Tag Archives: New Journal Articles

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “This chapter focuses on books published in the field of black cultural studies in 2011. It is divided into two sections: 1. Visual Culture, which reviews Leigh Raiford’s Imprisoned in a Luminous Glare, Nicole Fleetwood’s Troubling Vision, John Bowles’ Adrian Piper, and Nicholas Mirzoeff’s The Right to Look; 2. Cultural and Literary Theory, which examines works on legal rituals, violence, Du Bois’ mid-century writings, African-American literary history, and post-black identity in America. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper investigates how resident perceptions affect the successful implementation of community-based tourism (CBT) in a least developed country (LDC) scenario. By realizing how past and present experiences of war affect resident perceptions, including how they view themselves, their community and tourism, we can build an understanding of how to assess the capacity for a community to successfully embrace and sustain CBT for development. This will be achieved by exploring two cases of CBT in Cambodia: the Banteay Chmmar subdistrict and Banlung town. These two cases represent a successful and unsuccessful implementation of CBT in Cambodia as an LDC utilizing tourism for development. Learnings from this situation can be applied to other post-war tourism and development destinations. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explores the concept of inclusive community development and its relevance to the ethnogenesis and empowerment of Gypsy and Traveller communities. Critics have asserted that such an approach can hold the danger of encompassing an assimilationist agenda, that seeks to ‘civilize’. The paper argues that community development can be community-driven but ideally should be a gradual process, delivered in stages where external and outsider assistance can in fact be of use. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Applying multilevel analyses to a sample of the Belgian Census (110,208 individuals in 130 municipalities and districts), we study neighbourhood effects on ethnic educational inequality, comparing the Italian, Moroccan, and Turkish second generation with the Belgian majority. Severe ethnic penalties on the completion of upper secondary and tertiary education are largely explained by ethnic differences in family resources. In addition to individual- and household-level predictors in 1991, our analyses of educational attainment, as assessed retrospectively in 2001, focus on ethnic density and co-ethnic resources as neighbourhood-level predictors in 1991. Neighbourhood resources are measured by general and co-ethnic levels of education and housing wealth in one’s municipality or district. Combining migration research on the role of ethnic communities with research on neighbourhood effects, we argue that co-ethnic (relative to general) neighbourhood resources will most effectively support second-generation attainment. Indeed, positive effects of neighbourhood ethnic density and the share of university-educated co-ethnics on attainment account for residual ethnic penalties after taking into account family resources, particularly among the Turkish second generation. Our findings point to the up- and downsides of ethnic residential concentration for second-generation attainment, depending on the presence or absence of co-ethnic neighbourhood resources. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

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New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “This article assesses the economic role of refugee settlers in Australia. Refugee-humanitarian labour force participation rates are lower than for other migrant groups or the Australia-born. However, their labour market performance converges toward that of the Australia-born over time. Moreover, the second generation performs at a higher level. There are a number of significant impediments to participation including language, education, structural disadvantage and discrimination. Indeed, there is evidence of a significant refugee gap which can only be explained by discrimination. It is shown that refugees represent a significant stock of human capital that is not being fully realized. They suffer more than other groups through non-recognition and there is substantial “brain waste” with negative results for the economy and the migrants themselves. Finally, it is shown that refugee-humanitarian settlers show greater propensity to form their own business than other migrants and that risk-taking, entrepreneurialism and an ability to identify and take advantage of opportunities is a key characteristic of the group.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights has recently published her much anticipated report on strengthening the United Nations (UN) human rights treaty system. The latest in a series of initiatives launched by the UN over the years to improve the beleaguered treaty system, the report contains a series of recommendations aimed at improving the impact of the treaty system on rights-holders and duty-bearers at the national level. The proposals in the report are based on years of extensive consultations with key stakeholders in the treaty body system that were designed to intensify awareness of the current challenges facing the system as well as to stimulate suggestions for reform. This article considers in detail the potential of the High Commissioner’s proposals to tackle the problems in the system and their overall feasibility in the current political climate. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The proclamation of India’s ‘tryst with destiny’ in 1947 was hailed as a watershed in expanding the possibilities for liberation in the colonized world. This article will assess the changing roles of India in the decolonization process of one such colonized region—Africa. Central to the tales of Indo-African brotherhood that characterize writing on the topic stands one behemoth of the Indian independence movement, Mohandas Gandhi, who famously began his political career in South Africa. In India, this experience was rightfully woven into the broader hagiography of his fight for equality and philosophical transformation into the ‘Mahatma’. In so doing, however, certain anachronistic celebrations of his commitment to African rights have on occasion formed part of the India-Africa narrative.

    It should not be forgotten that the young lawyer was specifically concerned with Indian rights in Transvaal and Natal, as well as the liminal place of South Africa’s Indians within burgeoning concepts of Indian nationhood.2 Indeed, the special position of his infamous night at Pietermaritzburg station in 1893 within the story of satyagraha arguably masks the opinions of the young man on Africans and racial hierarchy. Nevertheless, as in India, so too in Africa did the heroism of the Mahatma live on during the heady days of the freedom struggle. Thus, while many African commentators understandably did not draw directly on Gandhi’s specific African experiences in discussion of Indian roles in African liberation, leaders such as Kwame Nkrumah did pay hearty tribute to the influence of Gandhism on their own protest.3″

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  • “Why have some democracies made considerable progress in prosecuting dictatorship-era human rights violations or in publicly exposing the truth about repression while others still have amnesty laws that prevent, or at least hinder, even the judicial review of such abuses? This article compares Spain, Chile and Argentina to understand the impact of their contrasting histories of repression on how they have dealt with their violent pasts. I assess whether a greater degree of legal repression and direct judicial involvement in repression explains why there is more resistance to prosecuting those responsible for human rights violations, establishing truth commissions or annulling the political sentences of the past during democratization. Once democracy has been consolidated, different dynamics may emerge, but this history of judicial complicity has proved to be a key factor in understanding the continuous lack of judicial accountability in Spain. “

