the migrant’s specific circumstances and preferences with respect to the labour market and parenting.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Does food security policy effectively translate into more food for people? This article draws on a case study of a child undernutrition rehabilitation centre in a food-insecure district in western Africa, and shows that policy intentions are often not realized and policy recommendations not put into practice for reasons beyond local control. A major barrier to successful policy implementation is the ambiguity of responsibility and the expectation that national governments and local communities can single-handedly assure food security to their citizens. In the case of poor and food-insecure nations, this expectation is impractical and unethical because global power inequalities in the current economic world system mean that local and state power to influence international food supply production and distribution is limited. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “This article is based on the hypothesis that the relationship between politics and borders is being reshaped as a consequence of the movement of people between States. This process of redefining the concept of “border”, present in both the new approaches to managing migration and the public perception of immigration, is closely linked with the image of “border” projected by politics. For this reason, the ability to manage borders can create or modify a particular image of migration. Against this backdrop, this article seeks to explore the link between the concept of the “border” and policies aimed at managing human mobility from the perspective of political theory. Assuming that there is still no Political Theory of Borders in the strict sense, in this article I will argue that in order to establish its foundations, border must be considered as a concept and as an approach (section 3), as well as a political category (sections 4 and 5). Finally, I will review some arguments regarding human mobility and border control (section 6).”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Mobility and migration patterns of groups and individuals have long been a topic of interest to archaeologists, used for broad explanatory models of cultural change as well as illustrations of historical particularism. The 14th century AD was a tumultuous period of history in Britain, with severely erratic weather patterns, the Great Famine of 1315-1322, the Scottish Wars of Independence, and the Hundred Years’ War providing additional migration pressures to the ordinary economic issues drawing individuals to their capital under more stable conditions. East Smithfield Black Death Cemetery (Royal Mint) had a documented use period of only 2 years (AD 1348-1350), providing a precise historical context (∼50 years) for data. Adults (n = 30) from the East Smithfield site were sampled for strontium and oxygen stable isotope analyses of tooth enamel. Five individuals were demonstrated to be statistical outliers through the combined strontium and oxygen isotope data. Potential origins for migrants ranged from London’s surrounding hinterlands to distant portions of northern and western Britain. Historic food sourcing practices for London were found to be an important factor for consideration in a broader than expected (87) Sr/(86) Sr range reflected in a comparison of enamel samples from three London datasets. The pooled dataset demonstrated a high level of consistency between site data, divergent from the geologically predicted range. We argue that this supports the premise that isotope data in human populations must be approached as a complex interaction between behavior and environment and thus should be interpreted cautiously with the aid of alternate lines of evidence. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “To investigate variations in explanations given for disparities in health care use between migrant and non-migrant groups, by clients and care providers in Sweden. Qualitative evidence collected during in-depth interviews with five ‘migrant’ health service clients and five physicians. The interview data generated three categories which were perceived by respondents to produce ethnic differences in health service use: “Communication issues”, “Cultural differences in approaches to medical consultations” and “Effects of perceptions of inequalities in care quality and discrimination”. Explanations for disparities in health care use in Sweden can be categorized into those reflecting social/structural conditions and the presence/absence of power and those using cultural/behavioural explanations. The negative perceptions of ‘migrant’ clients held by some Swedish physicians place the onus for addressing their poor health with the clients themselves and risks perpetuating their health disadvantage. The power disparity between doctors and ‘migrant’ patients encourages a sense of powerlessness and mistreatment among patients.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article focuses on the representation of ‘non-places’ in European migrant cinema. Postcolonial subjects, migrants, refugees and asylum seekers are often depicted in non-places such as city outskirts, hotels, detention centres, on the open sea or in airports. Through the analysis of Pawel Pawlikowski’s Last Resort (UK, 2000), Stephen Frears’s Dirty Pretty Things (UK, 2002), and Mohsen Melliti’s Io, l’altro (I, the Other, Italy, 2007), migrants are seen in non-locations, characterised by their disposable bodies and are portrayed against a background of hostile media representations. The article argues that non-places allude to the visual and ideological instability of the notion of Europe, and also to the creation of an alternative space, a possible Third Space, a location of transformation and belonging to an alternative organic society, where new notions of hospitality and tolerance are conveyed.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “More than 63,000 Iraqi refugees were resettled in the United States from 1994 to 2010. We analyzed data for all US-bound Iraqi refugees screened in International Organization for Migration clinics in Jordan during June 2007–September 2009 (n = 18,990), to describe their health profile before arrival in the United States. Of 14,077 US-bound Iraqi refugees ≥15 years of age, one had active TB, 251 had latent TB infection, and 14 had syphilis. No HIV infections were reported. Chronic diseases comorbidities accounted for a large burden of disease in this population: 35% (n = 4,105) of screened Iraqi refugees had at least one of three chronic medical conditions; hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or obesity. State health departments and clinicians who screen refugees need to be aware of the high prevalence of chronic diseases among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States. These results will help public health specialists develop policies to reduce morbidity and mortality among US-bound Iraqi refugees.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The objective of this study was to compare the utilization of outpatient physician, emergency department and hospital services between refugees and the general population in Calgary, Alberta. Data was collected on 2,280 refugees from a refugee clinic in Calgary and matched with 9,120 non-refugees. Both groups were linked to Alberta Health and Wellness administrative data to assess health services utilization over 2 years. After adjusting for age, sex and medical conditions, refugees utilized general practitioners, emergency departments and hospitals more than non-refugees. A similar proportion in the two groups had seen a general practitioner within 1 week prior to their emergency department visit; however, refugees were more likely to have been triaged for urgent conditions and female refugees seen for pregnancy-related conditions than non-refugees. Refugees were more likely to have had infectious and parasitic diseases. Refugees utilized health services more than non-refugees with no evidence of underutilization.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Screening mammograms are important to detect breast cancer at earlier and more treatable stages. Immigrant and minority women report low participation rates due to barriers related to cultural beliefs and norms, privacy/modesty, and language. This review examines whether screening mammogram interventions in Canada and other countries with comparable health-care systems have addressed the needs of these women. Our systematic literature search identified studies that focused on increasing screening mammogram participation among immigrant and/or minority women. We used the Health Belief Model and the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to guide our critical synthesis of the reviewed interventions and the recommendations for the future. Eight studies met the search criteria. Overall, interventions showed some increase in mammogram participation rates. The barriers targeted were relatively similar across studies and there was a focus on increasing cues to screening. This review illustrates that it is essential to develop and implement programs to overcome the unique barriers to screening mammography if we are to increase participation among immigrants and minority women. We suggest other potentially effective health promotion strategies as a starting point for discussion and future research.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The UJAMBO Program was a series of one session group workshops with Congolese and Somali women in the United States built around a DVD using African immigrant women’s stories which provided basic information about mammography, pap smears and mental health services for trauma. The current study is an evaluation of the UJAMBO program addressing the impact on participants’knowledge of these health services and their intentions to use these services.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Research and practice increasingly suggests discrimination compromises health. Yet the unique experiences and effects facing immigrant and refugee populations remain poorly understood in Canada and abroad. We review current knowledge on discrimination against newcomers in Canada, emphasizing impacts upon health status and service access to identify gaps and research needs. Existing knowledge centers around experiences within health-care settings, differences in perception and coping, mental health impacts, and debates about “non-discriminatory” health-care. There is need for comparative analyses within and across ethno-cultural groups and newcomer classes to better understand factors shaping how discrimination and its health effects are differentially experienced. Women receive greater attention in the literature given their compounded vulnerability. While this must continue, little is known about the experiences of youth and men. Governance and policy discourse analyses would elucidate how norms, institutions and practices shape discriminatory attitudes and responses. Finally, “non-discriminatory health-care” interventions require critical evaluation to determine their effectiveness.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Issues related to immigration have long been present in U.S. television and print news cycles. In recent years, those issues have become more prevalent in U.S. popular culture, especially in television and popular music. In this essay, we analyze three representative and diverse examples from U.S. popular media to better understand the representation of immigrant narratives: ABC’s Ugly Betty, the Chicano band, Los Lobos’s 2006 album, The Town and the City, and CNN Presents “Immigrant Nation.” From our analysis, we advance three interconnected arguments: First, personalized narratives of the immigrant experience reify stereotypes through accumulation and repetition that contributes to the construction of border spectacle. Second, audiences interpret individualized accounts through ambivalent readings that function to entrench audience beliefs and attitudes about immigrants and immigration which create unmotivated sympathies. Finally, individual accounts humanize issues related to immigration, but they also individualize responsibility and absolve collective responsibilities by emphasizing immigrants’ hard work and pursuit of the U.S. American Dream.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In Germany, immigrants from Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries represent one of the largest immigrant groups. Some FSU countries face the highest HIV prevalence in the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. However, the HIV knowledge, attitude and behavioral intent have not been investigated in FSU immigrants compared to the native population yet. A cross-sectional anonymous survey among 1,205 FSU immigrants and 435 native Germans (aged 18-65 years) in Bavaria. Data analysis from the participating 435 (36 %) immigrants and 334 (76.8 %) natives showed that the immigrants were less knowledgeable (p < .001) about HIV transmission (median score 8 vs. 9, ranged from 0 to 10) and HIV prevention (4 vs. 5, ranged from 0 to 6) than the native Germans, especially with regard to HIV transmission during anal (67 vs. 79.1 %; OR = 1.86 [1.32-2.62]) and oral (49.7 vs. 61.8 %; OR = 1.63 [1.21-2.20]) intercourse and showed a high misconception rate. Age and education were associated with knowledge about sexual HIV transmission; male gender, age and education with HIV prevention by single-use of needles/syringes. In case of a suspected HIV contraction, fewer immigrants would request a test; in case of a confirmed HIV diagnosis fewer would use a condom or inform their sexual partner(s). This first comparative study indicates an urgent need for HIV/AIDS education among FSU immigrants.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Immigrants represent a substantial proportion of suicides in Canada. This study assesses the hypothesis that high immigrant density fosters personal sense of community belonging among immigrants, and in turn, protects against suicide risk. This multilevel cross-sectional study is based on individual-level data from the 2007 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 12,951 participants) merged with area-level data from the 2006 Canadian census (n = 57 health regions). Prevalence of suicidal ideation was 1.3 %. Among rural racial minority immigrants, each 10 % increase in immigrant density associated with 67 % lower odds of suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.33, 95 % CI: 0.14-0.77); sense of community belonging did not mediate this association, but was independently associated with suicidal ideation (AOR = 0.44, 95 % CI: 0.28-0.69). Immigrant density was not associated with suicidal ideation among white immigrants or urban settings. Immigrant density and sense of community belonging may correlate with suicidal ideation through distinct mechanisms of association.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “We sought to identify what services indigenous (Maori) and immigrant populations use pharmacies for, and how long pharmacy staff spend interacting with them, as longer interactions are associated with better quality care. We review literature on counseling in pharmacy, and interaction length as an indicator of counseling quality. 1,086 interactions were discretely observed in 36 pharmacies in 5 cities around New Zealand. Maori or Pacific people, along with men, were more likely to treat pharmacies as prescription ‘depots’, being less likely to buy over-the-counter or pharmacist only medicines (ORs: 0.25-0.72). However, the influence of demographic factors on interaction length was small (|B|s < 7.7 s). The weak effect of ethnicity on interaction length suggests that pharmacies are providing advice of relatively consistent quality to different population groups. Possible barriers to use of pharmacies for primary healthcare, including over-the-counter medicines in Maori and Pacific people are discussed.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In Italy, work-related injuries among immigrant workers are an emerging concern. In this study, we compared the occurrence of work-related injuries between legally residing immigrants from High Migration Pressure Countries and Italians and evaluated the associations with potential risk factors. Using data from the 2007 Labour Force Survey conducted by Italy’s National Institute of Statistics, we examined the relationship between the occurrence of work-related injuries in the previous 12 months and being an immigrant among a nationally representative sample. The occurrence of work-related injuries was significantly higher among immigrant males compared to Italian males (adjusted OR = 1.82; 95 % CI 1.53-2.16), particularly in the construction sector, for which the results showed a U-shaped trend of the odds ratios of injuries for immigrants compared to Italians with increasing number of years of work in the same job. No associations were found among women. The findings suggest that prevention programs need to be implemented to limit the burden of work-related injuries among immigrants.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Immigration law both screens migrants and regulates the behavior of migrants after they have arrived. Both activities are information-intensive because the migrant’s “type” and the migrant’s post-arrival activity are often forms of private information that are not immediately accessible to government agents. To overcome this information problem, the national government can delegate the screening and regulation functions. American immigration law, for example, delegates extensive authority to both private entities – paradigmatically, employers and families – and to the fifty states. From the government’s perspective, delegation carries with it benefits and costs. On the benefit side, agents frequently have easy access to information about the types and activities of migrants, and can cheaply monitor and control them. On the cost side, agents’ preferences are not always aligned with those of the national government. The national government can ameliorate these costs by giving agents incentives to act consistently with the government’s interests. Understanding these virtues and vices of delegation sheds light on longstanding debates about the roles that employers, families, and states play in American immigration law. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The tension between immigration and redistribution has attracted increased attention in recent years. Many authors argue, based on economic self-interest theory, that there is a negative relationship between support for redistribution and preferred levels of immigration. Notwithstanding the role of economic self-interest, there is in fact a multitude of motivations that moderate the relationship between preferences for redistribution and attitudes toward immigration. A model of preferences for immigration shows that self-interested and strongly reciprocal individuals experience a tension between immigration and redistribution, while egalitarians do not experience this tension. Humanitarians express a general willingness to help those who are worse off, immigrants included, but this motivation does not affect their preferences for redistribution. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper argues that immigration detention results in immigration detainees being treated as anomalies within the liberal, democratic state – not only within detention centres but also post-release. Given that most released detainees remain destitute and without entitlement or resolution of their immigration cases, many report feelings of being continuously ‘detained’ even after release. This paper addresses a gap in the literature on the ongoing experience of released detainees. The authors draw on qualitative interview data from former detainees as a first step towards a better understanding of the issues.

    We discuss wider questions of why the detention regime fails to prepare detainees for release as well as how this omission can undermine their capacity to lead productive and socially meaningful lives. This paper argues that the lack of concern for the well-being of former immigration detainees has considerable and far-reaching implications for the former detainees and their communities. Finally, we link the situation of former detainees and their liminal states of exception, to discourses of slavery and civil death. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Many migration policies in Western democracies can be categorised as what Matthew J. Gibney calls a ‘partialist’ approach to migration. Drawing from communitarian, conservative, and constitutionalist realist political theories, a partialist approach prioritises the interests and values of citizens and the community over the needs of non-citizens. Stepping outside the normative debate, this paper examines the political implications of a partialist approach to migration policies. The paper argues that it is possible for such policies to be inconsistent with liberal democratic processes of government. Specifically, there is a risk that partialist ideas can be used to justify policies that set aside legal and administrative checks and balances in favour of executive control over migration policies. This is evident in the Australian policy of deportation of long-term permanent residents on character grounds. The paper argues that partialist ideas have been used to justify a high level of executive control over deportations. Executive control is achieved in three ways: broad powers of ministerial discretion; a mechanical bureaucracy, and the use of immigration detention. The cumulative effect means that deportation policy is implemented without the checks and balances fundamental to ensuring limits to executive power. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Putting into context the sentiment expressed by Tibetans on both sides of the Himalayas that true Tibet is located elsewhere, this essay focuses on an under-commented-upon consequence of Tibetan trans-Himalayan mobilities since 1959: the creation of two incommensurable modes of nationalism. One of these is territorial, the other embodied in the form of the Dalai Lama himself. The result of this dual nationalism has not been mutual compatibility and an increase in potential modes of Tibetan belonging, but mutual interference and a broadened scope for unbelonging. As such, the dispersed spatiality of community it enacts is reminiscent not so much of the romantic, organic unity of Herderian modes of (methodological) nationalism as it is of Heine’s experiences of manifold unbelonging and contemporary German-Jewish articulations of a ‘portable homeland’. Ultimately, to reckon with such originary unbelonging, theories of diaspora and mobility must treat concepts of both home and mobility as mixtures of stability and instability, movement and stasis.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In the summer of 2009, the British government introduced a new policy for managing foreign nationals imprisoned in England and Wales. Dubbed hubs and spokes, that policy reorganises the penal estate, concentrating non-citizens in select prisons ‘embedded’ with full-time immigration staff. The policy also requires prison staff to identify foreign nationals to immigration authorities and obliges prisons to detain prisoners facing deportation beyond the length of their criminal sentences. This paper explores the effects of such an approach to foreign national prisoners. In particular, I examine how the effort to find the ‘foreigners’ in British penal institutions has affected the meaning of race behind bars. Drawing on a year of ethnographic fieldwork, I argue that the process of identifying foreign nationals is more piecemeal and political than it can seem from outside prison walls. In practice, the effort to find ‘foreigners’ depends on racialised assumptions about foreignness and British national belonging. These assumptions contrast with the fluid and highly personalised articulations of race and nation that circulate within the prison. I examine this contrast, asserting that the hubs and spokes policy remakes and racialises the concept of British citizenship. I also consider the new policy in the historical context of British colonialism. Ultimately, I assert that the government’s approach to foreign national prisoners perpetuates amnesia about the politics of imprisoning ‘foreigners’. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Malta remains the only country in the European Union that maintains an 18-month, mandatory detention policy for all irregular migrants upon arrival. This paper examines the role that detention has played in the Maltese government’s response to the flows of irregular immigration to the island in the 21st century. It argues that detention is symbolic of the crisis narrative that the Maltese government has constructed as a response to these immigration flows in order to gain more practical and financial support from the European Union. The detention policy also serves to reinforce this interpretation of irregular immigration. Such a portrayal, combined with the use of detention as a deterrent, produces detrimental consequences for the migrant population, as well as the wider Maltese society. The paper draws on over 50 interviews, conducted by the author, with government officials, non-governmental organisations, and migrants and refugees on the island. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Sedentariness has been disregarded in migration studies. Although recent scholarship pays greater heed to immobility, the latter is often narrowly conceptualised as the exact opposite of mobility. This article attempts to overcome such dichotomies by focusing on agrarian life and activities in one of the most migratory rural contexts in West Africa, namely the Soninke villages of the Upper Gambia River valley. It shows how young men—normally the most mobile group in Soninke society—are trained to embody an agrarian ethos in order for them to be able to pursue not only agricultural livelihoods but also migratory ones. Physical, social and moral virtues cultivated in farm fields are thought to make the young man fit and adaptable to life and work abroad. The article further suggests that this agrarian ethos is reproduced through migratory dynamics, such as the integration of West African migrants as unqualified labourers in the stratified labour market of Europe and North America. As a synthesis or symbiosis between mobile and immobile cultural practices, the Soninke agrarian ethos provides us with ways of rethinking the relation between migration and sedentariness, thus bridging the dichotomy between the two.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In Guinea, West Africa, the status attributed to the musicians who play the wooden, goat-skinned jembe drum has historically been very low. But, over the last 60 years, the jembe has progressively ‘gone global’, and today some master drummers earn a living by teaching jembe workshops to amateur aficionados everywhere. In Asia one week, Europe the next and North America the following, these masters build global social networks, opening and plying the trade routes for the commodification of their roots. In this paper, I describe how the modern fetish for African drumming has created an alternative economy of status for jembe musicians. I examine how, against significantly increasing barriers, young musicians in Guinea are leveraging this economy to follow their elders into global mobility, attempting to achieve a cosmopolitanism through which they, too, can inscribe themselves into West African imaginaries of heroism. And I show how their life paths in turn can allow us to reconsider the notion of cosmopolitan citizenship, in a very unequal world.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This ethnographic essay considers how international non-governmental organisations are able to make claims to authoritative knowledge about development work by offering the transnational mobilities of their staff members as evidence. I examine how one professional’s biography—his trajectory from Angola to Britain and back again—was differentially presented to external donors and internal staff members as befitting the institutional needs of an international good governance intervention in Angola. These presentations reflect a commoditisation of the cosmopolitanism of professionals’ histories in the service of development as a regime of mobility. I argue that, in this development regime, a global hierarchy prevents some individual professionals, particularly those from developing nations, from realising the same benefits of their cosmopolitan mobility as professionals from industrialised nations. While one of mobility studies’ many strengths is that it highlights global interconnectedness, social scientists should not read equality in these interconnections but examine how patterns of transnational mobility may produce and reproduce global structures of inequality.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article argues that both global and national power differences play a crucial role in shaping local imaginaries of international migration among youths in two Cameroonian cities—Bamenda and Yaoundé. While Yaoundé is the national capital, Bamenda is the headquarters of the Anglophone north-west, an area generally opposed to the ruling regime and claiming historical as well as contemporary political marginalisation. Physical mobility has long been associated with social mobility and viewed rather positively. In both areas more critical perspectives on international migration are emerging. This is reflected in differences in envisioned destinations as well as in terminologies and concepts. Thus, in Yaoundé ‘the dangers of illegal migration’ have become the topic of the day—a theme publicised by international organisations in collaboration with local NGOs. Conversely, youths in Bamenda consciously compare their conceptualisations of the advantages and disadvantages of life abroad on the basis of imparted experiences of migrant family members and friends. These discourses influence not only youths’ perception of different forms of migrancy but also their assessment of their future in Cameroon. International migration is thus viewed in a broad discursive spectrum from virtue to vice, and perceptions are shaped by regional, national and international political discourse.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article argues that, in order to overcome the national(ist) common sense that continues to haunt everyday political and scholarly interpretations of mobility, scholars need not diagnose nationalism with greater vigour, but should rather move beyond facile diagnoses of nationalism. The article calls for a meticulous tracing of relations and practices of emplacement and displacement that ubiquitous national(ist) interpretive frames both co-opt and exceed simultaneously. The argument is elaborated on the basis of an analysis of historical articulations of emplacement and displacement in Latvian understandings of ‘the good life’. The article pays particular attention to the ways in which the figure of the migrant has emerged historically as an aberration to Latvian understandings of the good life. It also considers how this ethical configuration is being unsettled through massive labour migration to Western Europe—or ‘the Great Departure’.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Mobility studies emerged from a postmodern moment in which global ‘flows’ of capital, people and objects were increasingly noted and celebrated. Within this new scholarship, categories of migrancy are all seen through the same analytical lens. This article and Regimes of Mobility: Imaginaries and Relationalities of Power, the special issue of JEMS it introduces, build on, as well as critique, past and present studies of mobility. In so doing, this issue challenges conceptual orientations built on binaries of difference that have impeded analyses of the interrelationship between mobility and stasis. These include methodological nationalism, which counterpoises concepts of internal and international movement and native and foreigner, and consequently normalises stasis. Instead, the issue offers a regimes of mobility framework that addresses the relationships between mobility and immobility, localisation and transnational connection, experiences and imaginaries of migration, and rootedness and cosmopolitan openness. The introduction highlights how, within this framework and its emphasis on social fields of differential power, the contributors to this collection ethnographically explore the disparities, inequalities, racialised representations and national mythscapes that facilitate and legitimate differential mobility and fixity. Although the authors examine nation-state building processes, their analysis is not confined by national boundaries.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In the 20 or so years since transitional justice first emerged as a field of practice, its objectives and the contexts in which it is applied have expanded greatly. However, its dual role of acknowledging the commission of past violence and human rights violations and seeking to prevent their recurrence remains central. Recent scholarship has begun to explore the impact of transitional justice in practice and also to critique its purported narrow focus on civil and political rights. Recommendations have emerged that transitional justice should address a broader range of violations, such as violations of economic, social and cultural rights, on the basis that this would more appropriately acknowledge the full ambit of past violence and also provide a stronger basis for preventing a return to the violence of the past. Through the case study of torture, this article suggests that before expanding, stock should be taken of transitional justice’s current contribution to prevention. It suggests that while transitional justice has generally prioritized certain types of torture, it has not taken a preventative approach by failing to identify and analyse the full extent of the practice and the way in which it supports institutional structures. The article assesses the extent to which transitional justice can overcome these deficiencies and proposes a possible framework for doing so. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Two generations after notions about a ‘caste-system’ in the later Roman Empire were overturned, scholarly views continue to diverge over the extent to which the age was marked by vertical social mobility.1 On one view, pioneered by Santo Mazzarino and recently restated by Jairus Banaji, the establishment of a gold coinage (the solidus) by the Emperor Constantine (306–37) had profound social consequences. Proving as it did more resistant to inflation than the concurrent coinage in silver and bronze, the solidus acted like a ‘hard currency’. This in turn allowed the amassing of wealth by parvenu imperial functionaries, better placed to exact fees and bribes in the new coin from landowners than were landowners from their tenants. The late empire thereby saw the social and economic displacement of the councillors (curiales) who formed the traditional governing order in each locality, by a distinct service class of imperial agents drawn primarily from ‘sub-curial’ origins.2

    In an influential variation, upward mobility has often been associated principally with the eastern provinces. A. H. M. Jones contrasted the noblest core of the western senatorial aristocracy with a rise of eastern arrivistes, sometimes from ‘peasant’ origins or the ‘proletariat’, to Parnassian heights of office and social prestige.3 This emphasis on low-born easterners has often been echoed.4 In the West, on such a view, ‘great magnates would not countenance the rise of a new elite of petits fonctionnaires — of the sort that took over in the East, newly rich and deeply invested in the empire’s success’.5 It has been suggested that a homogeneous, more aristocratic cast of mind distinguished western senators as a whole from their eastern counterparts; and that differences in the mechanisms of senatorial recruitment at Rome and Constantinople underpinned the existence of a peculiarly eastern aristocracy of … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Many historians have argued that settlement legislation was a cornerstone of poor relief administration in early modern and early industrial England and Wales. The Settlement Act of 1662 and later additions codified the criteria of local belonging inherent in the parochial system of poor relief established by the Elizabethan Poor Laws. By laying out a national scheme for parochial poor relief, financed by a compulsory tax on rateable value and administered by local overseers of the poor, the Poor Laws of 1598 and 1601 instilled a sense of communal responsibility towards the maintenance of the local poor. By defining criteria of belonging, settlement legislation in turn ensured that in principle every pauper belonged to a local community — that is, his or her settlement, which was responsible for his or her maintenance in times of need. In many cases this was the place of birth or one’s father’s place of settlement, but transfers of settlement could be provided for under certain conditions.1 Yet, as much as settlement legislation enforced relief entitlements for those considered part of a community’s ‘own poor’, it excluded those who did not legally belong there. Sojourners, that is, migrants residing in a place which was not their settlement, could be swiftly removed when they became chargeable, or — at least until 1795 — when they were merely ‘likely to become chargeable’. The history of settlement and poor relief is therefore one not only of assistance and entitlement, but also of exclusion and removal.

    This ambiguity explains why historians have differed widely in their appraisals of the advantages and disadvantages of the settlement system over time. Initially condemned both by laissez-faire economists and by labour historians as a barrier to labour mobility and an instrument of popular repression,2 the settlement-based relief system has had … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The mass mobilization of revolutionary nationalism across Europe during and after the First World War led to communal divisions, revolutionary violence and, for a number of ethnic minorities, defeat and emigration from a host of emerging nation states. The southern Irish Protestant minority1 were not exceptional in these respects, experiencing a population fall from 327,179 in 1911 to 220,723 in 1926: the equivalent of almost 33 per cent of the 1911 minority population, compared with a Catholic contraction of just 2 per cent (see Table 1). While the scale of this shock to the minority population is generally recognized by historians, the causes remain somewhat unclear. The longer than usual gap between the census years in question and the major historical events that took place in the intervening years further complicate the picture. The issue that was and remains most contentious in the historiography is the extent to which this exodus was ‘forced’. From the outset, the provisional government was circumspect about the departure of Protestants and loyalists, acknowledging in 1922 that some had been forced to leave, but generally insisting that the numbers involved were quite small and that many were claiming without justification that they were coerced. The loyalist press in Northern Ireland, in contrast, went to great lengths to highlight murders, ejections and the flight of the southern minority. The question of compensation further politicized and polarized the issue.2”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 1978, when economic reform began in China, it was the party-state-controlled people’s organizations that were most deeply involved in people’s work and social life. For example, the official trade union, the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU), was the one and only legal organization representing workers. Although people who worked for state-owned enterprises were mostly unionized under the umbrella of the ACFTU, the new migrant workers in private enterprises were basically unorganized. Since the mid-1990s, labour activists, some of whom are supported by the international civil society, have tried to establish an alternative form of organization, specifically labour non-governmental organizations (NGOs), for migrant workers. The labour NGOs are concentrated in the Pearl River Delta of South China and provide services in migrant workers’ settlement communities. This paper evaluates the degree to which the labour NGOs have maintained a relatively autonomous civil society space for the vulnerable migrant workers and nurtured a democratic form of labour organization. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Abstract
    PURPOSE:

    We aimed to study the association between the Ecuadorians’ ethnic density (EED) of the areas of residence (AR) with the mental health of Ecuadorians in Spain.
    METHODS:

    Multilevel study of 568 Ecuadorian adults in 33 AR randomly selected from civil registries and interviewed at home. Possible psychiatric case (PPC) was measured by scoring ≥5 in General Health Questionnaire-28. Ecuadorians’ ethnic density was dichotomized in high and low EED (<6 %). Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI).
    RESULTS:

    Prevalence of PPC, 24 % (95 %CI 20-28 %), varied by area of residence. Ecuadorians’ ethnic density varied by area of residence ranging from 0.9 to 19.5 %. PPC prevalence in High Ecuadorians’ ethnic density AR was 29.5 and 20.4 % in low EED AR (p 0.013). Ecuadorians from High EED AR had higher odds of PPC than those from Low EED AR (OR 1.65 95 %CI 1.01-2.72). Adjusting for individual confounders (largely self-perceived discrimination), OR decreased to 1.48 (95 %CI 0.87-2.55). The final model, adjusted by area of residence and educational level, yielded an OR 1.37 (95 %CI 0.78-2.40).
    CONCLUSIONS:

    No protective association between the Ecuadorians’ ethnic density of the Area of residence and Ecuado”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper presents a model to explain the stylized fact that many countries have a low ratio of migrants in their population while some countries have a high ratio of migrants. Immigration improves the income of the domestic residents, but migrants also increase the congestion of public services. If migrants are unskilled and therefore pay low taxes, and the government does not limit access to these services, then the welfare of the domestic residents decreases with the number of migrants. Visa auctions can lower the cost of immigration control and substitute legal migrants for illegal migrants. If the government decides to limit the access of migrants to public services, immigration control becomes unnecessary and the optimal number of migrants can be very large.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The article presents a cross-sectional study on the effects of US citizenship on wages of Asian immigrant women. The findings show that US citizenship positively moderated the relationship between sample characteristics and wages. Higher education (university and graduate school) significantly boosts the wage level of Asian immigrant women who have US citizenship. However, such positive influence does not exist for Asian immigrant women without US citizenship. This finding suggests that Asian immigrant women without US citizenship still face a glass ceiling.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “As traditional categories of collective identity are in decline and brought into question, the process of defining shared perceptions of ‘us’ and ‘them’ by new markers and new mechanisms seems more important than ever. In the article, I summarize basic aspects of collective identity formation in the ongoing processes of globalization and transnationalization and discuss the basic challenges of collective identity in the twenty-first century. I present different ideal types of border-crossing collective identities in terms of the patterns of their spatial reach. Two of these types of collective identity –‘global humanism’ and ‘transnational collective identities’– are discussed in more detail, especially concerning their ambiguities of universal and/or particularistic character. I conclude that the global collective identity of ‘humanism’ is not as global as it appears at first glance, and that transnational collective identities usually refer to the authority of a stated global collective identity. Given these genuine interrelations between global humanism and transnational (and other spatial patterns of) collective identities, the future seems destined to be shaped by an intertwined ‘as-well-as’ relation rather than an ‘either–or’ relation between the different types of collective identities.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This essay traces the effects of human development on political change, focusing on the events of the Arab Spring. Over the past generation, the Arab world experienced rapid progress in human development outcomes, including declining child mortality, extended schooling, and increasing status of women. These development gains penetrated most Arab states and subpopulations. The pathway from human development to political mobilization rests on three interlinked propositions. First, basic human development led to a significant increase in population needs and expectations, creating new policy challenges and reducing public dependency on regimes. Second, human development and new information technologies created new opportunities for political protest. Finally, the collective realization of human development gains resulted in new values conducive to regime change. Each proposition builds on theories of human capital accumulation over the life course that isolate the human dimension of national development. I provide provisional support for these pathways through cross-regional comparison and evidence from specific populations and sub-populations. I highlight the need for new study designs and datasets that further test this model.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Ethnic minority farmers in the infamous Golden Triangle were first incorporated into the nation states of China, Laos and Thailand, and later into the economic region called the Golden Economic Quadrangle. This article traces policies in each country for minorities, development and the environment, followed by an analysis of agrarian transitions under economic regionalization. Using the framework of powers of exclusion and racialization, our findings show the changes for ethnic minorities who, with the exception of those in the lowlands, face environmental enclosures that dispossess them from lands on which livelihoods are based. Ideological legacies from the Golden Triangle, including ‘backward’ minorities, the fight against drugs, and threats to national security, continue to inform policies and development projects. While some farmers have become entrepreneurs planting cash crops, most face increasing marginalization under deepening regional capitalism.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explores how people in conflict zones adapt their livelihoods after they migrate to urban areas. Drawing on case studies in two towns in the Darfur region of Sudan, the authors find that livelihood systems are in transition and have undergone fundamental changes resulting from displacement and the effects of conflict on dysfunctional and failing institutions. Urban migrants’ livelihood strategies evolve in a context of insecurity, distorted markets, lack of regulation and punitive rent-seeking regimes such as protection payments. Maladaptive livelihood strategies emerge in response to the need for food and income in the short term. New strategies also can increase societal inequities and marginalization, and over-exploit limited natural resources. Thus the ‘new’ livelihoods cannot be considered sustainable or equitable, or even able to provide food security in the short term. Locally appropriate and innovative approaches to support livelihoods are badly needed, but it is important to monitor and evaluate their impacts on livelihood groups, local economic recovery, environment and conflict.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “It is increasingly recognised that informal actors, including chiefs, are dominant providers of services and need to be factored into overwhelmingly state-focused programmes. This article looks at the ability of the UK’s Department for International Development to engage with the chieftaincy system in Sierra Leone through its security sector reform programme – a relationship which poses important political challenges.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • ” decision-making;
    disaster;
    Katrina;
    Louisiana;
    Rita