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  • “Persistent immigration towards industrialized countries has challenged traditional conceptions of citizenship. In Germany, immigration has visibly changed the ethic fabric of the national football team, which is one of the few national post-war icons. Although some commentators consider the team to be a role model for successful integration of immigrants, unanimous approval of a multi-ethnic team would be surprising, given substantial xenophobic tendencies in Germany. Therefore, by analysing regional TV ratings, we examine consumer discrimination against the presence of ethnic out-group players in the national football team and explore how such discrimination relates to discriminatory attitudes. We find some but limited evidence for consumer discrimination but also for a trend towards a ‘taste for diversity’, suggesting that the audience gets used to a multi-ethnic team. While identity politics seems to be important for sport consumption, the links between sport, identity, consumer discrimination, and discriminatory attitudes seem more complex than initially assumed. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this contribution, we aim to develop an understanding of the behavioural manifestations of nationalism. Building on social identity theory and ethnic competition theory, we examine to what extent nationalist attitudes and perceived cultural ethnic threat are related to domestic music listening, participating in national celebrations and commemorations and voting for far right parties. We use data from the Social and Cultural Developments in The Netherlands surveys (SOCON, wave 2007). We find that the stronger one’s nationalist attitudes and perceived cultural ethnic threat, the more likely one is to listen to domestic music. With regard to participation in national celebrations and commemorations, only nationalist attitudes have a positive effect, which seems to be mainly driven by feelings of national pride. With respect to voting for far right parties, perceived cultural ethnic threat is most important, whereas nationalist attitudes hardly affect far right voting. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Although home is central to any understanding of displacement, the concept has not been explored as fully as possible in forced migration literature. This may be due, at least in part, to the pervasive logic of the nation-state, which views migrants as a threat to the national and ‘natural’ order. Viewing refugees as a problem to be solved or ignored, as objects rather than subjects, leads to a preoccupation with determining their belonging to a “home” or “host” nation in order to normalise them. However, such Othering rhetoric denies the agency of individual refugees, at the same time as ignoring the complexity and diversity of the meaning of home, especially for those who have experienced displacement. This article moves beyond a “here” or “there” dichotomy to explore the lived experience of home for Cypriots living in protracted exile in London, since political unrest and partition forced them to leave Cyprus in the 1960s and 1970s. The article proposes one possible way of understanding the multi-faceted and often contradictory meaning of home by focusing on four key themes – the spatial, temporal, material and relational home – both before and during exile. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines transitional justice in the age of the French Revolution. It argues that the democratizing thrust of the Revolution gave rise to new moral and political dilemmas around accountability and shows how French society faced these dilemmas in the aftermath of the Reign of Terror, an episode of massive repression and violence. In this sense, the article makes a case for a broader view of the history of transitional justice and, indeed, for the inclusion of historians in ongoing debates in the field. In making its case, the article draws on primary sources as well as on the extensive secondary literature on the French Revolution.1”

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  • “This article argues in favour of theorizing transitional justice in established democracies. Using a New Zealand example, the article employs liberal theory to develop a legitimating account of transitional justice. This account not only offers ways of replying to those who critique the transitional justice aspirations of established democracies but also constitutes a response to those who argue against the coherence of transitional justice as a theory. Although transregime legitimation is certainly not transitional justice’s only role, it is an important function and provides resources for a unified political theory of transitional justice. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “To most women’s rights academics and practitioners, the need to analyse and give weight to the various gender dimensions of any conflict and postconflict context is obvious. Yet, even more recent developments, such as International Criminal Court (ICC) prosecutions, have demonstrated an inability to make substantial progress in addressing gender-based crimes. A growing body of literature over the past decade, and particularly the past five years, has analysed this trend in international law and directed staunch criticisms at the failure of transitional justice to adequately take into account gender and violations of women’s rights in all their forms.

    As has been witnessed globally, gender-based violence is frequently an element of conflict. Impunity is pervasive and women often lack access to justice to address such crimes. While UN Security Council Resolutions 1325, 1820, 1888, 1889 and 1960 on women, peace and security and sexual violence in conflict have helped to garner global commitment to ending violence against women and ensuring women’s participation in postconflict processes, criminal courts have had limited success in prosecuting the many violations of women’s rights that take place in times of conflict.

    Moreover, much of the global discourse on postconflict justice has focused on crimes against women that are of a sexual nature. Even the jurisprudence that emerged from the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia, which has been heralded for redefining how sexual violence is categorized and prosecuted under international law, ignores the many distinct gender-based violations that do not fit the sexual violence victim archetype.1 Furthermore, interventions are often timebound. They fail to step adequately beyond the immediate postconflict period and to support essential long-term social and cultural change that would help to challenge norms around masculinities (and machismo) and femininities (and the ‘inviolability’ of women’s bodies) and to help create … “

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New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “International migration mirrors contemporary society in all its complexity. What has not changed for centuries is the principal motif: people leave their country of origin hoping for a better life. Poland has a long history of emigration: Poles have been migrating for more than 200 years for political, economic and social reasons. In recent decades, Polish migration patterns have undergone dramatic changes. Using online survey data, this article explores new trends in Polish migration since the country’s accession to the European Union in 2004. The survey was focused on Polish migrants who stayed abroad for some time, those who stayed abroad before the accession, those who returned to Poland or those who experienced multiple travels and have an ongoing migration project.

    We conclude that new trends have emerged among Polish migrants. Contemporary migrants are aware of the benefits related to migration and are capable of implementing their migration project quite skilfully. Their high susceptibility to the economic setting proves their flexibility. Polish migrants highly value their new lifestyle abroad and consider friends their most important source of support.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “North Korean defectors have faced significant challenges in finding and keeping jobs in the South Korean labour market due to their many differences from South Korean workers. As the number of defectors has increased, South Korea has experienced an increased need for employment support to assist defectors in overcoming challenges in their employment and leading them to stable economic status. This study aims to develop a needs-centred educational support model for defectors’ career transitions, compare the content of suggested support programmes with the content of currently provided support programmes, and suggest relevant policy implications. Based on this study’s findings, the authors argue that defectors’ employment needs differ from those of other groups of job seekers in Korea; thus, this population should be served differently with consistent educational support. Each stage of the developed model provides appropriate support programmes that reflect the unique employment needs of defectors.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Various authors have begun to address the social impacts of international migration on families left behind. Family disintegration results from two separate factors: family separation and the loss of traditional values. Findings from this research (based on a random survey of over 400 households in three municipios of the central part of the state of Cochabamba, Bolivia, in the autumn of 2007) indicate that economic well-being made possible by migration increases levels of professed family happiness. However, family disintegration resulting from migration decreases family happiness even more, with the net result that migrant households are considerably less happy than non-migrant households. It is suggested that this result can be traced to the dynamic conflict between the traditional, group-focused image of change prior to migration (engendering feelings of togetherness and security) and the modern, ego-focused image of change that is a major social remittance of migration (generating competition and role insecurity).”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article offers the first examination of its kind of the content and nature of anti-trafficking policy as it is pursued in Benin. The article draws on data gathered from policy and project documents and from interviews and participant observation with actors integral to the constitution of policy in (and with influence over) the Beninese anti-trafficking community. It attempts to bridge the oft-lamented gap between page and practice by conducting analysis not only of the representation of policy in text, but also of its lived manifestations in processes, interactions and structures. It argues that the various different actors that comprise Benin’s anti-trafficking pantheon seek to accomplish one fundamental goal – to protect children from trafficking – through two overarching strategies – the promotion of ‘healthy’ childhoods and the pre-emptive prevention of child movement. The article examines each of the main strands of policy and concludes by offering a Foucauldian analysis of their operation. It thus fills a major gap in the academic understanding of anti-trafficking policy in the Beninese context.”