    This paper proposes an inductive analysis of the decision as to whether to return or to relocate by persons in the State of Louisiana, United States, who evacuated after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in August and September 2005, respectively. Drawing on interviews with evacuees in these events and extensive fieldwork in the impacted area, the paper seeks to identify the folk dimensions of the decision-making process, assess their arrangements, and situate the process in the larger context of risk and resilience in an advanced society. It suggests that, despite the material and emotional upheaval experienced by affected persons, the decision-making process is a rational endeavour combining a definite set of tightly interconnected factors, involving material dimensions and substantive values that can act in concert or in conflict. In addition, it indicates that there are significant variations by geographic areas, homeownership, and kind of decision. Some theoretical implications, practical measures, and suggestions for future research are examined.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Keywords:

    acceptance;
    humanitarian action;
    insecurity;
    NGOs (non-governmental organisations);
    security management;
    violence

    This paper documents current understanding of acceptance as a security management approach and explores issues and challenges non-governmental organisations (NGOs) confront when implementing an acceptance approach to security management. It argues that the failure of organisations to systematise and clearly articulate acceptance as a distinct security management approach and a lack of organisational policies and procedures concerning acceptance hinder its efficacy as a security management approach. The paper identifies key and cross-cutting components of acceptance that are critical to its effective implementation in order to advance a comprehensive and systematic concept of acceptance. The key components of acceptance illustrate how organisational and staff functions affect positively or negatively an organisation’s acceptance, and include: an organisation’s principles and mission, communications, negotiation, programming, relationships and networks, stakeholder and context analysis, staffing, and image. The paper contends that acceptance is linked not only to good programming, but also to overall organisational management and structures.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Keywords:

    antipolitics;
    Band Aid;
    celebrity humanitarianism;
    Ethiopia;
    famine

    In many ways the Ethiopian famine of 1983–85 has served as a watershed with respect to humanitarian action. One of its lasting legacies has been the emergence of Band Aid and the subsequent increase in celebrity humanitarianism. A revisiting of the events of 1983–85 occurred in 2010 during a dispute in which it was alleged that a portion of the donations of Band Aid were spent on arms purchases. This paper takes this controversy as its starting point. It goes on to use the theoretical reflections of Giorgio Agamben to consider the dynamics that unfolded during the Ethiopian famine of 1983–85 and to analyse the underlying conceptualisation behind the emergence of Band Aid-type celebrity humanitarianism. The paper concludes with some wider thoughts on how the in essence antipolitical agenda of celebrity humanitarian action is transported into the everyday understanding of ‘African disaster’, resulting ultimately in the perpetuation of hegemonic control by the global North.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Freedom of expression is essential to the good working of the entire human rights system. It is inevitable that so fundamental a human right as freedom of expression is also among the most violated of rights. Responding to the array of assaults, abuses, concerns and gaps requires multi-faceted action from many actors. Crucial to the effectiveness of all such responses will be the existence of a strong normative framework in the form of international human rights law in support of freedom of expression. One should thus enquire as to whether the existing standards are adequate to their function. The present article frames a response to that question around the principal global expression of the right in Article 19 (paragraphs 2 and 3) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The article opines that the Human Rights Committee has interpreted Article 19 in a manner that favours a wide enjoyment of free expression and that it has applied the restriction clauses narrowly. The jurisprudence, inevitably, only addresses a small range of issues and, notwithstanding the many additional indications to be found in the Committee’s Concluding Observations, there remain areas of uncertainty regarding the scope and application of the Article. Thus was set the context, in 2009, for the Committee’s decision to develop a new General Comment on Article 19. The present author served as the Committee’s rapporteur for the development of what became General Comment No 34. The article concludes with an analytical review of the drafting process and of the adopted text and assesses the first phases of the reception of the General Comment by States and others. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In spite of the implementation of Protocol No 14 to the European Convention on Human Rights on 1 June 2010, the European Court of Human Rights continues to face a case overload crisis with no definitive solution in sight. In this article we reconsider the role ‘constitutionalisation’ might play in providing a more secure future. Having distinguished the three dominant analytical frameworks—‘individual justice’, ‘constitutional justice’ and ‘pluralism’—in the ‘official’ and ‘academic/judicial’ streams of the debate, we conclude that a fourth, ‘constitutional pluralism’, now offers a particularly attractive alternative. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The answer to the question of what it means to say that a right is absolute is often taken for granted, yet still sparks doubt and scepticism. This article investigates absoluteness further, bringing rights theory and the judicial approach on an absolute right together. A theoretical framework is set up that addresses two distinct but potentially related parameters of investigation: the first is what I have labelled the ‘applicability’ criterion, which looks at whether and when the applicability of the standard referred to as absolute can be displaced, in other words whether other considerations can justify its infringement; the second parameter, which I have labelled the ‘specification’ criterion, explores the degree to which and bases on which the content of the standard characterised as absolute is specified. This theoretical framework is then used to assess key principles and issues that arise in the Strasbourg Court’s approach to Article 3. It is suggested that this analysis allows us to explore both the distinction and the interplay between the two parameters in the judicial interpretation of the right and that appreciating the significance of this is fundamental to the understanding of and discourse on the concept of an absolute right. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In the 20 or so years since transitional justice first emerged as a field of practice, its objectives and the contexts in which it is applied have expanded greatly. However, its dual role of acknowledging the commission of past violence and human rights violations and seeking to prevent their recurrence remains central. Recent scholarship has begun to explore the impact of transitional justice in practice and also to critique its purported narrow focus on civil and political rights. Recommendations have emerged that transitional justice should address a broader range of violations, such as violations of economic, social and cultural rights, on the basis that this would more appropriately acknowledge the full ambit of past violence and also provide a stronger basis for preventing a return to the violence of the past. Through the case study of torture, this article suggests that before expanding, stock should be taken of transitional justice’s current contribution to prevention. It suggests that while transitional justice has generally prioritized certain types of torture, it has not taken a preventative approach by failing to identify and analyse the full extent of the practice and the way in which it supports institutional structures. The article assesses the extent to which transitional justice can overcome these deficiencies and proposes a possible framework for doing so. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article considers the case of Timor-Leste, occupied by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999, to elucidate the conditions that bedevil transitional justice processes in the aftermath of massive and long-running political violence, when a perpetrator state enjoys impunity because its wartime strategies facilitated denial of its responsibility, political violence was organized through the militarization of local society and individuals operated between the state and the resistance. The continuing social memory and knowledge of such conflict coupled with its judicial invisibility have significant consequences for rebuilding everyday lives. International agencies and processes have not only failed to attend to these dynamics in Timor-Leste but also replicated and perpetuated them, making the restoration of trust on which social reconstruction depends even more difficult. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This qualitative study examines the lived experiences of Latina immigrants who settled in an area that enacted one of the United State’s most draconian anti-immigrant initiatives—a law that would be a precursor for Arizona’s SB 1070. Though this investigation was prompted by the law’s adoption in 2007, interviews and 18 months of ethnographic observation with Latina immigrants (n = 16) found that it was only one in a patchwork of forces constricting work opportunity and threatening access to housing and food. Using critical phenomenology, I examine women’s experiences of poverty both prior to immigration, and in the U.S. economy.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article focuses on physical activities and body projects of female migrants from Turkey living in Copenhagen. Drawing on Bourdieu’s concept of sports participation as a relationship between the supply of sport and the dispositions of individuals, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with five women. Their narratives about physical exercise, fitness and health were embedded in their life stories, which tell about their migration, their struggles in a foreign country, their isolation and their confrontation with discrimination. However, all of them found meaning in their lives in Denmark, through work and/or children and/or religion. Their biographies prove the agency of these women and their influence on social processes but also the heterogeneity of their experiences. Physical activities and sports are not at the centre of the lives of these women; they are not main assets in the struggle for integration but they are experienced as additional benefits and/or as duties in the pursuit of health and slimness.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “At the beginning of the twentieth century, the emergence of mass immigration to the United States turned the question of how to integrate newcomers to American society into a major national concern. Different societal groups suggested various models of integration, such as assimilation, the ‘melting-pot,’ or pluralism. Particular significance was ascribed to immigrant children, who were assumed to play the crucial role of linguistic and cultural mediators between their Old-World homes and the supposedly distinct ‘American way of life.’ As various groups in American society struggled to promote their response to mass immigration as well as their views on immigrant children, the diverse positions were also reflected in the photography of the period. Indeed, the contrary ways in which photographers as different as Augustus F. Sherman and Lewis W. Hine ‘captured’ immigrant children is not only an expression of their respective political stances but also of their notions of photography as a medium and as an art form. The motif of immigrant children on the Ellis Island roof playground as pictured by Sherman and Hine shall serve as a case study to support this claim. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Drawing on interviews and participatory observation, this article weaves stories of translating healthcare told from the perspectives of refugees, health care providers, and friends. The research finds that while literal translations of documents and information are important to the health care process for refugees of New Americans, cultural translations of concepts like health care and preventive care are perhaps even more important. That translation, however, is not simple or literal either; refugees and New Americans may resist, or remain suspicious of, these concepts even once understood. Friends of refugees can provide an important role in helping with cultural and institutional translations, and their role should be consider as part of a culturally-centered approach to healthcare, as outlined by Dutta (2008). Note: all participant and researcher names have been changed in order to protect human subjects.

    “The introduction of the voice of the subaltern participant in the discursive space elucidates the interaction between structure and agency” (Dutta, 2008 p. 248).

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • We estimate a long-run trend of Brazilian human capital that extends back to the very beginning of the eighteenth century. With new data on selective immigration during the era of mass migrations at the end of the nineteenth century, we show that human capital endowment of international migrants can induce effects on economic development that persist until today. According to our estimations, the effect of selective immigration on real GDP per capita in the year 2000 is significant and equals around US$75 overall. As a reference, this value equals the amount poor Brazilians get to supplement their subsistence in the “Fome Zero” (Zero Hunger) program. We argue that human capital formation is a highly path-dependent and persistent process.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Vickers provides an important and timely analysis of state policies to control and contain refugees and asylum seekers in Britain today. At a time of economic crisis and wholesale attacks on the working class, its value is in a re-engagement with Marxism as a tool to understand both the global causes of the mass displacement of millions and the methods used by the British state to manage the relatively small number who find their way here.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • This paper outlines a study which investigated the experience of six male adolescent refugees during their transfer and adaptation to a secondary school in the UK. The research used a qualitative design. The approach adopted was Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The data generated three superordinate themes which reflected the participants’ sense of being in need of help during the early stages of their transfer, their process of adapting to school and developing a sense of belonging in this context, and their overriding need for safety. These themes are explored in relation to existing research and implications for practice are offered.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • The paper deals with the abolition of the Ottoman university and the reopening of Istanbul University in 1933, and the dismissal of many scientists in Nazi Germany. This allowed the Turkish government to invite a large group of these scholars to the benefit of the academic endeavours of the young Turkish Republic. The article gives an overview on the refugees from Nazism who came as experts and advisers to the Turkish government. It then focuses on the scientific contributions and activities of the small but significant group of economists and concludes with an assessment of their impact.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Refugee young people entering foster care face transitions as they settle into life in a new country and household. Drawing on findings from a study on foster care for refugee young people in England, this paper examines encounters and negotiations with the public worlds of the asylum system and foster care delivery within the intimate setting of the household and everyday domestic practices in foster care. The paper considers Derrida’s neologism ‘hostipitality’ to explore challenges in hospitality in this context. The framework of ‘family practices’ is then applied to explore how foster carers and young people ‘did’ family in foster care. It was found that family practices were inhibited by tensions and challenges in the notion of ‘hospitality’, but family practices also offered opportunities to respond and promote young people’s sense of belonging in the family in this environment. It concludes that hospitality at the threshold is necessary, but that the most successful foster care relationships were able to move through and beyond hospitality to relationships of family-like intimacy.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • There is little awareness that from the perspective of distributive justice, a transnational market society exercises a justice-disabling effect. No longer is society perceived to be a system of co-operation, the net product of which is to be distributed among all participants fairly, but rather viewed as a composite of uncoordinated templates for the individual pursuit of opportunities. A society of this type does no longer regard a centralised political effort at redistribution as its essential objective; rather, its most fundamental principle concerns equal access to opportunities without regard to nationality or local preference. Such a concern with inclusion appears to be at odds with the received vision of distributive justice whose realisation presupposes bounded solidarity and, hence, closure.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Glancing at the Jewish spaces in contemporary Germany, an occasional observer would probably be startled. Since the Russian Jewish migration of the 1990s, Germany’s Jewish community has come to be the third-largest in Europe. Synagogues, Jewish community centres, and Jewish cultural events have burgeoned. There is even talk about a “Jewish renaissance“ in Germany. However, many immigrants claim that the resurrection of Jewish life in Germany is “only a myth,“ “an illusion.“ This paper is part of a project exploring the processes of the reconstruction of Jewish identities and Jewish communal life by Russian Jewish immigrants in Germany. The focus of this paper is on the stereotypes of Jews and Jewishness evident in immigrants’ perceptions and imaginings of their physical gathering spaces – the Jewish community centres (Gemeinden). Focusing on the images that haunt a particular place, I seek to shed light upon the difficulties of re/creating Jewish identity and life among the Russian Jewish immigrants in contemporary Germany.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “There have been few studies of people’s experiences of receiving care from migrant workers. This is despite the growing move to employ migrants to provide care and support for older and disabled people in the developed world. This article reports empirical findings from a study of migrants working in social care in England conducted between 2007 and 2009. It focuses on the reported interactions between service users and carers with migrant workers. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 adults receiving social care services and family carers in home and residential settings who had a variety of needs for care and with support. Analysis highlighted the range of their experiences. An emerging theme arising from the interviews was that of communication and the difficulties experienced by people using care services, or family carers speaking on their behalf, of understanding and being understood by care workers whose spoken English was not easy for them to comprehend. Social workers will need to be alert to alert to the risks facing service users, carers and migrant care workers in such contexts. We conclude that the marginal position of both social care users and migrant workers is reflected in these micro encounters.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article considers the case of Timor-Leste, occupied by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999, to elucidate the conditions that bedevil transitional justice processes in the aftermath of massive and long-running political violence, when a perpetrator state enjoys impunity because its wartime strategies facilitated denial of its responsibility, political violence was organized through the militarization of local society and individuals operated between the state and the resistance. The continuing social memory and knowledge of such conflict coupled with its judicial invisibility have significant consequences for rebuilding everyday lives. International agencies and processes have not only failed to attend to these dynamics in Timor-Leste but also replicated and perpetuated them, making the restoration of trust on which social reconstruction depends even more difficult.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Migration policy is a product and producer of identities and values. This article argues that discourses and policies on family reunification participate in the politics of belonging, and that gender and family norms play a crucial role in this production of collective identities, i.e. in defining who ‘we’ are and what distinguishes ‘us’ from ‘the others’. Tracing the development of political debates and policy-making about ‘fraudulent’ and ‘forced’ marriages in the Netherlands since the 1970s, the authors examine how categories of gender and ethnicity interact with ‘other’ transnational marriages and the women who engage in them. These practices of ‘othering’ legitimize restrictive reforms of marriage migration policies. Also, and no less importantly, they serve the symbolic function of defining Dutch identity, and show that the government protects this identity.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This special set of articles promotes new studies and conceptualizations of migrants’ social positioning in the contexts that they form by living in new locations, and/or by being simultaneously connected to several locations. In different ways, the contributors explain the migrants’ social positioning as consisting of the intersections of the migrants’ various forms of capital, the characteristics of the different locations and of the social actors in these locations that control access to resources, and the migrants’ different aspirations about accessing various resources. The migrants’ social positioning is presented as an important indicator of their experiences of inequalities. The articles are highly relevant for conceptualizations and studies of capital conversions in multi-place contexts, migrants’ social integration and non-integration, the intersections of characteristics explaining migrants’ inequalities in place-specific and transnational locations, and for conceptualizations of cultural hybridity.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article puts forward the concept of ‘transnational positions’ as an important part of a new analytical framework to deconstruct and explain the inequalities that 22 Chinese transnational migrants – who had links to Singapore and who lived in New York – perceived they experienced when attempting to access resources in the transnational spaces they formed by living in several societies. Emphasis is on analyzing their experiences in New York and in Singapore. Transnational positions are the migrants’ subjective and retrospective accounts of their relations with people and institutions controlling access to desired resources in the different countries and places in which they lived. This new framework uses Bourdieu’s ideas of capital conversions to deconstruct and analyze the Chinese migrants’ transnational positions. The article shows that these positions express and reflect the migrants’ perceptions of their inequalities when they attempted to access resources in their transnational spaces, and that these inequalities are the intersections of cultural, social, economic, and political characteristics, with roots in different places, which the Chinese migrants saw as the opportunities and constraints with accessing resources in their transnational spaces. The relevance of this new analytical framework, and the data analysis, to explain cultural hybridity and cosmopolitanism are discussed.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article presents an in-depth study of how Polish entrepreneurs in Munich, Germany, make use of their economic, social and cultural capital acquired in Poland and in Germany to position themselves transnationally. The article studies these migrants’ life courses and draws attention to cross-border intersections between their cultural, social and economic capital with roots in different places. The article also throws light on the subjective evaluation of economic capital of migrants in a transnational frame. Three types of transnational social positioning of the migrants are discerned (single space, bi-local and overlapping), which suggest a new reading of Bourdieu’s work that is better adapted to the theoretical challenges faced by researchers who study people in transnational spaces.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • This article adapts Robert Merton’s theory of coping with social strain to revisit the main paradigms in the literature of migrant adaptation. Intersecting this literature with Merton’s theory of coping with social strain and the ideas of emergence and resistance, the authors develop five new ideal types of migrant adaptation: (1) migrant conformity through straight-line assimilation; (2) migrant ritualism through multidirectional assimilation; (3) migrant retreatism through segmented assimilation; (4) migrant innovation through transnationalism; and (5) migrant rebellion through cosmopolitanism. The authors’ typology makes the point that migrant adaptation is a plural and ambiguous process, which needs to be understood and explained to identify the causes and effects of long-term migrant adaptation, integration or non-integration. The results show that these ideal types provide an explanation of how and why many of the paradigms on which the literature on migrant adaptation is based also lead to different forms of migrant non-adaptation.

    tags: newjournalarticles

    • This article adapts Robert Merton’s theory of coping with social strain to revisit the main paradigms in the literature of  migrant adaptation. Intersecting this literature with Merton’s theory of coping with social strain and the ideas of emergence  and resistance, the authors develop five new ideal types of migrant adaptation: (1) migrant conformity through straight-line  assimilation; (2) migrant ritualism through multidirectional assimilation; (3) migrant retreatism through segmented assimilation;  (4) migrant innovation through transnationalism; and (5) migrant rebellion through cosmopolitanism. The authors’ typology  makes the point that migrant adaptation is a plural and ambiguous process, which needs to be understood and explained to identify  the causes and effects of long-term migrant adaptation, integration or non-integration. The results show that these ideal  types provide an explanation of how and why many of the paradigms on which the literature on migrant adaptation is based also  lead to different forms of migrant non-adaptation.

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “Migrant remittances, particularly when transferred through the banking system, may contribute to financial development in migrants’ home countries. We analyse the determinants of the choice of transfer channel (formal services versus informal operators or personal transfers) by Moldovan migrants in 2006. We estimate a multinomial logit model from household survey data. Our explanatory variables include socio-economic characteristics of the migrant and other household members, the pattern of migration (destination country, legal status, duration), and financial information (average amount and frequency of payments). Key reasons not to use a formal transfer channel are a migrant’s emphasis on low transfer cost (rather than speed, convenience or security), irregular legal status in the host country, and short migration spells. Our findings demonstrate that migrants’ transnational capacities and activities in their entirety bear upon the choice of transfer channel; any policy interventions to promote the use of formal channels should reflect this.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article reviews existing literature on the construction of cultural citizenship, and argues that cultural citizenship expands the concept of ‘citizenship’, promotes citizens’ consciousness and ensures the protection of minority rights. Since the 1990s, three cultural policies have arisen related to cultural citizenship in Taiwan: ‘Community Renaissance’, ‘Multicultural Policy’ and the ‘Announcement of Cultural Citizenship’. ‘Cultural citizenship’ has expanded the concept of citizenship in two ways. First, it has led to the consideration of the minority rights of Taiwanese indigenous peoples, the Hakkas, foreign brides and migrant workers in ‘citizenship’; and second, it has placed emphasis on ‘cultural rights’ in addition to civil rights, political rights and social rights. This article begins by exploring what approach to cultural citizenship is used in cultural policy, and what approach is suitable for practising cultural citizenship in Taiwan. I argue that minority groups practise their cultural rights with the public participation of Community Renaissance. Taiwan’s case bears out Stevenson’s view: a society of actively engaged citizens requires both the protection offered by rights and opportunities to participate. Finally, this article shows the challenges and contradictions of cultural citizenship in Taiwan: the loss of autonomy and the continuation of cultural inequality.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article aimed to investigate in what ways teachers’ developing understandings of citizenship education in a divided society reflect discourses around national citizenship and controversial issues. Based on thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 13 post-primary teachers in Northern Ireland undertaking an in-service programme in citizenship, findings indicate that the controversial nature of past conflict maintains its sensitivity in the educational context though other categories of potential exclusion, such as race and sexuality, compete for space in educational discourse and teaching. Few teachers used controversial issues identified as challenging hegemonic beliefs as an opportunity for role modelling citizenship. However, teachers rarely explored the complex interlinkages between traditional and alternative categories of exclusion. It is argued that this may render teachers’ understandings of citizenship and societal conflict disconnected, which in turn may hinder the potential for citizenship education to address societal divisions and to promote active peace in the long term.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Canadian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) on Indian residential schools allows us to rethink the scope and bounds of transitional justice. Once we expand our notions of injustice and transition, the Canadian case is not so far apart from paradigmatic cases, which too often overlook structural violence. The article argues for settler decolonization as a path of reconciliation and in so doing directly engages structural violence and instantiates theoretical arguments to more securely anchor the field of transitional justice to positive peace. The article analyzes the decolonizing potential of the TRC in its ability to invoke ‘social accountability’ through its approach to truth and in its grassroots potential. Although the TRC has some capacity to advance decolonization, its progress is hampered by the conservative political environment, its weak public profile and to some degree its own emphasis on survivor healing, which provides a ready focal for settlers to individualize Indian residential schools violence as something of the past. Yet, Indigenous healing is intrinsically connected to structural transformation and reconciliation depends upon remedying colonial violence in the present. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Immigration law was not designed with children in mind–they are its “biggest void.” 1 With few exceptions, the immigration legal framework in the United States and the visa programs it implements were designed for adult applicants, with children eligible solely as dependants to their parent’s application. 2 Under U.S. law, an “unaccompanied alien child” (referred to in this note as an “unaccompanied minor”) is a child who has no lawful immigration status in the United States; is under eighteen years old; and for whom there is no parent or legal guardian in the United States, or no parent or legal guardian in the United States available to provide care and physical custody. 3 Unaccompanied minors are thus left out of the immigration framework, because they have no parent who can petition on their behalf. 4 These children must confront procedures, standards, and requirements intended for adults, which places them at a severe disadvantage and leaves them unprotected. 5 Although significant progress was made with passage of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 (TVPRA), 6 the forms of relief available for unaccompanied minors are still grossly inadequate in light of their specific experiences. Continued neglect of this gap in immigration law leaves many of these already burdened children in legal limbo, making them vulnerable to exploitation, mistreatment, and coercion, and allows others to be returned to dire circumstances in their home countries, and sometimes, even leads to their death. 7″

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Heightened concern for security in North America after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks has led to the increasing use of immigration provisions that broadly define inadmissibility on security grounds. Part I reviews the security laws that render inadmissible to North America anyone who is believed to have been involved in, or provided material support to, organizations alleged to have engaged in acts of terrorism. In Canada and the United States, these security laws also bar all individuals believed to have been involved in the subversion of any government by force.

    Part II examines the unfair effects of these security provisions using the experience of members and supporters of the Eritrean Liberation Movement as an example. We review the history and political background of the Eritrean liberation struggle and discuss the application of the security bar to those who took part in it. Five individuals currently ensnared by the broad application of North America’s security provisions are discussed in the Appendix.

    Part III argues that principles of international law relating to self-determination should be used to ameliorate unjustified security inadmissibility findings. International law does not prohibit the use of armed struggle to achieve self-determination by people subject to alien domination. In the immigration context, applying this principle would ensure that those whose only “crime” was participation in legitimate struggles for self-determination are not rendered inadmissible to North America. An immigration system mediated by self-determination principles would preserve North American security interests while circumscribing inadmissibility determinations based solely …”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Given the reticence of states about cultural rights, this essay explores how the independent UN human rights monitoring bodies filled the gap. Cultural rights made the human rights system burst at the seams, and these bodies picked up the bold demand that culture poses for human rights. Through their practice, they crafted an understanding of the normative content of cultural rights and thus helped overcome the seemingly insurmountable political difficulties of states. Through an international law perspective, the essay unravels this practice and presents a critical analysis of the new developments in this area.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “What can geography as a discipline contribute towards a better understanding of human rights issues? Based on an analysis of three maps, selected from a larger set of thirty-two generated from data abstracted from 720 Amnesty International Freedom Writers Letters, this study finds that the number and frequency of human rights abuses over the past twenty years has remained stable at best. A set of ten confounding factors are indentified to explain this lack of progress towards improving worldwide human rights. This article concludes that geographers and human rights scholars could profit in their work by collaborating and consulting with one another’s research.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The article focuses on the interplay between donors and international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) with regards to monitoring of the gacaca courts in Rwanda. While both donors and INGOs agreed that monitoring had a positive outcome on information gathering and sharing, as well as on limiting human rights violations by the courts themselves, they disagreed on the extent to which donors should have supported INGOs’ recommendations for improvements to the process. As a result of their service delivery role, INGOs expected to be granted more space by the Rwandan authorities to help improve the gacaca process. When they realized this space would not be available, they relied on donors to support their efforts by pressuring the Rwandan government. Donors did not share the INGOs’ aims, however, and had a number of reasons for not intervening more strongly, thereby frustrating the INGOs’ efforts. The lessons learned from this dynamic may be useful in the design of future localized transitional justice processes, particularly as they highlight a need for better articulation of goals and expectations, as well as the necessity of coordinated strategies on monitoring and follow-through on the resulting recommendations to effecting the desired impacts. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Large numbers of migrants daily decide to undertake an often risky and protracted journey to leave their country, escaping from violence and poverty, in an effort to reach their ultimate goal: building a better life. Although extensive evidence shows how pre- and post-flight experiences can significantly threaten migrants’ wellbeing, little research investigates the impact of the flight itself and the way migrants cope with these flight experiences while ‘on the way’. The study took place in the waiting rooms of the police station near the Belgian port of Zeebrugge, where intercepted migrants stay for some time. Because of the constraints inherent in the study setting, we relied on the messages that migrants themselves chose to leave—in their mother tongues—on the police station’s walls and furniture. A discourse analysis of 179 inscriptions made by intercepted migrants revealed how these migrant communities show great solidarity, agency and resilience in dealing with their feelings and experiences in a political and social context that is marginalizing, depersonalizing or criminalizing them. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Canadian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) on Indian residential schools allows us to rethink the scope and bounds of transitional justice. Once we expand our notions of injustice and transition, the Canadian case is not so far apart from paradigmatic cases, which too often overlook structural violence. The article argues for settler decolonization as a path of reconciliation and in so doing directly engages structural violence and instantiates theoretical arguments to more securely anchor the field of transitional justice to positive peace. The article analyzes the decolonizing potential of the TRC in its ability to invoke ‘social accountability’ through its approach to truth and in its grassroots potential. Although the TRC has some capacity to advance decolonization, its progress is hampered by the conservative political environment, its weak public profile and to some degree its own emphasis on survivor healing, which provides a ready focal for settlers to individualize Indian residential schools violence as something of the past. Yet, Indigenous healing is intrinsically connected to structural transformation and reconciliation depends upon remedying colonial violence in the present. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The case HJ (Iran) and HT (Cameroon) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] UKSC 31 was celebrated as a ‘fundamental shift in asylum law’. In this decision, the UK Supreme Court rejects the ‘reasonably tolerable test’ that had been applied in the case of the gay men HJ, a 40-year-old Iranian, and HT, a 36-year-old citizen of Cameroon. On the basis that the claimants could be reasonably expected to tolerate being discreet about their sexual identity in order to avoid persecution, their applications had been unsuccessful. This ‘reasonably tolerable test’, which was fairly well established in case law, was much contested and its rejection was overdue. Yet in their decision, the Justices not only reject this old test, they go a step further and formulate a new approach to be followed by tribunals in asylum claims on grounds of sexual orientation.

    This article argues that this new approach fails to discard ‘discretion’ as a concept in asylum cases as a whole, contrary to the submissions of the intervening parties in the case, namely, UNHCR and the Equality and Human Rights Commission. The new test continues to be constructed on ‘discretion logic’ – which is not tenable for a series of reasons. First, the test creates two distinguishable categories, openly demonstrated sexuality and concealed sexuality. Secondly, it assumes that this distinction and the underlying choice are relevant for assessing whether the applicant is at risk of persecution. Finally, the case relied heavily on the subjective element of assessing the ‘fear’ of persecution, which leads to a stricter test than necessary. The assessment of the existence of a well-founded fear of persecution in LGBT cases should instead be made without reference to whether or not the applicants would conceal their sexual orientation. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The European Union is currently in the process of revising the central directives that make up European Union refugee law, a project that will touch on almost every aspect of seeking asylum in Europe. This article will focus on the implementation of one doctrine, the internal protection or internal flight alternative, under the recently recast Qualification Directive. The article will first examine the application of the internal protection alternative, based on the text of the 1951 Convention, and UNHCR and academic commentary. Following this examination, the article will critique the recast Qualification Directive, concluding that, by effectively providing two alternative standards for IPA, it is unlikely to result in greater harmonization in Europe, and that both standards are problematic from the perspective of international law. Despite these shortcomings, recent European Court of Justice jurisprudence has clarified and improved previous interpretations of EU asylum law. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “After the fall of communism, many Eastern Europeans sought work abroad, leaving their children with relatives. Eastern European migrants represent a target group with unstudied immigration patterns. The goal of this study was to examine how parental migration and economic pressure impact children outcomes in the Republic of Moldova. I examined a model of the impact of parental migration on children (13–15 years old), using a survey with 388 children who have migrant and non-migrant parents. The conceptual model of migration, economic pressure, family relations and child outcomes integrated within the family stress perspective allows these pathways to be incorporated within a broader Moldovan context. I conducted quantitative data analysis using structural equation modelling. The results indicated that higher economic pressure was associated with children’s lower psychological functioning, academic achievement and satisfaction with life. Parenting behaviours, especially parental support and monitoring, mediated the impact of satisfaction with migration and economic pressure on children’s outcomes. I underline the importance of using a family perspective in the migration policymaking process, and provide specific recommendations for migration policies and programmes.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The main aim of this paper is to analyse the motives affecting the migration decisions of young people, particularly university students. Two scales were developed for measuring the perception of the importance of these motives. The data used in the research were collected via a survey of the opinions and attitudes of university students in Osijek, in June 2010. The paper also analyses psychometric properties of the scales – their dimensionality and reliability.