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  • “Literature and theory surrounding the informal economy in international contexts suggest that informal work arrangements may entail assuming various levels of risk, and that the higher the level of risk in an employment arrangement, the higher the premium paid to the worker. This study is designed to assess if a wage compensation for risk exists within the United States’ day labour job market – the most visible sector of the United States’ informal economy. Using data from the 2005 National Day Labour Survey we find a statistically significant wage premium indicating that a risk-wage tradeoff within the day labour informal economy exists. Ultimately, we argue that current policy interventions facilitated through day labour centres into the day labour market appear to be effective in mitigating the risks associated with this type of employment.

    Evidence of a risk-wage premium in the day labour market suggests there is an incentive to assume higher levels of risk in work arrangements which presents significant concerns for worker safety.
    Higher levels of work related risks assumed by day labourers, may be minimized if they receive proper safety training through a formal venue such as a worker centre.
    Worker centres only serve 20 per cent of all day labourers in the United States, suggesting a need for the establishment of additional worker centres in other connected or industry based work sites, to help mitigate potential work related risks and injuries in the day labour market.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “On 1 July 2012, Hong Kong (HK) celebrated the 15th Anniversary of its change of sovereignty to the People’s Republic of China (PRC). During this period, migration has diversified greatly. Various new visa categories have been created. People from Mainland China and the rest of the world come to HK for work and settlement and HK people have gone to Mainland and overseas to study and work. To appreciate and better plan the growing diversity of migration to, from, and through HK, this article benchmarks the current legal categorizations of migration and calls for the development of a coherent theoretical approach that can better harmonize research and policy. We believe a transdisciplinary view can help generate the range of evidence needed to plan for diversity, and that this is best coordinated through a new HK Migration Observatory.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article deals with individual and contextual effects on the religiosity of first and second generation migrants in Europe. Noticing that little attention has been directed towards intergenerational transmission of religion in processes of integration, we argue for an intergenerational perspective on immigrant religiosity. Social integration theory is used to derive the hypothesis that second generation immigrants are less religious than the first generation. Perceived discrimination is introduced in the immigrant-religion research to account for the stress buffering capacities of religion. On the contextual level we expect a positive effect of native religiosity and religious diversity. Three aspects of religiosity are examined: (1) religious affiliation, (2) inner religiosity and (3) praying. We use four waves (2002–2008) of the European Social Survey (ESS) in a 3-level random intercept multilevel model with 19,567 individuals, 235 regions and 26 countries. Among others, the most interesting results are that (1) second generation immigrants are less religious than their first generation counterparts, (2) perceived discrimination has a positive effect on immigrant religiosity and the effect is greater for the second generation, (3) native religiosity has a positive effect on immigrant religiosity with a greater effect on the second generation as well and (4) the influence on migrant religiosity is more salient at the regional than at the national level.”

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  • “We compare how religion is present in Portland, Maine and Danbury, Connecticut and how it influences the ways organizations provide social services to recently arrived immigrants. We find that a range of municipal, civic, and religious organizations shape contexts of reception in each city. In Portland, municipal organizations provide most of the services for the large refugee population. Religious organizations are more central in Danbury, and providers speak more often about religion in their work with the city’s economic migrants. Collaboration among organizations is common, although religion sometimes acts as a barrier to collaboration in Portland. We argue that the religious dimensions of cities as contexts of reception are not homogenous and that variation between them is best explained by local factors including history, demographics and organizational ecology.”

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  • “In this article, I use cross-national comparative and ethnographic methods to explore how religion influences the incorporation of Haitian immigrants into the US, Quebec and France. First, I explore the ideological, legal and institutional forces that shape religion-state differentiation in the US, Quebec and France. Using census and immigration data from each site as well as interviews with Haitian leaders and government officials in Miami, Montreal and Paris, I show that the general pattern of consensual differentiation between religion and state in the US favours the more successful symbolic and socio-economic incorporation of Haitians in Miami, whereas secular nationalism in Quebec and assertive secularism in France weaken the incorporation of Haitian immigrants in Montreal and Paris, respectively.”

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  • “Using a representative survey on a municipality in Mexico City, the article explores the relevance of both social networks and place attachments for US migration. By comparing households with and without migrants, the logistic regression models show that social networks make emigration more selective with respect “education”, but less selective regarding “sex” and “marital status”. These results shed new light on the mechanism through which social networks operate in urban settings. Even if a municipality that is very homogeneous in terms of poverty and employment opportunities, variations on the socio-demographic profile of the would-be emigrants to the USA are found depending on the household′s social networks. As for territorial variables, the general impression is one of placelessness, apart from attachment to the municipality, but here again social networks act as an intervening variable.”

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  • “This article adopts a genealogical approach in examining Israeli immigration policy by focusing on the situation confronting African asylum seekers who have been forced back into Egypt, detained and deported but who have not had their asylum claims properly assessed. Based on immigration policies formulated at the time of Israeli independence, whose principle objective was to secure a Jewish majority state, we argue that Israel’s treatment of African asylum seekers as ‘infiltrators’/economic migrants stems from an insistence on maintaining immigration as a sovereign issue formally isolated from other policy domains. Such an approach is not only in violation of Israel’s commitment to the Refugee Convention, it directly contributes to policies which are ineffective and unduly harsh.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “Background

    Former combatants have frequently reported that aggressive behaviour can be appetitive and appealing. This appetitive aggression (AA) may be adaptive for survival in a violent environment, as it is associated with a reduced risk of combat-related psychological traumatization. At the same time, AA might impair motivation for re-integration to civil life after ending active duty. Whereas in Colombia those combatants who volunteered for demobilization were mostly tired of fighting, those who demobilized collectively did so mainly by force of the government. We predicted those who were demobilized collectively would still be attracted to violence, and benefit from the resilience against trauma-related mental suffering, moderated by appetitive aggression, as they would have continued fighting had they not been forced to stop.
    Method