    The results of a confirmatory factor analysis undoubtedly indicate that both scales are multidimensional constructs. A combination of the results of t-tests for an independent sample, factor analysis (exploratory and confirmatory) and reliability analysis suggest that emigration and stay motives are two sides of the same migration decision, and that they can be classified into several factors: the economic situation, social networks, insider advantages (that can be divided into inherited amenities and public-safety conditions) and the wealth of opportunities. Depending on the power of the initial and target destination, the factors can function as ‘push’ or ‘pull’ factors. The results of the study show social networks as being the only ‘pull’ factor for the city of Osijek, whereas the other factors, especially the economic ones, proved to demonstrate the ‘push’ effect. However, the effects of all factors were very mild.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this paper, I analyse the changes that mothers and children experience in their relationship due to the physical separations and reunions entailed by the international migration process. I argue that the different geographical configurations that migrant families take over time are the outcome of a negotiation of care responsibility and desired geographies of family life, and are accompanied by changing meanings and practices in intimate relationships: the location of care relationships is influenced by the relatives’ capacity both to take part in family negotiations as well as to overcome the constraints imposed by policies. Time is relevant because it leads to shifting meanings and practices of transnational family life, as well as to the changing role of children in the family.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “A remittance is part of an employee’s wages or salary that is sent back home. Remittances not only help the workers’ family members, but also help the home countries to strengthen their balance of payments. Remittances are remuneration to employees from the economy in which they work, and thus they contribute to both the gross domestic product (GDP) and the gross national income (GNI) of that economy. Because of their stability and dependability, remittances have become a permanent fixture of governments’ financial revenues. The primary objective of this research is to determine whether foreign nationals make a significant contribution to the level of remittances and what some of the determinants are. We utilize three models to test whether the categories of foreign nationals – immigrants admitted; persons naturalized; and non-immigrants admitted as temporary workers, exchange visitors and intra-company transferees – send significant amounts of remittances. In this work, we look at the flow of remittances during the 1982–2001 period from the United States to the Caribbean region, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. The results indicate that the number of “immigrants admitted”, “persons naturalized” and “non-immigrants admitted as temporary workers, exchange visitors and intra-company transferees”, together with the “exchange rate”, the “Hispanic unemployment rate” and the “median income of Hispanic families”, are significant determinants in the size of remittances. When the results are extrapolated, the number of “immigrants admitted” produces the maximum remittance flow to Jamaica. The number of persons naturalized is important to the total remittances for the overall Caribbean region. The non-immigrant temporary worker group is the largest single source of remittances. This group may potentially send US$15 billion to Trinidad and Tobago.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper evaluates comparative patterns of fertility in new Hispanic destinations and established gateways using pooled cross-sectional data from the 2005–2009 microdata files of the American Community Survey. Changing Hispanic fertility provides a useful indicator of cultural incorporation. Analyses show that high fertility among Hispanics has been driven in part by the Mexican origin and other new immigrant populations (e.g., non-citizens, those with poor English language skills, etc.). However, high fertility rates among Hispanics cannot be explained entirely by sociodemographical characteristics that place them at higher risk of fertility. For 2005–2009, Hispanic fertility rates were 48 percent higher than fertility among whites; they were roughly 25 percent higher after accounting for differences in key social characteristics, such as age, nativity, country of origin, and education. Contrary to most previous findings of spatial assimilation among in-migrants, fertility rates among Hispanics in new destinations exceeded fertility in established gateways by 18 percent. In the multivariate analyses, Hispanics in new destinations were roughly 10 percent more likely to have had a child in the past year than those living in established gateways. Results are consistent with subcultural explanations of Hispanic fertility and raise new questions about the spatial patterning of assimilation and the formation of ethnic enclaves outside traditional settlement areas.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Research on the evolution of immigrant fertility patterns has focused on the expected reduction in fertility among immigrants from high fertility, less developed countries who arrive in relatively low-fertility developed societies. The current research considers a different context in which immigrants from the low-fertility Former Soviet Union arrive in a relatively high-fertility setting in Israel. This research context allows us to test various theories of immigrant fertility, which cannot normally be distinguished empirically. Results from Cox multivariate regressions of parity-specific progression do not support assimilation theory, which would predict an increase in fertility following migration, in this context. We interpret the very low fertility rates of the FSU immigrants in Israel, relative to all relevant comparison groups, in terms of the economic uncertainty and hardship experienced during a difficult transition period by immigrants who have high aspirations for social mobility in their destination society.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 2006, around 1.2 million documented Afghans remained in Iran, of whom half were second generation. This paper is based on the results of a qualitative study conducted in three settings: Tehran, Mashhad and Isfahan, and draws on data collected via 80 in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions with second generation Afghans in Iran. The aim of the paper is to explore the adaptation of second-generation Afghans in Iran, particularly in relation to marriage and family formation. The results show that educational achievements and occupational skills of the second-generation Afghans in Iran facilitated their adaptation to the host society, and inspired different marriage and family behaviors and aspirations in comparison with the first generation.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Spouses form the largest single category of migrant settlement in the UK, but research and policy making on marriage-related migration to Britain provides incomplete coverage of the phenomenon, having been dominated by a focus on the South Asian populations that are among the largest groups of such migrants. By bringing together immigration statistics with information from academic and third-sector sources, this article attempts to provide a more balanced and nuanced portrayal of patterns and practices of marriage-related migration to the UK. In doing so, it reveals important nationality and gender differences in migration flows and considers how varying marriage practices, social and political contexts, and policies of both receiving and sending countries may work to influence marriage-related migration streams. It also exposes the limitations and lacunae in existing research on this diverse form of migration, highlighting the danger that immigration policy made on the basis of partial evidence will produce unexpected consequences.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article investigates the impact of immigrant generation on students performance in college calculus courses and examines the extent to which the observed patterns corroborate or contradict various assimilation theories. It goes beyond past studies of the relationship between immigrant generation and mathematics achievement that focused primarily on middle and high school students and typically excluded foreign students. Our principal finding is that foreign students and the 1.25 generation earned the highest grades, on average, even after controlling for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Our findings provide partial support for the immigrant advantage theory.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The aim of this study is to determine whether immigrants and their children use a compensation strategy that involves achieving higher than expected education, given their parents’ level of education and income. The study uses data for all individuals in Sweden who finished elementary school from 1990 to 1992. Parents’ level of education and income is in general positively associated with higher odds of having university education. However, some immigrant groups show the reverse pattern of the impact of parents’ income. The results support a compensation strategy developed in groups and families with low level of integration in the labor market.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article asks how social engagement influences individuals’ immigration concerns. Rates of volunteering, churchgoing, socializing, and helping others are used to predict anti-immigration sentiments. Panel survey data from Germany makes a dynamic “conditional change” modeling strategy possible; lagged immigration views are included in models to reveal the predictors of over time developments. The most robust findings signal that frequent church attendance reduces immigration concerns; routinely helping others enhances them. And in both instances, these relationships are conditioned by the presence of immigrants in the residential area. Overall, the results position social participation in certain activities as important factors that shape people’s views on immigration.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This research aims at broadening the applicability and scope of network-based explanations of international migration to include explanations of aggregated immigration dynamics for multiple immigrant collectives. Using a unique dataset that contains data on approximately 4.5 million international immigration events from 180 different origin countries in Spain between 1999 and 2009, my analysis shows conclusively that information about changes in the supply of immigrant social capital between past and potential immigrants explains the variation in local immigration rates in the destination society. It also show that incorporating information about such social network influences is very informative when the goal is to explain (1) temporal variation in intra-collective international immigration flows across different locations in the destination, (2) temporal variation in inter-collective international immigration flows within a specific location in the destination, (3) intra-collective differences in international immigration across locations in the destination, and finally (4) inter-collective differences in local international immigration within the same geographical location in the destination.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The five million workers employed in science and engineering (S&E) occupations, and the 20 million with S&E degrees, are considered keys to U.S. competitiveness in the 21st century. Most of those earning PhDs in engineering at U.S. universities are foreigners, as are many of those earning PhDs in science. Many U.S. employers assert that the U.S. Government impairs economic competitiveness with policies that force some foreigners who earn advanced degrees from U.S. Universities to leave and restrict admissions of H-1B temporary foreign workers and that employers want to hire.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “At first glance, Burundi represents a successful negotiated transition to peaceful governance through power sharing, and a justification for regional and international peacebuilders’ involvement. It is undeniable that Burundi is safer than it was a decade or two ago. Most notably, while Burundi was once known for its ethnic divisions and antagonism, today ethnicity is no longer the most salient feature around which conflict is generated. Nevertheless, this article argues that the Burundian experience illuminates international peacebuilding contradictions. Peacebuilding in Burundi highlights the complex interplay between outside ideas and interests, and multiple Burundian ideas and interests. This is illustrated by the negotiation and implementation of governance institutions and practices in Burundi. Outsiders promoted governance ideas that were in line with their favoured conception of peacebuilding, and Burundian politicians renegotiated and reinterpreted these institutions and practices. Even as international rhetoric about peacebuilding emphasized liberal governance and inclusive participation, narrower conceptions of peacebuilding as stabilization and control became dominant. Thus, encounters between international, regional, and local actors have produced governance arrangements that are at odds with their liberal and inclusionary rhetorics. Paradoxically, the activities of international peacebuilders have contributed to an ‘order’ in Burundi where violence, coercion, and militarism remain central. “

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  • “In 1978, when economic reform began in China, it was the party-state-controlled people’s organizations that were most deeply involved in people’s work and social life. For example, the official trade union, the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU), was the one and only legal organization representing workers. Although people who worked for state-owned enterprises were mostly unionized under the umbrella of the ACFTU, the new migrant workers in private enterprises were basically unorganized. Since the mid-1990s, labour activists, some of whom are supported by the international civil society, have tried to establish an alternative form of organization, specifically labour non-governmental organizations (NGOs), for migrant workers. The labour NGOs are concentrated in the Pearl River Delta of South China and provide services in migrant workers’ settlement communities. This paper evaluates the degree to which the labour NGOs have maintained a relatively autonomous civil society space for the vulnerable migrant workers and nurtured a democratic form of labour organization. “

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  • “This article examines the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel, as an update to the 2 previous publications that reviewed studies published in the professional literature (mainly in Hebrew) and referred to earlier periods (from the early 1990s until 2006 and from 2007 through June 2009). This article reviews studies published primarily in Hebrew from mid-2009 throughout December 2011 and describes alcohol use patterns and treatment among FSU immigrants. As the third in the sequence of reviews aimed at English readers, it confirms the findings of the previous 2 reviews. Alcohol use among FSU immigrants continues to be more prevalent than among Israeli-born residents, and FSU immigrants continue to be overrepresented in treatment programs. Moreover, the review describes a severe worsening in alcohol use among FSU detached youth and no differences in alcohol use among early and recent immigrants between the ages of 18 and 40 years.”

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  • “The focus of this article is on the use of found poetry as a tool in qualitative research to examine the experience of precarious housing and homelessness among immigrant women in Montreal. Immigrant and refugee women exhibit greater risk for homelessness than women in general or male newcomers due to higher rates of poverty. Yet little is known about migrant women’s experiences of homelessness and less is available from their own perspective, specifically. The article provides a context for understanding female, newcomer homelessness and summarizes the history of the found poem in a variety of disciplines with an emphasis on “social work and the arts” context. This article also details the study methodology and illustrates the process of the found poem technique with two found poems used as data representation. The found poems we present in this article reveal two of the study’s key findings related to causes of homelessness: unexpected crises (tipping points) and exploitation.”

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  • “The European Neighbourhood Policy’s (ENP) overarching goal of strengthening mutual prosperity, stability and security could be translated into two distinct policy areas in the operational sphere: development and security. Drawing on the example of the Republic of Moldova, the focus of this article is on policy implementation of the ENP. Moldova, a former Republic of the Soviet Union, politically ‘sandwiched’ between the European Union (EU) and Russia, is home of an unsolved, frozen conflict with the breakaway region of Transnistria. In addition, it is characterized by low levels of economic development, high emigration rates and an imperfect democracy – problems that are also found in other ENP partner countries. Within the EU–Moldovan relationship particular attention appears to be given to initiatives regulating the cross-border movement of people. This analysis asks whether and why security interests lie at the core of the ENP, with migration being pivotal.”

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  • “South Asians comprise one of the fastest growing immigrant groups in North America. Evidence indicates that South Asian (SA) immigrant women are vulnerable to low rates of breast cancer screening. Yet, there is a dearth of knowledge pertaining to socioculturally tailored strategies to guide the uptake of screening mammography in the SA community. In 2010, the authors conducted semi-structured focus groups (FG) to elicit perspectives of health and social service professionals on possible solutions to barriers identified by SA immigrant women in a recent study conducted in the Greater Toronto Area. Thirty-five health and social services staff members participated in five FG. The discussions were audio taped and detailed field notes were taken. All collected data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted using techniques of constant comparison within and across the group discussions. Three dominant themes were identified: (i) ‘Target and Tailor’ focused on awareness raising through multiple direct and indirect modes or approaches with underlying shared processes of involving men and the whole family, use of first language and learning from peers; (ii) ‘Enhancing Access to Services’ included a focus on ‘adding ancillary services’ and ‘reinforcement of existing services’ including expansion to a one-stop model; and (iii) ‘Meta-Characteristics’ centred on providing ‘multi-pronged’ approaches to reach the community, and ‘sustainability’ of initiatives by addressing structural barriers of adequate funding, healthcare provider mix, inter-sectoral collaboration and community voice. The findings simultaneously shed light on the grassroot practical strategies and the system level changes to develop efficient programmes for the uptake of mammography among SA immigrant women. The parallel focus on the ‘Target and Tailor’ and ‘Enhancing Access to Services’ calls for co-ordination at the policy level so that multiple sectors work jointly to streamline resources, or meta-characteristics.”

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  • “In recent years, tens of thousands of young Africans have left the shores of Senegal and other West African countries in small boats headed for Spain’s Canary Islands. Most have spent a week or more at sea, and unknown numbers have died in the attempt. Given the danger of the journey, we ask how it could become a large-scale social phenomenon. The analysis focuses on how prospective migrants assess and relate to the risks of migration. We show that risk taking is shaped by context-specific interaction of disparate factors. These include economic obstacles to reaching social adulthood, notions of masculinity, pride and honor, and religion, in the form of sufi Islam.”

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  • “Between 1977 and 1982, the Australian Government resettled over 54,000 Vietnamese refugees. It also admitted 2,059 Vietnamese asylum seekers who arrived by boat without state authorisation. Although the number of Vietnamese asylum seekers was significantly smaller than the number of Vietnamese refugees processed offshore in refugee camps, the unexpected arrival of these boat people stimulated debate in Parliament and in the press about an appropriate response. This article examines the language politicians used to describe Vietnamese asylum seekers and the arguments used to justify their inclusion or exclusion. The evidence demonstrates that the political rhetoric used in this period in Australia’s immigration history cannot be solely categorised as inclusive or humane. Rather, the overall impression is one of resistance and pragmatism.”

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  • “Refugees in Africa are forced to flee their homelands because of ongoing conflicts, persecution and humanitarian crises in their countries. Refugees constitute one of Africa’s most complex challenges, and in many regions protracted refugee situations (PRSs) have developed. This means that refugees have lived in host countries for more than five years with no immediate prospect of finding a sustainable solution to their situation. The case study of Krisan Refugee Camp explores the perceptions of local Ghanaians, refugees and camp officials in finding sustainable solutions for protracted refugee situations. The study explores why the three traditional approaches to solving protracted refugee situations, namely voluntary repatriation, local integration and third-country settlement, have not been successful in Africa. “

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  • “This article explains the impact of substate nationalism on the political dynamic surrounding ethnic kin migration through a case study of Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in the southern Indian State of Tamil Nadu. Examples drawn from the migration studies literature identify ethnic kinship between refugees and host as an indicator of favorable reception and assistance. While this expectation is borne out to an extent in the Tamil Nadu case, it is tempered by a period of hostility following the 1991 assassination of former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi by an LTTE suicide bomber, when the refugees were figured as a disruptive and dangerous presence by Tamil Nadu’s political elites. A version of the “triadic nexus“ model of kin state relations, reconfigured to accommodate the larger political unit within which the substate nationalism is incorporated, is proposed as a framework of analysis for these events. This can better account for Tamil Nadu’s substate ethnonationalist elite’s movement between expressions of coethnic solidarity with the refugees and the more hostile, security-focused response post-assassination. “

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  • “This article offers a critical exploration of exclusionary practices enacted in Italy towards migrant prostitute women. It identifies the double construction of migrant prostitute women as victims of sex trafficking and as illegal/criminal migrants as a dominant paradigm that informs policy approaches aimed at addressing their presence in the country. It explores how this paradigm has emerged in the specific context of contemporary Italy, how it has been sustained, by whom and with what consequences. By drawing on the exploration of a specific incident, the article shows how gendered and racialised constructions of dangerous migrant sexualities can inform decisions over what determines the slippery and unstable demarcation between those who are identified as victims and those who are identified as criminals. Finally, the article suggests that, caught within the restrictive victim/criminal paradigm, migrant prostitutes fail to be recognised and treated as subjects.”

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  • “In this paper, the author proposes an analysis of the apparently contradictory attitudes towards transactional sexual exchanges, as they have emerged in public debate and informed legislation and policies in Italy over the past few years. The ambiguity towards commercial sex is linked to a specific dynamic of power, which denies sexual labour the status of work and makes it the object of repressive and criminalising policies, whilst at the same time habitually demanding sexual services in exchange for money, gifts or favours. The article shows how criminalisation functions as a prominent form for the control of subjects, related to the workings of sovereignty. In particular, the author considers the ways in which the criminalisation of prostitution and of undocumented migration, which compound in the figure of the migrant prostitute, represents a means for the exertion of sovereignty and relates to the centrality of desire, transgression and their disciplining in the contemporary context. However, closer examination of the subjective experiences of those who are supposedly excluded and criminalised, such as undocumented migrant sex workers in detention centres, reveals the incompleteness of disciplinary mechanisms.”

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  • “In September 1973 a group of Palestinian guerillas attacked a train carrying Jewish refugees from the Soviet Union to Austria for relocation to Israel. The ensuing international crisis exposed the intricate web of political relations behind this flow of refugees and drew worldwide attention to the conflict between the human rights of Jewish refugees immigrating to Israel and those of Palestinian refugees who wished to return to their homeland. Ultimately, the Schönau incident would illuminate the contested nature of humanitarian concerns in the 1970s and the wider Cold War era.”