    A sample of 252 former Colombian former combatants from paramilitary and guerrilla forces was investigated. Appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I). We distinguished between individual and group demobilization and assessed reasons for disarmament.
    Results

    Most of the guerrilla troops who demobilized individually and were tired of fighting reported both an attraction to violence as well as increased trauma symptoms, owing to their former engagement in violent behaviour. In contrast, among those who were demobilized collectively, appetitive aggression was associated with a reduced risk of PTSD. However, this effect was not present in those combatants in the upper quartile of PTSD symptom severity.
    Conclusion

    The influence of combat experience on traumatization, as well as the motivation for demobilization, differs remarkably between those combatants who demobilized individually and those who were members of a group that was forced to demobilize. This has important implications for the implementation of re-integration programmes and therapeutic interventions. ”

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  • “The article proceeds from the contention that rights are socially constructed; that social rights are constructed through the naming and claiming of needs; and that social citizenship provides the context for the realisation of such rights. It is argued that needs precede rights, but both are framed within two intersecting dimensions: sociality (the competing meanings that attach to social interdependency) and negotiation (the dynamics of the claiming process). From this premise, the article advances a post-Marshallian concept of citizenship that is truly social; that may be constituted in a variety of modes and at a variety of sites at the points at which competing understandings of needs and rights collide; that may transcend territorial boundaries; that may be shaped by a spectrum of means, ranging from local customs to international covenants; that may be centred on a politics of need as the process whereby needs are translated into rights.”

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  • “International treaties are usually drafted in one negotiated lingua franca and then translated into the other authentic languages. The quality of these translations must be uncontroversial because once authenticated, they become original versions with equivalent legal effect. This paper investigates semantic-pragmatic aspects of performatives in the UN Declaration of Human Rights (UN 1948) and in the more recent EU Charter of Fundamental Rights (EU 2000), in English and Italian. Considering the 50 years elapsing between the publications of the two treaties, the analysis aims at ascertain translational equivalence and equivalent legal effects when rendering similar and in some cases, almost repetitive provisions. The comparison will ideally contribute to reflect on the implications of multilingual translation in the current global environment with special regard to legal instruments.”

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  • “The translation services of the European Union (EU) are meant to guarantee that EU institutions can, and actually do, communicate with member states in these states’ own official languages, as long as they have been bestowed the status of official EU languages (Council Regulation No 1, Articles 1–5). Though it is well-known among EU politicians that reality falls short of this objective, there is no serious discussion about this, let alone an attempt to bring reality in line with the Regulation. As the following study of the EU Commission’s communication with the German national parliament (Bundestag) shows, actual practice does contrast sharply with the EU politicians’ never-ending eulogy on multilingualism. Such eulogy instead seems to be part of an ideology which serves to calm down concerns from traditional competitors of English as an international language such as, in particular, speakers of French, German, Italian or Spanish, the status and function of whose languages suffer most from the present practice.

    Die Übersetzungsdienste der Europäischen Union (EU) sollen gewährleisten, dass die EU-Institutionen mit den Mitgliedstaaten in deren jeweiligen Sprachen kommunizieren, sofern diese zugleich offizielle Sprachen der EU sind (Ratsverordnung Nr. 1, Artikel 1 – 5). Unter EU-Politikern ist bekannt, dass die Wirklichkeit weit hinter diesem Ziel zurück bleibt. Jedoch gibt es weder Debatten darüber noch ernsthafte Versuche, die Wirklichkeit mit den rechtlichen Vorgaben in Einklang zu bringen. Die herrschende Praxis – die hier am Beispiel der Kommunikation der EU-Kommission mit dem Bundestag dargestellt wird – widerspricht deutlich dem fortwährenden Lobpreis der europäischen Sprachenvielfalt. Diese Lobhudelei scheint eher dem Zweck zu dienen, die traditionellen „Konkurrenten” des Englischen als internationale Sprache zu besänftigen, vor allem die Sprecher von Französisch, Deutsch, Italienisch und Spanisch. Diese Sprachen leiden nämlich hinsichtlich Status und Funktion besonders stark unter der gegenwärtigen Praxis.”

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  • “This paper considers whether or not in Tanzania, ethnicity conditions access to health and nutrition during childhood and adolescence. We estimate height-augmented Mincerian earnings functions with data from the 2004 Tanzanian Household Worker Survey. Instrumental variable parameter estimates reveal that when the effects of unobserved investments in health and nutrition during childhood and adolescence on adult height are accounted for, the labor market return on height varies across ethnic groups in our sample. This suggests that in Tanzania ethnicity is a constraint on effective health care policy as there is ethnic discrimination in the provision of health and nutrition investment during childhood and adolescence that constrains adult height, living standards and economic growth. As such, public health policy in sub-Saharan Africa could potentially be more effective through reforms that eliminate any ethnic bias in the provision of health capital during childhood/adolescence.”

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  • “There are long-standing concerns over low fertility levels in Europe and an increasingly important debate on the extent to which migration can compensate for below-replacement fertility. To inform this debate, a wide array of indicators have been developed to assess the joint influence of fertility, mortality, and migration on birth replacement and intergenerational replacement. These indicators are based on various models and assumptions and some are particularly data demanding. In this article we propose a simple method to assess how far migration alters the extent of replacement for a birth cohort as it ages. We term the measure the overall replacement ratio (ORR). It is calculated by taking the size of a female birth cohort at selected ages divided by the average size of the cohorts of mothers in the year of birth. We present estimates of the ORR for a range of European countries representing different replacement regimes. We demonstrate that for many countries net migration has become a key factor in their population trends during the last few decades.”

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  • “On 19 and 20 July 2012, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) organized a Roundtable on Temporary Protection, held in San Remo, Italy, with the support of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law (IIHL). Participants included 19 experts from 15 countries, drawn from NGOs, academia and regional and international organizations. A discussion paper, produced by UNHCR, informed the discussion.1 The roundtable aimed to discuss the scope and meaning of temporary protection, and to examine what it is or should be, what it does or should guarantee, and in what situations it could apply.