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  • “This study investigated the prevalence of emotional and behavioral symptoms in unaccompanied refugee adolescents living in Italy; an area which remains under-researched despite the relatively high number of asylum seekers registered in Italy compared to other industrialized countries. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 6–18 year-olds was completed by a social worker or parent for each of the 120 participating adolescents; sixty male unaccompanied refugee adolescents and sixty male native Italian adolescents. The paper presents findings that illustrate high levels of emotional and behavioral problems in unaccompanied refugee youth living in Italy. On all components of the CBCL, unaccompanied refugee adolescents were found to present with significantly more problems, as reported by social workers, compared to the Italian group of adolescents. In the light of these results, the importance of interventions and culturally sensitive therapeutic programs for refugee youth is discussed.”

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  • “Arizona Senate Bill 1070 requires law-enforcement officers to verify the citizenship of individuals they stop when they have a “reasonable suspicion” that someone may be unlawfully present in the United States. Critics of the law fear it will encourage racial profiling. Defenders of the law point out that the statute explicitly forbids most forms of racial profiling. By drawing on the lessons learned in the domain of antidiscrimination law, we discuss how social psychological research can inform this debate and illuminate challenges associated with fair enforcement of the statute. We conclude that the Arizona law, paired with a lack of comprehensive training and ineffective testing procedures for detecting discrimination, will likely result in many Latinos being illegally targeted on the basis of their race. While certain actions, such as effective training and oversight, may help mitigate discrimination, these safeguards are not likely to completely eliminate biased outcomes.”

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  • “Although significant research has been completed that examines the effectiveness of process drama as a pedagogical approach for developing additional languages and further work has focused on the affordances of digital technologies within drama work, scant attention has been paid to the possibilities which a combination of these approaches might offer. Within this paper we identify these possibilities within a drama-based research project aimed at developing the resilience of newly arrived refugee children. In this series of lessons, the work focused specifically on the role of language as a key aspect of resilience. Based upon a playful, fantasy-based narrative involving a robot who arrives in an English-speaking community but is unable to communicate effectively, the drama and language work intentionally avoided the kinds of responses to resettlement and resilience that apply a deficit model or focus on the challenges of such experiences. Analysis of the data collected across the project reveals that the technology served seven key functions within the process drama. These functions related to language development, information provision, narrative development, identification and the creation of mood. The use of technology also generated opportunities for the children to have agency over their own learning and to create shared experiences with classmates and teachers.”

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  • “This book draws on 10 years of empirical research to assess for the first time the politics of compassion and belonging associated with immigration policy and its impact on the education system in the UK. The authors expose major tensions between restrictive asylum policies and responses by schools and local government to the presence of asylum seeking and refugee children. They reveal a compassionate professionalism amongst teachers and an emergent ‘new politics’ which challenges the forcible removal by government of children to detention centres and the deportation of families.

    Major findings of their innovative research include the forms of exclusion which ‘non-citizen’ children experience within inclusive schools and the ways in which the empathy of ‘citizen’ students towards those seeking asylum is at risk of being overridden by defensive national identities.

    This book is essential reading for courses on children’s rights, equality and migration studies and for teachers and other professionals in the field of refugee education, immigration and community and social work.”

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  • “Based on a survey of 1,124 social workers in the United States, this article examines how practitioners’ attitudes towards immigrants and their general knowledge of immigration varied according to the content of their social work education. Although the majority of practitioners reported receiving coursework on practice with immigrants, this showed no effect on their attitudes or knowledge. In contrast, coursework on immigration policy predicted more favorable attitudes towards immigrants. Considering the mounting anti-immigrant sentiment and retrenchment of immigrants’ rights in the United States, the results suggest the need to further explore what course work content is needed to prepare social workers for the current needs of the field. We argue that social work education must expand upon existing cultural competence models of practice with immigrants, to better prepare social workers to address the deepening social exclusion of undocumented immigrants in the United States.”

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  • “Overview

    The, issues which are discussed in the 29 chapters of this volume address core matters with respect to modem diverse societies. The most important relate to the following: the societal needs of migrant populations and the educational needs of their children; the exclusivist policies which usually, impact upon migrant groups; the need to enrich school texts and curricula with new intercultural, and citizenship dimensions; the importance of integrating the notion of Paideia within the …
    See more details below”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper explores cultural inclusion – the extent to which schools accommodate the needs and experiences of minority cultural groups to make the schools equally welcoming – and optimal learning places for all children, specifically through the curricular and pedagogical practices which contributed to the secondary school experiences of Ethiopian‐Australian students in Melbourne, Australia. The study utilised a qualitative methodology, using interviews as a major data collection tool, and employed secondary school students, their teachers and parents as informants for the study. A total of 59 participants were interviewed. After the transcription and coding of the interview data, thematic analysis was used. Findings within the Australian context were compared with Ethiopian educational histories and practices to explain how students, parents and teachers felt the Ethio‐Australian students were being culturally acknowledged and included within school practices where cultural acknowledgement referred to understanding and appreciating cultural diversity. The findings indicated that on a general policy level, schools were acknowledging students’ cultural backgrounds; however, at the classroom level, it was very much dependent upon the individual teacher. Participants believed that the curriculum failed to consider the students’ home culture at all levels. Mismatches between Ethiopian students’ expectations and excepted pedagogical practices within their new learning contexts were also evident. Most students were found to be more comfortable copying lessons down from the board, reading comprehension questions, working independently, in pair or in small groups, and wanted to get comments as a correction response for their work. However, the majority of the students were not comfortable with large group and whole‐class discussions, conversation and speaking in front of class. The findings indicated a need for greater curriculum and pedagogical consideration for immigrant students such as these at the classroom level.”

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  • “Since the mid-1970s the territory of Greece has turned from an emigration to an immigration space. A considerable number among the thousands of immigrants that arrive every year in the country are of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin and of Muslim faith. Their Muslim background plays a significant role in the organisation of their communities. Islam is a strong factor when it comes to the development of their social life and in this sense it influences the process of immigrants’ acculturation within the host society. The informal worship place (informal mosque) is the space where the faithful fulfil their religious duties, meet each other and spend much of their free time discussing and exchanging views on mundane and more serious matters. However, the majority of the informal mosques are related to various Islamic associations which hold their own views on religion, society and life. The Pakistani and the Bangladeshi Islamic associations in Greece fall into two broad categories: the missionary movements and groups and the organisations with a ‘political dimension’. An examination of the Islamic associations’ discourse, activities and aims shows that the organisations of the first category promote a very conservative stance for their constituencies towards the host society, whereas those of the second category encourage the immigrants to integrate, while preserving, however, their ‘Islamic values’. Meanwhile, the efforts of the Greek state and society to integrate the Muslim immigrants with a long presence in the country lack in determination and effectiveness.”

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  • “This article illuminates the use of developmental action research (DAR) to create midline theory guiding intervention into homelessness among older African-American women. The authors identify the usefulness of DAR in designing, developing, and refining interventions to help participants get and stay out of homelessness. A multimodal intervention project, the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project (LHIRP), demonstrates how DAR and midline theory were used to frame an understanding of how homelessness occurs among older African-American women. LHIRP is offered as an example of how social work practitioners, researchers, and participants can collaborate to address homelessness through team-based action. It also demonstrates how a number of promising interventions can be best undertaken to address this problem. The authors then illustrate how LHIRP formulates theory to guide the design and development of subsequent intervention models and procedures.”

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  • “This article gives an overview of the factors that lead to the militarisation of Myanmarese refugee camps in Bangladesh and Thailand, using insights from the ethnic composition of the refugees in each country, the role of international organisations and non-governmental organisations, as well as the capacity and desire of each country to control militarisation. The evidence is largely gathered from interviews of aid officials, reporters and refugees in both refugee-hosting countries.”

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  • “This paper draws on Wobst’s concerns ideas of material culture, style and the implications of contemporary archaeology. In a socially engaged “archaeology of now”, I examine the spatiality and material culture of asylum seekers in Irish society as the Irish State governs and thus engineers their social and physical space. Housed in State-operated accommodation centers around the country, the spatial governance of asylum seekers in Ireland creates a structured, exclusionary transnational landscape of difference. The State thereby controls the movement, social borders, place, identity and social relations of asylum seekers in a newly global Ireland.”

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  • “When we refer to the ‘management of religions’, we are primarily referring to the ways in which modern liberal states have responded to ‘public religions’ and in particular to the revival of Islam. The specific issues surrounding Muslim minorities in non-Muslim secular states can be seen as simply one instance of the more general problem of state and religion in modern societies. In this context, there is an increasing awareness of the limitations of the Westphalian constitutional solution, the Hobbesian social contract and Lockean liberalism as political strategies to manage conflicting religious traditions (Spinner-Halevy 2005). Unfortunately, Richard Hooker’s ecclesiastical polity (1594–1597) and his plea that we should concentrate on those doctrines that unite rather than divide us has little relevance in societies that are deeply divided by cultural difference. This situation typically confronts the state because religion is often inseparable from ethnic identity, so that debates about secularization and liberalism cannot be separated from the question of citizenship in multicultural societies. These debates are significant because in societies that are divided along ethno-cultural lines, citizenship and religion are the main contenders to provide the social solidarity necessary to offset those divisions.”

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  • “Every state manages religion in one way or another, and religious violence often justifies state intervention to control how a religion should be presented, preached and, most importantly, limited. This paper examines the state management of religion in Indonesia with focus on state regulations promulgated during the New Order period. The Indonesian state has managed religion by making religious practices less focused on spirituality but more a matter of state administration. Four regulations in particular exemplify the state’s attitude toward religion, namely the Presidential Decree in 1965 on the state-recognised religions, the Joint Ministerial Decree on Houses of Worship in 1969 and 2006, the National Marriage Law in 1974 and the Ministerial Decrees on mission activities in 1978.In brief, this state management of religion has been enabling Indonesia, which has the world’s largest Muslim population, to be governed as neither an Islamic state like Saudi Arabia nor an outright secular state like Turkey among the Muslim countries.”

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  • “In Israel, the Jewish religion, which is unique among world religions in the primacy it accords to filiation rather than belief as a criterion of belonging, operates as a formal criterion of citizenship, but in substance different ways of being Jewish are expressed in different political forces which in turn struggle for control of the state’s religious orientation. This political struggle leads the state to favour ultra-Orthodox observance and criteria of belonging, even though that is a minority strand in the country itself and even more so outside. Religious interests and ideologies have found substantial niches in the legal system, in education, in the army and in the West Bank settlements, by exploiting the state’s corporatist character, leading to a type of multiculturalism in which the once-secular centre has been seriously eroded.”

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  • “This paper looks at the paradoxical creation of a Muslim minority by the Pakistani state to cast a light on the processes of secularism, citizenship and minoritization. The paper argues that contrary to the concerns articulated in academic debates about citizenship and minorities, it is in fact the majority that is managed most assiduously. Critically, these debates assume readymade groupings; this paper discusses how the creation of both a minority and a majority is an ongoing, fractured process. The creation of a minority group, the Ahmadiyya, from within the putative Muslim majority by the state in Pakistan, is thus a useful prism through which to understand the ways in which a specific kind of citizen has been created in Pakistan, one who is increasingly impatient with the idea of doctrinal difference even as she is confronted by a proliferation of different Islams in everyday life.”

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  • “This paper reviews the variety of (sometimes contradictory) processes affecting religion in Argentina today. It questions the idea that a true Catholic monopoly existed in the past, and suggests that the current advancement of religious diversity in the country does not necessarily entail increasing pluralism (since, following James Beckford, this would mean the positive appreciation of this diversity) but can, on the contrary, cause increased social resistance to new religious practices and ideas. A realistic appraisal of religious pluralism should take into account the degree of social as well as governmental regulation of religion. Therefore, this paper emphasizes the expanding role of different secular agents in the control of religious ideas and practices.”

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  • “This paper is about the unsettling prospect of the millennium. In post-colonial Africa and in other locales, nationalists sought to organize culture as heritage, a set of behaviors and projects inherited, in a lineal fashion, from ancient forefathers. By codifying and consolidating religion, and by reforming citizens’ conduct, nationalists created a sovereign culture that could serve as a foundation for an independent state. However, there were other, more imminent frames in which citizens could act. This paper focuses on the Rwenzururu Kingdom in Western Uganda, where in 1970 a prophet named Timosewo Bawalana announced that the Christian eschaton had at last arrived. Rwenzururu’s founders were historians: they recognized the organizing power of linear time. With evidence of their distinct language and culture at hand, Rwenzururu’s architects used the techniques of modern governance – census, map, bureaucracy – to make their independent polity visible, credible, and worthy of support. Whereas Rwenzururu separatists organized time as a forward march, Timosewo Bawalana was following a difference cadence. By breaking with the past, Bawalana interrupted the heritage lessons that Rwenzururu’s founders conducted, opening up an experimental form of community. His radical politics lets us see that the definition of citizenship involved an argument over the passage of time.”

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  • “This article examines the dissonance between Indian secularism in theory and secularism in practice for India’s largest religious minority of Muslims. Marginalised and discriminated against in everyday life, India’s Muslims are frequently constructed simply as victims without recourse to agency. This article challenges this narrative by documenting how Muslims living in Varanasi in North India actively sought to realise their citizenship and a sense of meaningful participation in society. The empirical insights illustrate that despite the failure of state secularism to protect the Muslim minority from discrimination and facilitate their realisation of equal citizenship, these Muslims did not reject the principle of secularism nor seek an alternative. To the contrary, the rhetoric of secularism offered spaces of opportunity through which Muslims could become political, challenge normative narratives and articulate themselves as citizens. The article develops an understanding of multiple and plural Muslim citizenship strategies that are enacted simultaneously across different spaces and scales within the state and society, where notions of the self and citizenship are always in the process of becoming.”

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  • “There are many reasons why political parties can take the racial and ethnic minority voters for granted in Britain. They vote overwhelmingly and loyally for the left-wing parties, have fewer resources than white voters and they mostly live in geographical clusters giving them electoral leverage in a limited number of seats. Yet, minorities participate as much as the white population and seem to do more so in areas of ethnic concentration. Using the British Election Study, Ethnic Minorities British Election Study, British campaign spending data and the electoral agent’s survey from 2010 election, we explore the relationship between party campaigning, individual mobilisation and ethnic population density. We find that although minorities perceive less contact, parties campaign just as hard (or harder) in areas of minority concentration and they target minority voters in these areas, However, minority voters living outside of local concentrations of population may experience less contact from parties. “

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  • “Political representation in the UK continues to be dominated by white, middle-aged, middle-class men, but several equalities groups now have an established presence in national political institutions. This article draws on research with stakeholder organisations, lobby groups for under-represented groups within political parties, former, current and unsuccessful candidates and sitting and former elected politicians conducted prior to the 2010 General Election. It finds that where aspiring candidates from under-represented groups have been selected, it was because they were ‘acceptably different’ conforming to aspects of the ‘archetypal candidate’. We argue that increasingly dominant professionalised ‘pathways’ into national politics have allowed greater diversity, but remain narrow and exclusionary. Progress is less a reflection of a more open political system, instead representing accommodation of still under-represented groups to, and by, the existing system. “

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  • “Differences between white and Black, Asian and other minority ethnic (BAME) local election candidates in Britain are examined using survey data. BAME candidates are more likely to be younger and better educated but fewer women are recruited from among this group. Such candidates are electorally inexperienced, have stronger ties with community-related organisations and are more likely to make their own decision to stand for election rather than being approached by a fellow party member. Community ties are also evident when respondents are asked about their support network upon becoming a candidate with almost two-thirds of BAME candidates experiencing positive support from this quarter. “

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  • “Black, Asian and minority-ethnic (BAME) citizens are under-represented in the House of Commons. Nevertheless, the Chamber’s ethnic composition has become more reflective of the general population as a result of the 2005 and 2010 parliamentary elections. The article seeks to map and explain variations in the extent to which BAME Members of Parliament (MPs) use the Chamber to articulate issues relevant to minority constituents. We compare the content of all parliamentary questions for written answer asked by BAME MPs between May 2005 and December 2011 to the questions asked by a matching sample of non-minority legislators. We find that BAME MPs ask more questions relating to the problems and rights of ethnic minorities in, and immigration to, the UK. However, we also find that all British MPs are responsive to the interests of minority constituents where these are geographically concentrated. Building on theoretical predictions derived from (1) models focusing on MPs’ political socialisation and (2) on the electoral incentives they are facing, we discover that the MPs in our sample respond systematically to electoral incentives, especially in the politically salient area of immigration policy. While these findings are in line with an ‘electoral-incentives model’, a ‘socialisation model’ is better suited to explain the larger number of questions on the interests of ethnic minorities asked by Labour MPs. “