    The following summary does not necessarily represent the individual views of participants or of UNHCR, but reflects broadly the themes, issues and understandings emerging from the discussion. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Marriages of convenience have become a central concern in political debates about immigration policy. According to Norwegian regulations, the right to marriage migration only applies to ‘real’ relationships. The notion of a real or genuine marriage, as opposed to a marriage of convenience, raises the question of what characterises a legitimate intimate relationship. Based on interviews with the parties involved, this article investigates how marriage migrants and their partners perceive the application process for marriage migration to Norway, and how they are affected by the idea of marriages of convenience. It argues that the scholarly literature on contemporary intimate relationships is relevant to studies of migration and provides important insights into the narratives of marriage migrants and their partners. On the one hand, ‘the pure relationship’ seems to be one standard against which cross-border marriages are sometimes judged. On the other hand, the ideal of the pure relationship is also used by marriage migrants and their partners to question immigration regulations. The pure relationship is one, but far from the only, normative ideal present in the narratives of my interviewees. Interviewees draw on several different, and sometimes contradictory, norms, ideals and narratives of intimacy when they talk about and justify their own relationships, after being confronted with the immigration regulation’s requirement for a ‘real marriage’.”

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  • “Return migration has recently become an important topic of research within the gender and migration literature. Drawing on multi-sited ethnographic research carried out in Romania and Italy, this paper focuses on the gendered patterns of return, highlighting the relationship between the motivation to return, family life plans, challenges and individual responses to structural factors that shape the decision to return. Based primarily on participant observation and in-depth interviews with women and men from a Romanian village, the findings suggest competing ways in which men and women resettle in their community. While men transfer large amounts of money and make use of their new skills and their contacts with their Romanian peers in Italy in order to gain their livelihoods in the village, women encounter conditions that are deterrents to such economic transfers. Women tend, therefore, to maintain contact with Italian families as an alternative to their imperfect economic reintegration into the village.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Most HIV-infected parents in Western Europe are of African origin. They face a range of problems while adapting to a new culture and previous research has highlighted the lack of studies on how to support them. In order to deepen our understanding of how they experience their parenthood, we conducted qualitative interviews with 12 HIV-infected Ugandan parents. All participants had access to anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment and, as they continued to feel healthy, they tended to be less worried about leaving their children as orphans. We found that the parenting roles of these people undergo radical transformations, where fathers are expected to perform traditionally female tasks, and mothers are expected to take part in important family decisions with their husbands. An ‘African-Swedish method’ was described where parents had integrated a Swedish way of talking and being close to their children while retaining what they described as the Ugandan style of not informing their children about HIV. Healthcare personnel need to appreciate these HIV-infected African parents’ cultural dilemmas and adapt medical information accordingly. We discuss our results from three dimensions of cultural variability: femininity–masculinity, power distance and individualism–collectivism.”

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  • “Geographers have a long-standing interest in citizenship as the link between political and territorial membership. Yet, even when key political processes associated with citizenship, such as voting or lobbying government institutions are carried out from beyond the territory there is a more complex relationship with territory than the simple ‘inside/outside’ division that external voting suggests. This article develops a specifically geographical analysis of the territorial context of voting practices. Although a number of general explanations have been offered for the introduction of external voting, and for the nature of the systems introduced it seems that contextual, country-specific factors concerning the history and nature of the relationship between the government and emigrant groups are usually determinant. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The targeting of criminal offenders for removal has become one of the central priorities of contemporary immigration enforcement in the USA. Scholars have rightly highlighted the importance of a series of laws passed during the 1990s, in particular the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Criminal Responsibility Act, in laying the foundations for this targeting of immigrants. These laws increased the penalties for breaching US immigration laws and expanded the class of non-citizens who could be deported for committing crimes. In this article, I draw attention to an earlier immigration law that has played a key, but less studied, role in laying the groundwork for the contemporary policing and removal of immigrants: the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). IRCA is well-known for having criminalized the hiring of undocumented workers, increasing the resources of the Immigration and Naturalization Service to patrol the nation’s borders, and providing undocumented immigrants with a path toward legalization. But the law also contained a small provision that required the US Attorney General to deport non-citizens convicted of removable offenses as expeditiously as possible. This provision dealing with the removal of ‘criminal aliens’ has turned out to be of monumental significance. In many ways, it has helped to dramatically shape the nature of contemporary immigration enforcement. IRCA basically helped set in motion the contemporary practice of targeting ‘criminal aliens’ for deportation. In turn, this practice has morphed into a mechanism for policing immigrant ‘illegality’ more generally. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article is concerned with the role of debt in contemporary practices of mobility. It explores how the phenomenon of debt-financed migration disturbs the trafficking/smuggling, illegal/legal, and forced/voluntary dyads that are widely used to make sense of migration and troubles the liberal construction of ‘freedom’ and ‘slavery’ as oppositional categories. The research literature reveals that while debt can lock migrants into highly asymmetrical, personalistic, and often violent relations of power and dependency sometimes for several years, it is also a means by which many seek to extend and secure their future freedoms. Financing migration through debt can be an active choice without also being a ‘voluntary’ or ‘autonomous’ choice, and migrants’ decisions to take on debts that will imply heavy restrictions on their freedom are taken in the context of migration and other policies that severely constrain their alternatives. Vulnerability to abuse and exploitation is also politically constructed, and even migrant-debtors whose movement is state sanctioned often lack protections both as workers and as debtors. Indeed, large numbers of migrants are excluded from the rights and freedoms that in theory constitute the opposite of slavery. As argued in the conclusion, this illustrates the contemporary relevance of Losurdo’s historical account of the fundamentally illiberal realities of self-conceived liberal societies. There remain ‘exclusion clauses’ in the social contract that supposedly affords universal equality and freedom, clauses that are of enormous consequence for many groups of migrants, and that also deleteriously affect those citizens who are poor and/or otherwise marginalized. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The efforts of new, former refugee communities to grow their legitimacy as citizens often in hostile host environments puts community needs at odds with individual needs. From an analysis of interviews with service providers across two states in Australia, and borrowing the concept of ‘papering over’, we demonstrate how these tensions impact on women in these communities building resilience to domestic violence. Despite community being vital for building individual resilience, ‘papering over’ operates to keep communities quiet about domestic violence and reliant on definitions of violence that serve to save the face of communities. While this is a challenge for how former refugee communities respond to domestic violence, it is also a challenge for how we conceptualize resilience across intersecting subject positions. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • We examine the gap in registered crime between the children of immigrants and the children of native Swedes. We follow all individuals who completed compulsory schooling during the period 1990–93 in the Stockholm Metropolitan area (N = 63,462) up to their thirties and analyse how family of origin and neighbourhood segregation during adolescence, subsequent to arriving in Sweden, influence the gap in recorded crimes. For males, we are able to explain between half and three-quarters of the gap in crime by reference to parental socio-economic resources and neighbourhood segregation. For females, we can explain even more, sometimes the entire gap. In addition, we tentatively examine the role of co-nationality or culture by comparing the crime rates of randomly chosen pairs of individuals originating from the same country. We find only a small correlation in the crime of individuals who share the same origin, indicating that culture is unlikely to be a strong cause of crime among immigrants.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The central message of Hannah McGlade’s book, Our Greatest Challenge, is this: ‘Addressing child sexual abuse means we need to reject the gammon culture of human rights that has become prevalent in Aboriginal human rights discourse’ (p. 224, emphasis in original).