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  • “Western democracies, with their increasingly diverse racial and ethnic populations, are seeing more political candidates who are non-white. How do these non-white candidates fare at the ballot box? Does their non-white status mean they gain or lose votes? Do their challengers gain or lose votes? In recent work on the US case, it appears that candidate Obama lost votes in 2008 because of his non-white status. The research question we address here is whether, in the context of the 2010 UK parliamentary elections, the race or ethnicity of the candidates played a role in the vote totals. What we find is that, while in some ways race does not matter, in other ways it does. In particular, it appears that the local incumbent party in a constituency typically gained at least two percentage points in vote share (of the major-three-party vote), when they had a Black, Asian or Minority Ethnic (BAME) challenger. Of course, this does not mean that BAME candidates cannot win. It has been amply demonstrated that they can win. But what it does mean is that, other things being equal, the local party (which won the seat last time) is likely to benefit from their presence in the contest. “

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  • “This article examines whether sex matters with respect to a type of legislator behaviour that has thus far been neglected in the literature analysing the distinctive nature of female and male legislators: parliamentarians’ outside interests. Using data for 614 German Members of Parliament (MPs), our analysis confirms that female MPs on average hold fewer outside jobs than men—especially in private-sector functions. We also find that individual characteristics such as political experience, having (young) children and age reflect sources of this divergence. These findings and their implications are discussed in the light of extensive research on sex and gender effects in other political and labour market settings. “

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  • “This article examines the extent to which the Freedom of Information Act (FOI) is used by members of the UK Parliament to hold the government to account, compared with the experience in New Zealand, Australia, Canada and Ireland. As with other accountability mechanisms, FOI can be used for a range of issues. It is primarily a tool of opposition and can be a versatile weapon, useful in the right time and place. However, it does not significantly enhance accountability and remains a minority pursuit. This is because FOI takes time, members are creatures of habit and it is useful only in particular ways. “

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  • “Obama’s 2008 presidential victory in the USA triggered a debate in Europe and the UK as to whether someone from an ethnic minority could achieve similar success in national politics. The 2010 General Election saw a small increase in ethnic minority candidates, but a near doubling of the number of black and Asian members of parliament (MPs) in the House of Commons. During 2010 and 2011, the University of Manchester organised a seminar series on ethnic minorities’ political representation in Britain. This symposium features some of the highlights of that series. In this article we summarise some of the key arguments. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “On the morning of 11 September 2001, Lord Carlile of Berriew Q.C. was appointed as the UK government’s first independent reviewer of terrorism legislation under the Terrorism Act 2000. There is a growing body of literature on the role of the courts and parliament in scrutinising anti-terrorism legislation. There has, however, been no sustained attempt to evaluate either the office of the independent reviewer in general or Lord Carlile’s performance within it. Lord Carlile’s tenure in office was defined by the first post-9/11 decade. He recently resigned and a new independent reviewer appointed. Now is therefore the opportune moment to begin a debate on the efficacy of Lord Carlile’s tenure as the independent reviewer and of the office more generally. This article starts that debate. It examines the independent reviewer’s influence on government policy in the area of pre-charge detention in contrast to other review mechanisms. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 1978, when economic reform began in China, it was the party-state-controlled people’s organizations that were most deeply involved in people’s work and social life. For example, the official trade union, the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU), was the one and only legal organization representing workers. Although people who worked for state-owned enterprises were mostly unionized under the umbrella of the ACFTU, the new migrant workers in private enterprises were basically unorganized. Since the mid-1990s, labour activists, some of whom are supported by the international civil society, have tried to establish an alternative form of organization, specifically labour non-governmental organizations (NGOs), for migrant workers. The labour NGOs are concentrated in the Pearl River Delta of South China and provide services in migrant workers’ settlement communities. This paper evaluates the degree to which the labour NGOs have maintained a relatively autonomous civil society space for the vulnerable migrant workers and nurtured a democratic form of labour organization. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this paper, we focus on the southern cross-border area between Spain and Portugal, which includes eighteen different municipalities on both sides of the border. We gathered information using a number of different techniques from a wide range of informants, including politicians, experts on cross-border cooperation, a broad range of civil society organizations and common citizens. Our objectives were to make a broad diagnosis of social reality in this area, to understand the dynamics of territorial development, including the possibilities and limitations of community development, and to obtain clear insight into the characteristics of the social networks that Portuguese and Spanish citizens are currently building. Our results contrast with existing assumptions on these issues, particularly regarding the relationships built by Spanish and Portuguese citizens, the social network arrangements they establish, the relative importance of the spaces of places and the spaces of flows and the sense of community on both sides of the border. We also question more general notions regarding the importance of cross-border cooperation, especially insofar as this concept usually emphasizes institutional relationships while overlooking non-formal and informal relationships between people. These latter relationships, we argue, may have greater potential to influence the sustainable development of the cross-border area between southern Portugal and Spain. We highlight the role of bottom-up activities that would promote closer relationships between Spanish and Portuguese citizens and communities and would change the typical social networks they establish. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The case HJ (Iran) and HT (Cameroon) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] UKSC 31 was celebrated as a ‘fundamental shift in asylum law’. In this decision, the UK Supreme Court rejects the ‘reasonably tolerable test’ that had been applied in the case of the gay men HJ, a 40-year-old Iranian, and HT, a 36-year-old citizen of Cameroon. On the basis that the claimants could be reasonably expected to tolerate being discreet about their sexual identity in order to avoid persecution, their applications had been unsuccessful. This ‘reasonably tolerable test’, which was fairly well established in case law, was much contested and its rejection was overdue. Yet in their decision, the Justices not only reject this old test, they go a step further and formulate a new approach to be followed by tribunals in asylum claims on grounds of sexual orientation.

    This article argues that this new approach fails to discard ‘discretion’ as a concept in asylum cases as a whole, contrary to the submissions of the intervening parties in the case, namely, UNHCR and the Equality and Human Rights Commission. The new test continues to be constructed on ‘discretion logic’ – which is not tenable for a series of reasons. First, the test creates two distinguishable categories, openly demonstrated sexuality and concealed sexuality. Secondly, it assumes that this distinction and the underlying choice are relevant for assessing whether the applicant is at risk of persecution. Finally, the case relied heavily on the subjective element of assessing the ‘fear’ of persecution, which leads to a stricter test than necessary. The assessment of the existence of a well-founded fear of persecution in LGBT cases should instead be made without reference to whether or not the applicants would conceal their sexual orientation. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “At first glance, Burundi represents a successful negotiated transition to peaceful governance through power sharing, and a justification for regional and international peacebuilders’ involvement. It is undeniable that Burundi is safer than it was a decade or two ago. Most notably, while Burundi was once known for its ethnic divisions and antagonism, today ethnicity is no longer the most salient feature around which conflict is generated. Nevertheless, this article argues that the Burundian experience illuminates international peacebuilding contradictions. Peacebuilding in Burundi highlights the complex interplay between outside ideas and interests, and multiple Burundian ideas and interests. This is illustrated by the negotiation and implementation of governance institutions and practices in Burundi. Outsiders promoted governance ideas that were in line with their favoured conception of peacebuilding, and Burundian politicians renegotiated and reinterpreted these institutions and practices. Even as international rhetoric about peacebuilding emphasized liberal governance and inclusive participation, narrower conceptions of peacebuilding as stabilization and control became dominant. Thus, encounters between international, regional, and local actors have produced governance arrangements that are at odds with their liberal and inclusionary rhetorics. Paradoxically, the activities of international peacebuilders have contributed to an ‘order’ in Burundi where violence, coercion, and militarism remain central. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The descendants of immigrants comprise nearly a third of the West German population under the age of 25 years and will soon become a substantial proportion of the native born labor force. Owing to the young age of this group, and a lack of governmental data on parental place of birth, there is currently little research that compares the labor market outcomes of the second generation of different origins. Exploiting the first data set to allow the disaggregation of all immigrant groups in Germany, this article draws on the concepts of context of reception and boundary crossing to explain variation in the labor market performance of different immigrant origin groups. Positively received ethnic Germans consistently perform better than negatively received guest worker origin groups. Labor market inequality is greatest among men and in obtaining employment. Ethnic differences are more compressed among women and for occupational attainment among the employed. The boundary crossing mechanisms of naturalization and intermarriage have modest association with labor market success. Findings suggest that successful integration in Germany is influenced by labor market institutions, which encourage inequality in unemployment while diminishing inequality amongst the employed. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Freedom of expression is essential to the good working of the entire human rights system. It is inevitable that so fundamental a human right as freedom of expression is also among the most violated of rights. Responding to the array of assaults, abuses, concerns and gaps requires multi-faceted action from many actors. Crucial to the effectiveness of all such responses will be the existence of a strong normative framework in the form of international human rights law in support of freedom of expression. One should thus enquire as to whether the existing standards are adequate to their function. The present article frames a response to that question around the principal global expression of the right in Article 19 (paragraphs 2 and 3) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The article opines that the Human Rights Committee has interpreted Article 19 in a manner that favours a wide enjoyment of free expression and that it has applied the restriction clauses narrowly. The jurisprudence, inevitably, only addresses a small range of issues and, notwithstanding the many additional indications to be found in the Committee’s Concluding Observations, there remain areas of uncertainty regarding the scope and application of the Article. Thus was set the context, in 2009, for the Committee’s decision to develop a new General Comment on Article 19. The present author served as the Committee’s rapporteur for the development of what became General Comment No 34. The article concludes with an analytical review of the drafting process and of the adopted text and assesses the first phases of the reception of the General Comment by States and others. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This qualitative, empirical study explores and describes the variation in how evidence-based practice (EBP) is understood in social work. A phenomenographic approach to design and analysis was applied. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with politicians, managers and executive staff in three social welfare offices in Sweden. The main findings suggest that there are qualitatively different ways in which EBP is understood, described in five categories: (i) fragmented; (ii) discursive; (iii) instrumental; (iv) multifaceted; and (v) critical. The outcome space is hierarchically structured with a logical relationship between the categories. However, the informants found it difficult to account for EBP, depending on what was expressed as deficient knowledge of EBP in the organisation, as well as ability to provide a seemly context for EBP. The results highlight the importance of acknowledging these differences in the organisation to compose a supportive atmosphere for EBP to thrive rather than merely assume the case of evidence-based social work. The categories can be utilised as stimuli for reflection in social work practice, and thereby provide the possibility to promote knowledge use and learning in the evolving evidence-based social work. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “The European Union is currently in the process of revising the central directives that make up European Union refugee law, a project that will touch on almost every aspect of seeking asylum in Europe. This article will focus on the implementation of one doctrine, the internal protection or internal flight alternative, under the recently recast Qualification Directive. The article will first examine the application of the internal protection alternative, based on the text of the 1951 Convention, and UNHCR and academic commentary. Following this examination, the article will critique the recast Qualification Directive, concluding that, by effectively providing two alternative standards for IPA, it is unlikely to result in greater harmonization in Europe, and that both standards are problematic from the perspective of international law. Despite these shortcomings, recent European Court of Justice jurisprudence has clarified and improved previous interpretations of EU asylum law.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Antonio Cassese’s vision for the future of the international human rights and criminal justice regimes relied critically upon the availability of reliable and systematic sources of information about alleged violations, to be provided primarily by the major international human rights NGOs. But the reality is that the existing system is problematically fragmented, hierarchical, non-collaborative, and excessively shaped by organizational self-interest. The politics of information suggests that, in the absence of significant pressure for change, the major INGOs will continue to adopt a proprietorial rather than a communal approach to reported data. We argue that while new information and communications technologies have already demonstrated their potential to transform the existing human rights regime, there is a compelling case to be made for establishing a comprehensive reporting website, open to local actors as well as the international community, and equipped with a collaborative online editing tool that would begin to resemble a human rights version of the Wikipedia. The article explores the many advantages of a human rights wiki, and notes the range of choices that would need to be made in order to shape the structure, and modes of organization and management of such an initiative.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “A total of 44 state refugee health coordinators returned a survey assessing mental health screening practices and barriers to screening. Results show that less than half the states ask refugees about a history of war trauma or torture. Of the 25 states that provide mental health screening, 17 (70.8%) utilize informal conversation rather than standardized measures. Screening practices are highly associated with the number of refugees and community discretionary grants and with the presence of a Services for Survivors of Torture Program. Refugee health coordinators identified the need for short, culturally appropriate mental health screening tools to identify refugees who need assessment and treatment services.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article focuses on the experience of unaccompanied minor asylum seekers who recently traveled to Malta and who aspired to journey on from there to mainland Europe. It is a phenomenological study of people who are on the move and in transition, and adopts a qualitative ethnographic-style research design. The analysis combines grounded theory and discourse analysis to explore how language served to frame these young people’s ideas of themselves, their travels, and their lives. It suggests a core theory of how their definition and understanding of their African origins offers them stability despite the uncertainties that they encounter.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Homophobia and heterosexism are ubiquitous in Canadian society. They contribute to significant health and mental health disparities for lesbian, gay and bisexual youth and their families. Anti-homophobia efforts tend to focus on students and teachers at school. While these efforts are important, they do not reach parents, who play an important role in shaping young people’s attitudes towards gender and sexuality. To eliminate bullying and victimisation associated with homophobia at school and in the community, concerted efforts are urgently needed to mobilise parents to become champions against homophobia and heterosexism. In this paper, we report on our use of storytelling and critical dialogue to engage a group of Hong Kong Chinese immigrant parents in Toronto to interrogate their values and assumptions about homosexuality. In particular, we illustrate how we use storytelling to create a liminal space whereby the narrators and listeners collaborate to create counter-discourses that challenge social domination and exclusion. We then discuss the implications of using a critical dialogical approach to integrate anti-homophobia efforts in community parenting programmes.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The present study seeks to assess the differences and similarities in a set of consumer traits such as physical vanity–concern and view, fashion innovativeness, and media orientations across three populations: (1) residents of India (n = 184), (2) first-generation immigrants to the United States from India (n = 55), and (3) native-born residents of the United States (n = 215). The results suggest that certain attributes of the immigrants follow traditional notions of acculturation. However, evidence was also found suggesting overacculturation and hyperidentification of Indian immigrants, as well as unique attributes of the immigrants. Implications for marketers are also discussed.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study investigates employment and health outcomes in Iraqi refugees compared to Iraqi immigrants. We surveyed 148 Iraqi professional refugees and 111 Iraqi professional immigrants residing in the United States. We hypothesized that Iraqi refugees would report lower employment and worse self-rated health as compared to Iraqi immigrants. Logistic regression was used to test various models. Results showed that more immigrants were employed, as well as employed in their original profession as compared to refugees. Regardless of immigration status, participants’ age and the way they rated their job played a larger role in health. The study is the first to demonstrate that, controlling for professional, ethnic, and cultural background, there are unknown mechanisms resulting in lower employment and skilled employment in refugees as compared to matched immigrant controls. Furthermore, satisfaction with the new work appears more important than employment, per se.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article links motorbike use with the work and living conditions of young migrant women in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) to highlight an example of the social and economic consequences of migration-assisted economic development in Southeast Asia. It traces a woman’s life from her teenage years in the market of a small seaside town in Vietnam to her purchase of a motorbike, migration to HCMC, move into a rooming house, and work in a major department store as a cosmetics saleswoman. The reflections on urban life by the woman and her roommates lead the author to consider the notion that the condition of the unregistered and temporary migrant is like that of the unrequited wandering ghosts (co hon), which are said to invisibly roam the city’s streets. While the author details the political economy of marginalization that situates the migrant saleswoman, he also shows how she struggles within it to constitute herself over time rather than in the present and to free herself from abstraction-producing social categories, both old and new. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article focuses on child health in the Palestinian refugee camp of Dheisheh in the West Bank region of the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Thirty in-depth interviews were carried out with parents to determine their perceptions of their children’s health. The questions related to physical, mental and social well-being, access to health facilities, factors that were likely to hinder health and measures that could be implemented to improve child health. The study was carried out prior to and during the Gaza War in December 2008 that resulted in the deaths of 1380 Palestinians including 431 children and 112 women [1]. The effects of occupation, conflict and being a refugee had a detrimental impact on perceptions of health. Interviewees revealed that their perceptions of their children’s health were determined by the camp’s conditions, the current economic climate, past and current political conflict and financial and social restrictions. The understanding of being healthy incorporated physical and mental health as well as social well-being. As a result, 70% of interviewees deemed that their children were not in good health. This finding accelerated to 100% after the Gaza War, showing the negative effect war has on health perceptions. Findings showed that perceptions of physical health are very much interlinked with mental well-being and parents’ perceptions of their children’s health, and are closely related to their state of mental health. Consequently, a clear correlation can be discerned between the ongoing occupation and its detrimental effects on mental health. Therapeutic and preventive health programmes such as child therapy and stress management that have already been implemented by the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme would be highly beneficial to both children and adults in Dheisheh refugee camp.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Keywords:

    Immigration Detention;
    Immigration Policy;
    United Kingdom;
    British Politics;
    United Kingdom History;
    Immigration Politics;
    Normative Theory;
    Punishment

    This article explores both the official history of immigration detention in the United Kingdom as well as a lesser-known narrative of challenges to the practice. After outlining the legislative development of the U.K. detention estate, the study uses original research to demonstrate that Parliament, the courts, and civil society have historically been the sites of disagreement with both the supposedly benign nature of immigration detention as well as its promulgation as an ancillary tool to immigration control. The article also employs explanatory and normative theories to make sense of the continuing expansion of immigration detention across liberal states despite the moral outcry. The primary finding is that the U.K. government’s attempts to normalize immigration detention have not been wholly successful.