    ‘Gammon’ is an Australian Aboriginal word, meaning ‘fraudulent or inauthentic’. This is a brave thing to say in the context of twenty-first-century sensitivities surrounding any discussion of Aboriginal cultures and human rights in Australia. It is probably something that can only be said by an Indigenous Australian and it gains credibility when the speaker is herself both a human rights lawyer and a survivor of child sexual abuse. If there is any residual doubt among liberal-minded academics about the extent of child sexual abuse in Aboriginal communities, they will be dispelled once and for all by this book. Whether or not child sexual abuse is any more endemic in Indigenous than non-Indigenous communities is not really the point. The point is that one cannot imagine a judge in 2001 saying of a 50-year-old non-Indigenous defendant, accused of the brutal beating and rape of a 15-year-old girl, that he was surprised he had been charged at all because ‘she [the victim] didn’t need protection … she knew what was expected of her’ (p. 145) having been ‘promised’ to him as his wife by her parents and his community. But this, McGlade tells us, is what was said about an Indigenous man, Jackie Pascoe Jamilmira, in the Northern Territory Supreme Court. Although the case caused widespread outrage, McGlade demonstrates that it … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this article, I contend that asylum should at times act as a form of reparation for past injustice. This function, I argue, stems from states’ special obligation to provide asylum to refugees for whose lack of state protection they are responsible. After suggesting that the development of a theory of asylum as reparation necessitates a diachronic approach, I outline the conditions under which asylum should function reparatively, and draw on the reparations framework within international law to suggest that asylum can provide refugees with meaningful restitution, compensation and satisfaction. In particular, I seek to identify the conditions under which asylum constitutes the most fitting form of reparation for the harm of refugeehood that is available to states. Finally, I explore the question of how direct the causal link between a state’s actions and a refugee’s flight must be for the former to owe asylum to the latter.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “It seems hard to believe that a simple scarf covering women’s hair could stir up so much controversy. But it has done just that time and again in Europe since three girls were expelled from secondary school for refusing to uncover in the French town of Creil in 1989. Thus, we should welcome sophisticated scholarly analysis of the highly salient and complex issue of permitting or banning veiling. Just such analysis does Politics, Religion, and Gender: Framing and Regulating the Veil provide.