    Related Articles

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C., and Kerry G. Herron. 2009. “Rock and a Hard Place: Public Willingness to Trade Civil Rights and Liberties for Greater Security.” Politics & Policy 37 (5): 1095-1129. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1747-1346.2009.00215.x/abstract Sabia, Debra. 2010. “The Anti-Immigrant Fervor in Georgia: Return of the Nativist or Just Politics as Usual?” Politics & Policy 38 (5): 53-80. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1747-1346.2009.00228.x/abstract

    Related Media

    Report: by Silverman, Stephanie J., and Ruchi Hajela. 2012. “Immigration Detention in the UK.” Migration Observatory. http://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/briefings/immigration-detention-uk

    Podcast: by Flynn, Michael. 2010. “Immigration Detention and the Aesthetics of Incarceration.” University of Oxford Podcasts—Audio and Video Lectures. http://podcasts.ox.ac.uk/immigration-detention-and-aesthetics-incarceration-audio

    Este artículo explora la historia oficial de la detención de inmigrantes en el Reino Unido así como la menos conocida narrativa de los retos que se han visto en la práctica. Luego una breve exposición del desarrollo legislativo de las detenciones en el Reino Unido, este artículo muestra una investigación original para demostrar que el Parlamento, las cortes y la sociedad civil históricamente han sido lugares de desacuerdo con la supuesta naturaleza benigna de la detención de inmigrantes así como con su promulgación como una herramienta auxiliar para el control de la inmigración. El artículo también hace uso de teorías explicativas y normativas para comprender la continua expansión de la detención de inmigrantes en los estados liberales, a pesar de la indignación moral. El resultado principal es que los intentos del gobierno del Reino Unido para normalizar la detención de inmigrantes no ha sido del todo exitosa.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “BACKGROUND:

    A problem repeatedly reported in birth certificate data is the presence of missing data. In 2008, a Centre for Perinatal Epidemiology was created inter alia to assist the Health Departments of Brussels-Capital City Region to check birth certificates. The purpose of this study is to assess the changes brought by the Centre in terms of completeness of data registration for the entire population and according to immigration status.
    METHODS:

    Birth certificates from the birth registry of 2008 and 2009 of Brussels were considered. We evaluated the initial missing information in January 2008 (baseline situation) and the corresponding rate at the end of 2008 after oral and written information had been given to the city civil servants and health providers. The data were evaluated again at the end of 2009 where no reinforcement rules were adopted. We also measured residual missing data after correction in socio-economic and medical data, for the entire population and according to maternal nationality of origin. Changes in registration of stillbirths were estimated by comparison to 2007 baseline data, and all multiple births were checked for complete identification of pairs.
    RESULTS:

    Missing information initially accounted for 64.0%, 20.8% and 19.5% of certificates in January 2008, December 2008, and 2009 respectively. After correction with lists sent back to the hospitals or city offices, the mean residual missing data rate was 2.1% in 2008 and 0.8% in 2009. Education level and employment status were missing more often in immigrant mothers compared to Belgian natives both in 2008 and 2009. Mothers from Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest missing rate of socio-economic data. The stillbirth rate increased from 4.6 ‰ in 2007 to 8.2 ‰ in 2009. All twin pairs were identified, but early loss of a co-twin before 22 weeks was rarely reported.
    CONCLUSIONS:

    Reinforcement of data collection was associated with a decrease of missing information. The residual missing data rate was very low. The stillbirth rate was also improved but the early loss of a co-twin before 22 weeks seems to remain underreported.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Immigrants often adopt new and unfamiliar occupations in an attempt to adapt to their new culture. Occupations provide a means for participation in the host country and play a significant role in formulating a person’s identity. This scoping review sought to identify the current knowledge on immigration and its impact on occupations. A scoping review for peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2010 in English or French was completed. Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. Four themes were identified: 1) role change; 2) work; 3) identity; and 4) health and well-being. Limitations include the lack of a consistent definition of occupation, research primarily being conducted in the North American context and the limited number of occupational therapy based articles. Future research should focus on a systematic review of the lived experiences of immigrants and their occupational contexts, and how this can inform policy development. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Best Interest of the Child Questionnaire (BIC-Q) has been designed as an instrument for screening the quality of the rearing situation of asylum-seeking or refugee children. It is intended to aid legal decisions in asylum procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and the construct validity of the BIC-Q. Based on a study sample of refugee or asylum-seeking children in the Netherlands (N = 74), the psychometric quality of the BIC-Q was investigated using Cohen’s kappa for the inter- and intrarater reliability and a nonparametric item response model for the construct validity. The interrater and intrarater reliabilities of the BIC-Q were good (kappa = .65 and .74 respectively). The results of the item response model revealed that the 14 pedagogical environmental conditions formed a strong and valid measurement scale for the quality of the childrearing environment (H = .55; rho = .94). Preliminary results indicate that the BIC-Q may be applied to support decisions on where the asylum-seeking or refugee child has the best opportunities for development. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 2003, the Oklahoma jumped to the forefront of progressive state immigration policy when it became one of only four states to allow unauthorized immigrants access to in-state tuition and scholarships. Four years later, Oklahoma reversed itself and passed HB 1804, a comprehensive set of immigration policies more restrictive than Arizona’s SB 1070. This substantial reversal occurred at a time when Oklahoma’s unemployment rate was only four percent and unauthorized immigrants accounted for an estimated one to two percent of the population.

    To understand the transformation of immigration policy in Oklahoma, we identify four key stages in the evolution of immigration policy: the adoption of in-state tuition and scholarship benefits for illegal immigrants in 2003; the introduction and rejection of a comprehensive anti-immigrant bill in 2005; the adoption of a revised comprehensive anti-immigrant bill in 2006, and the largely failed implementation of the comprehensive anti-immigrant legislation subsequently. We modify Tichenor’s (2003) theory about the dynamic interplay between strange bedfellow coalitions of interest groups, institutional arrangements, and ideas about the value of immigrants at the federal level to fit state political structures.

    We analyze the various political factors which alternatively reduced and increased the scope of conflict. Our data consists of a four year analysis of immigration stories in the Daily Oklahoman and interviews with political elites.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Largely in response to irregular migration flows, a Euro-African border is under construction at the southern edges of Europe. The latest phase in this ‘borderwork’ is a system known as Eurosur, underpinned by a vision of a streamlined surveillance cover of Europe’s southern maritime border and the African ‘pre-frontier’ beyond it. Eurosur and other policing initiatives pull in a range of sectors – from border guards to aid workers – that make the statistically small figure of the irregular border crosser their joint target. To highlight the economic and productive aspects of controlling migratory flows, I call this varied group of interests an ‘illegality industry’. Casting an eye on the Spanish section of the external EU border, this article investigates how the illegality industry conceptualizes migrants as a source of risk to be managed, visualized and controlled. The end result, it is argued, is a ‘double securitization’ of migrant flows, rendering these as both a security threat and a growing source of profits.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study aimed at: (1) disentangling the associations between ethnicity, immigration, educational background, and mothers’ developmental expectations and (self-reported) child-rearing practices; and (2) identifying the cross-cultural differences and similarities in developmental expectations and child-rearing practices. Participants were 111 Dutch and 111 Turkish immigrant mothers in the Netherlands, and 242 Turkish mothers living in Turkey. Dutch and higher-educated mothers had a tendency to believe that children learn certain skills and behaviors at an earlier age than did Turkish and lower-educated mothers, respectively. Turkish mothers, majority group, and higher-educated mothers reported more child-centered parenting practices than Dutch mothers, immigrants, and mothers with less education, respectively. Parent-centered parenting practices were reported mainly by less educated mothers. The analyses on disentangling the associations between sociodemographic background variables and parenting pointed to the relative importance and consistency of maternal education as a predictor of parenting, compared to ethnic background and immigration history. It is concluded that disentangling variables that are often associated with studies comparing immigrant and majority groups is essential for a proper understanding of similarities and differences in developmental expectations and child-rearing practices. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Chileans exiled during the Pinochet dictatorship used art (arpilleras) from the shantytowns of Santiago in their efforts to bring about a return to democracy in Chile. What was the significance of their doing so? From the exiles’ perspective, selling the art helped inform the public in their host countries about suffering caused by the dictatorship, it helped raise money to send back to shantytown women and the resistance movement, and it helped foster collective organizing and solidarity in Chile. Engaging in art-centred political activism was also important for the exiles themselves, as it made them feel they were ‘solidarios’ (compassionate and helping the resistance), politically active still, and engaged in the pro-democracy struggle. Furthermore, it helped them overcome trauma, giving meaning to their exile, and making them feel less isolated. These various meanings that exiles attributed to their political work with art were influenced by feelings of guilt, purposelessness, and a sense of rupture with past lives. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “At first glance, Burundi represents a successful negotiated transition to peaceful governance through power sharing, and a justification for regional and international peacebuilders’ involvement. It is undeniable that Burundi is safer than it was a decade or two ago. Most notably, while Burundi was once known for its ethnic divisions and antagonism, today ethnicity is no longer the most salient feature around which conflict is generated. Nevertheless, this article argues that the Burundian experience illuminates international peacebuilding contradictions. Peacebuilding in Burundi highlights the complex interplay between outside ideas and interests, and multiple Burundian ideas and interests. This is illustrated by the negotiation and implementation of governance institutions and practices in Burundi. Outsiders promoted governance ideas that were in line with their favoured conception of peacebuilding, and Burundian politicians renegotiated and reinterpreted these institutions and practices. Even as international rhetoric about peacebuilding emphasized liberal governance and inclusive participation, narrower conceptions of peacebuilding as stabilization and control became dominant. Thus, encounters between international, regional, and local actors have produced governance arrangements that are at odds with their liberal and inclusionary rhetorics. Paradoxically, the activities of international peacebuilders have contributed to an ‘order’ in Burundi where violence, coercion, and militarism remain central. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Prior research finds that Latino immigration reduced violence. We argue that this is because they settled in traditional immigrant areas. But recent migrants settled in new destinations where the immigration–violence link is more complex. Contrary to previous findings, we observe that (1) Latino homicide victimization is higher in new destinations; (2) Latino immigration increases victimization rates, but only in new destinations and only for Latinos entering after 1990, when they fanned out to new destinations; and (3) Latino deprivation increases victimization only in new destinations because, we speculate, these new areas lack the protective social control umbrella of traditional destinations. Thus, the “Latino paradox” may be less useful than time-honored sociological frameworks for understanding the link between Latino immigration and violence.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Background

    Exposure to violence in general and to armed conflict in particular has been consistently associated with an increased prevalence of mental illness. Colombia has sustained an internal armed conflict for decades and is considered one of the most violent countries in the world. However, certain areas have been more exposed to the conflict than others.
    Methods

    This is a cross sectional study comparing two communities from different villages in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. One, Guasca, was directly impacted by armed conflict. The other one; Guatavita has never been affected by armed conflict. We applied two different instruments: the PHQ scale and a short standardized interview in order to estimate the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders and their link to violent events. Forty-two volunteers from each village were evaluated through a personal interview using these two instruments.

    Findings: Of the population surveyed in Guatavita, 2.4% reported direct exposure to violence compared to 23.8% from Guasca. In the population exposed directly to violent events, the prevalence of all disorders was greater than in the non-exposed population with an OR of 1.46 (95% CI 0.3809 – 5.5989) for anxiety; 4.54 (95% CI 1.1098 – 18.5984) for depression; 6.0 (95% CI 1.2298 – 30.2263) for somatization disorder; and 4.4 (95% CI 1.2037 – 16.0842) for alcohol abuse.

    Interpretation: There is a statistically significant association between the history of armed conflict, violence and the presence of mental illnesses, particularly depression, somatization disorder and alcohol abuse. Special attention should be paid to the detection, prevention and treatment of these disorders when dealing with populations exposed to violence and to armed conflict in particular. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Many refugee communities are host to a wealth of research projects. Yet, relationships between researchers and refugee research participants have been little studied. The current study provides an empirical, qualitative investigation of the relationships that may evolve between researchers and members of Tamil voluntary associations in Norway. It explores whether these relationships provided research participants with access to resources outside their group. The study draws on participant observation among researchers and Tamil research participants between 2006 and 2011, with particular focus on events related to the final stage of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009. It was found that social connectedness with researchers provided research participants with linking social capital. Researchers played multiple and overlapping roles within this part of the Tamil community, enabling access to resources outside the community. The study contributes to the theoretical development of the concept of linking social capital by construing it as the outcome of specific conscious or unconscious strategic investments embedded in features of social organization and cultural orientations of the involved actors, and the social and political context these investments occur in. Implications of the study for research designs are discussed. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In the past two decades, refugee-hosting states have increasingly chosen to close their borders when confronted with mass refugee influxes. This article examines humanitarian responses to such closures. I argue that, particularly in the post-Cold War period, the international community has increasingly chosen not to condemn but to mitigate such closures, constructing alternative ‘safety’ zones. Yet while border closures that lead to ‘safe zones’ may offer a minimal security and preserve life through humanitarian relief, they cannot offer the full protections of refugee law, or a durable solution to persecution and political exclusion. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Somali Bantu living in the United States, after many years in Kenyan refugee camps, face significant barriers to successful integration into American society. This study is based on qualitative interviews of 11 Somali Bantu adults and 11 refugee resettlement workers in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. It investigates the impact of globalized economic practices on resettlement at the local level. The link between a history of discrimination against the Somali Bantu and current barriers to economic self-sufficiency is illustrated. Results demonstrate the negative influence of neoliberal economic policies which include top-down management approaches and result in competition between agencies. Services are provided in a standardized manner which limits the ability to address the needs of a unique group like the Somali Bantu effectively. Of particular concern is the emphasis on economic self-sufficiency, which results in limited access to education and advancement opportunities. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The 20-year war that displaced more than 90 per cent of the population of Acholiland has drawn to a close and most people have left the IDP camps and returned to their rural homes. But some remain behind, unable to ‘re-place’ themselves in the traditional patterns of Acholi belonging to homes and land. Socially mediated access to land has been weakened by the death of husbands and parents; conjugal partnerships and children’s affiliation were not formally recognized during the years of violence and displacement, also undermining claims to land. Our recent study of ‘remainers’ at Awach, a former IDP camp in Gulu District, reveals how ‘fundamentalist’ patrilineal ideology was deployed to justify their exclusion from rural homes. They remain internally displaced not only within their country, but within the fellowships of kinship and marriage that constitute belonging. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Chileans exiled during the Pinochet dictatorship used art (arpilleras) from the shantytowns of Santiago in their efforts to bring about a return to democracy in Chile. What was the significance of their doing so? From the exiles’ perspective, selling the art helped inform the public in their host countries about suffering caused by the dictatorship, it helped raise money to send back to shantytown women and the resistance movement, and it helped foster collective organizing and solidarity in Chile. Engaging in art-centred political activism was also important for the exiles themselves, as it made them feel they were ‘solidarios’ (compassionate and helping the resistance), politically active still, and engaged in the pro-democracy struggle. Furthermore, it helped them overcome trauma, giving meaning to their exile, and making them feel less isolated. These various meanings that exiles attributed to their political work with art were influenced by feelings of guilt, purposelessness, and a sense of rupture with past lives. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New: Journal of Refugee Studies Advance Access for 17 Dec 2012

*** Apologies for Cross Posting ***

JRS Advance Access

Journal of Refugee Studies
Advance Access Alert
8 December 2012 to 17 December 2012

Articles

Exiles, Art, and Political Activism: Fighting the Pinochet Regime from Afar
Jacqueline Adams
Journal of Refugee Studies published 17 December 2012, 10.1093/jrs/fes041
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF] [Request Permissions]

Remaining Internally Displaced: Missing Links to Security in Northern Uganda
Susan Reynolds Whyte, Sulayman Mpisi Babiiha, Rebecca Mukyala, and Lotte Meinert
Journal of Refugee Studies published 13 December 2012, 10.1093/jrs/fes040
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF] [Request Permissions]

Resettlement of Somali Bantu Refugees in an Era of Economic Globalization
Yda J. Smith
Journal of Refugee Studies published 13 December 2012, 10.1093/jrs/fes039
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF] [Request Permissions]

In Search of Sanctuary: Border Closures, ‘Safe’ Zones and Refugee Protection
Katy Long
Journal of Refugee Studies published 13 December 2012, 10.1093/jrs/fes050
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF] [Request Permissions]

‘White Tigers’: Researcher Roles in Relation to Linking Social Capital within Tamil Voluntary Associations in Norway
Eugene Guribye
Journal of Refugee Studies published 13 December 2012, 10.1093/jrs/fes046
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF] [Request Permissions]