    The book represents the final outcome of VEIL, a research project funded by the European Commission from 2006 to 2009, which compared policy regarding veiling in eight countries (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Turkey, and the UK). Herein lies one important strength of Politics, Religion, and Gender (which includes a chapter on Bulgaria as well). The edited volume analyzes a far broader range of policies than the arguably more readable single-author studies concentrating on one country, such as John Bowen’s Why the French Don’t Like Headscarves (2006) or Joan Scott’s The Politics of the Veil (2007), which also spotlights France, or even Christian Joppke’s Veil: Mirror of Identity (2009), … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Jorge Duany is one of the most thoughtful, incisive, and prolific social scientists writing about the Caribbean and Blurred Borders: Transnational Migration between the Hispanic Caribbean and the United States (University of North Carolina Press, 2011) is an excellent example of why. The book describes the unique and evolving relationship between the Spanish-speaking Caribbean and the USA, the unique relationships between Cuba, The Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, the grounding of populations and diasporas in the continental USA, and the enduring and sustained nature of ties and contacts between sending and receiving countries and communities. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Scholars of memory have traditionally relied on their geographic imaginations in their attempts to illuminate the content and effects of both individual and collective memories. This tendency makes sense if we remind ourselves of the intimate relationship of place and memory in the numerous practices that try to locate the past in material and spatial traces: we visit memorials, look at photo albums, comb through archives, hold on to objects, and tour the sites of past events. However, linking the study of memory to the stability of place also has analytical and evaluative functions as it frequently provides the benchmark to differentiate ‘real’ memory from artificial memory, memory from history, and communities (of memory) from society, an inclination probably most powerfully exemplified in Nora’s (1989) influential notion of authentic ‘environments of memory’. Moreover, this priority given to location and the static focus on original events within spatially delineated communities generally goes hand in hand with monolithic views of belonging, often based on homogenous and overly simplified foundation myths. To put it starkly, the role of memory as a ‘handmaiden of nationalist zeal’ (Olick 2003: 1) has traditionally left little room to address the reality of demographic changes within national contexts or to pose normative challenges to culturally narrow views of political membership. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In many globalising cities across Asia, migration is now viewed as a key measure to tackle labour shortages, population ageing, and economic competitiveness. Singapore presents an example of a city-state that has become increasingly reliant on both high-skilled and low-skilled labour migrations, and to an increasing degree, also marriage migration, to fuel its bid to become a cosmopolis occupying a significant site in the globalised economy. The article discusses both state and civil society arrangements and relationships which, to different extents and in different ways, present opportunities for and constraints upon the emergence of cosmopolitanism. While Singapore’s migration history and multi-racial legacy provide a possible framework to build cosmopolitan sensibilities, it charts a pathway ridden with considerable contradictions as the city-state forges its own globalised future. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article reviews the debate on economic and social consequences of immigrant entrepreneurship as well as theories advanced to explain different levels of self-employment among immigrant and ethnic minorities. We examine the impact of professional and entrepreneurial migration on sending countries from the viewpoint of traditional theories of the brain drain as well as from that of the more recent transnational perspective. Finally, we present the latest data on the effects of self-employment on income levels for various immigrant and ethnic groups. Results confirm the conclusion of a consistently positive net effect, both for annual incomes and hourly earnings. Implications of these results for theories of immigrant adaptation and policies implemented by sending and receiving countries are discussed. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article makes two contributions to the literature on the determinants of international migration flows. First, we compile a new dataset on annual bilateral migration flows covering 15 OECD destination countries and 120 sending countries for the period 1980–2006. The dataset also contains data on time-varying immigration policies that regulate the entry of immigrants in our destination countries over this period. Second, we present an empirical model of migration choice across multiple destinations that allows for unobserved individual heterogeneity and derive a structural estimating equation. Our estimates show that international migration flows are highly responsive to income per capita at destination. This elasticity is twice as high for within-European Union (EU) migration, reflecting the higher degree of labor mobility within the EU. We also find that tightening of laws regulating immigrant entry reduce rapidly and significantly their flow. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article contends that our ability to study migration is significantly enhanced by carefully conceived comparative research designs. Comparing and contrasting a small number of cases—meaningful, complex structures, institutions, collectives, and/or configurations of events—is a creative strategy of analytical elaboration through research design. As such, comparative migration studies are characterized by their research design and conceptual focus on cases, not by a particular type of data. I outline some reasons why scholars should engage in comparison and discuss some challenges in doing so. I survey major comparative strategies in migration research, including between groups, places, time periods, and institutions, and I highlight how decisions about case selection are part and parcel of theory-building and theory evaluation. Comparative research design involves a decision over what to compare—what is the general class of ‘cases’ in a study—and how to compare, a choice about the comparative logics that drive the selection of specific cases. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “States and refugee advocates often insist that ‘refugee’ and ‘migrant’ are separate distinct categories, despite ample evidence that these labels blur in practice. However, little attention is paid to the fact that in the past refugees were considered as migrants, with international attention focusing on securing their access to existing migration channels. This article traces this tangled history of refugee and migrant identities through the 1920s to the 1950s, when ‘refugee’ and ‘migrant’ categories were separated. The article argues that treating refugees as migrants in the 1920s and 1930s failed to ensure their protection from persecution because their admission was entirely dependent upon economic criteria. Separating refugees from migrants in the 1950s—by providing refugees with an exceptional right to cross borders and claim asylum—helped to address this protection gap. However, the article shows that in creating a special route for admission deliberately set apart from migration, the humanitarian discourse that protects refugees from harm actually prevents refugees from finding durable solutions, which depend upon securing an economic livelihood and not just receiving humanitarian assistance. The article concludes that, in the interests of refugee solutions, the extent of separation between refugee protection and access to migration should be reversed. Refugee advocates should reconsider the many innovative lessons both from the Nansen era and the decade of experimentation that preceded the establishment of today’s contemporary refugee protection framework in 1951. While asylum and the ‘refugee’ category perform essential roles in admitting those in need of international protection, asylum alone—unlike migration—cannot meet long-term needs. Reconfiguring understandings of on-going refugee protection to facilitate movement and prioritize the securing of sustainable livelihoods would both better reflect the reality of people’s movements in conflict and crisis and offer more opportunities for durable solutions to protracted crises. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Migration studies is entering a new era. The intellectual roots of the field stretch back at least to the nineteenth century, since which time it has focused on the drivers of human mobility and the processes of adaptation that follow. But never before has it drawn such sustained attention from so many researchers across such a broad range of backgrounds. Migration is becoming an increasingly visible and important element of human experience, and more than ever before, migration studies is becoming a distinctive and integrated field of scholarship, with its own approaches and institutions. This journal is being established to help galvanize the field still further. It aims to provide an interdisciplinary forum for leading research that develops the core concepts, data, and methods needed by migration scholars in the twenty-first century and beyond. It has several specific priorities. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper considers the claim that ideas and practices of international development, including community development, are embedded in Western notions of how to organize society. It elucidates some of the main precepts of the westernization thesis, and drawing on several studies of community development projects in Indonesia, it investigates what elements might be considered as ‘Western’ and whether the adoption of so-called Western ways is the result of the dominating power of international agencies or a pragmatic choice of active agents. The paper argues that the westernization thesis is problematic and does little to help us understand the complex interactions involving change at the community level. From a community development perspective, the question of whether the themes of westernization are appropriate is not a matter of the views of outside experts, but whether they are of use to the people at the grassroots in their collective endeavours. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “For refugee communities in the global South, mutual assistance plays a vital role in their economic survival during exile. While the practice of refugees’ informal support tends to be perceived as a positive symptom of their communal solidarity, the important question arises whether such a view still holds legitimacy even in the severe scarcity of available resources within their communities. In the Buduburam refugee settlement in Ghana, the transfer and exchange of resources between different households were essential for the survival of many poor refugee families in the face of decreasing donor support. In particular, there was a strong moral responsibility among the inhabitants for assisting destitute fellow refugees. Although their mutual support networks give the impression of unity within this refugee population, the practice of assisting others was not always carried out in harmonious ways. Especially so when someone had inadequate resources, the obligation to help others generated significant stress in caregivers and often even engendered negative feelings against recipients of internal help. By means of in-depth case studies, the article will delve into the social dynamics hidden in the mutual sharing arrangements in this refugee community and will particularly elucidate the emotional conflicts in internal sponsors. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 2009, after extremely severe bushfires in Victoria, Australia, social welfare agencies initiated recovery programmes. This paper examines the role played by three Catholic agencies over a three-year period as they sought to meet the needs of the bushfire-affected community in the recovery process. The recovery programmes began with the aim of using a community development approach to develop a sustainable response. The concept of community development was not defined at the commencement of the project so that there was flexibility in the way it was operationalized. The approach changed over time in response to changing conditions and the needs and responses of the community. After initially adopting the role of provider, the agencies increasingly adopted the roles of ally, facilitator and advocate. Not all projects received support from the community and others that were initially supported withered over time. The advocacy and capacity building work undertaken by the workers enabled community members to take a greater responsibility for existing and new projects. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper examines the potential of rotating savings and credit associations (RoSCAs) as agents of pro-poor community development and well-being in rural northern Rwanda, the area most severely disrupted during and since the civil war and genocide in the 1990s. The economic gains of membership, effects on social capital, and the inclusiveness of RoSCAs are explored. RoSCAs facilitate mobilization of a variety of resources. Members pool finances that are utilized to support the fulfilment of basic needs at the household level, in addition to building up assets. Social capital is both inherent to and stimulated by membership of a RoSCA, through the building of trust, collective actions undertaken, and the values shared by the members. RoSCAs were found to be relatively inclusive, particularly when compared with more formal credit schemes, often including representatives of the most marginalized, and therefore most vulnerable, socio-economic categories. Membership generally involves relatively small payments while contributing to positive subjective perception as well, thus fostering further human well-being. RoSCAs therefore warrant appraisal beyond the immediate financial opportunities they generate, because of their production and reproduction of values such as democracy, reciprocity, and solidarity, and thus their significant contribution to community development and human well-being. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The challenges of participatory development suggest an explicit role for community development practitioners as ‘translation agents’ across different institutional contexts. This paper illustrates this role in three case studies of rural community development projects in post-war Ethiopia. The case studies highlight the value of local community knowledge and institutions in tackling key development issues: from small-farm productivity, to water access, to animal health. They also demonstrate the frequent need for translation and mediation between community knowledges and institutions and those of outside organizations and professionals. This paper analyses the case studies to show how community development practitioners working in the field can play a central role in creating truly participatory development spaces. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Research on a range of agreements between Indigenous people and extractive industries suggests that equitable benefits from such activity on Indigenous land are rare. In Central Australia, the Central Land Council has piloted a new approach to generating benefits from land use agreements by establishing a community development unit and encouraging Indigenous traditional owners to apply some of the income from land use agreements with mining companies and similar parties to community development activities. This paper discusses the variety of community development projects this unit is undertaking with traditional owners and Aboriginal community members, and the challenges it is facing as it tries to utilize community development principles in its projects. It indicates some of the issues that may need to be considered in government policy which seeks to assist Indigenous landholders gain optimum benefit from land-related payments. In particular, the paper demonstrates that the priorities of Indigenous people to support and promote social and cultural activities, including maintaining micro-communities (outstations) on homelands, may conflict with government views as to how to ‘optimize benefits’ from land use agreements. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “International voluntary service involving people from ‘northern’ countries represents a widespread and growing phenomenon on the African continent, prompting increased interest in the effects of international service on volunteers. Despite this trend, little research has been conducted on the contribution of international service to the development of the host organizations and communities where volunteers live and serve. Drawing on interviews and focus groups conducted with international volunteer host organizations in Tanzania and Mozambique, this paper examines the benefits and challenges for international service to contribute to the development of host organizations and communities. Findings suggest a range of positive benefits to host organizations. However, they also highlight a number of challenges that require additional measures to strengthen the potential benefits of international service. These include a greater critical consciousness of the imbalances between African host and northern sending countries, locating international voluntary service in the context of a colonial legacy, and strategically hosting volunteers in the context of financial and human resource constraints. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The post-Cold War era has seen the increased significance of moral argument as a force in international relations. Arguments such as those developed in Michael Walzer’s Just and Unjust Wars have shaped debates about the relative weights to be given to non-intervention and human rights as core values of international law over the past three decades. This article analyses the form of moral internationalism that is exemplified by Walzer’s work, and the ways in which that moral internationalism has sought to justify humanitarian intervention, foreign involvement in civil wars, regime change, and, most recently, the responsibility to protect concept. It concludes by exploring the political stakes of the turn to what Walzer calls ‘practical morality’ as a basis for reforming international institutions and laws, and the ways in which new forms of internationalism are redrawing the realism/moralism map.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “For Michael Walzer, arguing about war is political rather than philosophical, a matter of persuasion rather than proof. His discussion of humanitarian intervention since the publication of Just and Unjust Wars tracks political events and debates, including the transformation of a debate focused on the right to intervene into one about situations, like those in Rwanda and Libya, in which it might be wrong not to intervene. If there is a duty to thwart atrocities, based on a responsibility to protect, one must consider on whom the duty to intervene falls, whether it goes beyond rescue to repairing the harm or preventing further violence, and whether it might also extend to protecting people from other harms, at least when these are the result of violence. In discussing these issues, Walzer deepens our understanding of humanitarian intervention by treating it both as an aspect of just war theory and as a historic practice able to reconcile the rights of states and persons in the changing circumstances of political choice.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “Discussion of Middle Eastern refugee law and policy has focused largely on Palestinians, with relatively little analysis of non-Palestinian refugees and the legal framework that applies to them in Middle Eastern countries. This article seeks to address this gap through a wide-ranging examination of the treatment of Iraqi refugees in Jordan (a non-signatory state to the Refugee Convention), following the invasion of Iraq in March 2003. In so doing, it also examines certain issues with wider global implications, such as the nature of refugee protection, the importance of identity, and the need for improved ‘burden sharing’. The article provides a brief outline of the background to refugees in Jordan, together with a discussion of the legal regime applicable to asylum seekers and refugees. It assesses the importance of legal status and labelling to the Iraqis in Jordan, not only for access to rights and provision of needs, but also for identity. The tension between UNHCR’s concepts of ‘protection’ and ‘protection space’ and the Jordanian Government’s own approach to sanctuary are explored, with reference to five key areas: employment, health, education, resettlement and return. The article concludes by reflecting on the extent to which the Jordanian case study can assist improved management of mass flight in the future. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In introducing her latest book, Climate Change, Forced Migration, and International Law, Jane McAdam makes the observation that the relationship between climate change and forced migration has recently emerged ‘as an increasingly studied – but contested – field of inquiry’. This may be the understatement of the decade. In political as well as scientific discourse, climate change has spawned what, after John Connell, McAdam calls a ‘garbage can’ effect, ‘where once isolated phenomena become systematically inter-related’. Likewise, on the advocacy front, in which the weapons of international law and global justice have been used without moderation, the climate change platform has become the ultimate bandwagon, to the legitimate irritation of those who have a clear sense of priorities – the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions being first and foremost among these. The causal chains both upstream and downstream (the famous ‘impacts’) of climate change are extraordinarily complex, and the risk of over-simplification is pervasive. Forced migration is a contested label in its own right – and the environmental/climate refugee discourse has fanned the flames of an old and rather sterile debate over voluntariness versus compulsion in human mobility, triggering in the process defensive, often parochial, reactions from both ‘refugee’- and ‘IDP’-centric communities.

    Finally, whether international law is able, as suggested by the book’s title, to capture and inform the complex connections between climate change and human displacement, is far from obvious, owing to the disciplinary constraints which McAdam acknowledges, including international law’s core objective to ‘universalize – to create norms that take the “particular” to a level of general applicability, that make individual rights “human rights” at one and the same time’. In short: it takes a brave person to engineer, with full knowledge of the dangers involved, conceptual, legal and policy bridges over such troubled waters. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The scale and complexity of the contemporary challenges of refugee protection and humanitarianism may not have been envisaged over sixty years ago, but the drafters of UNHCR’s statute1 did have the foresight to create a role for the organization that would allow it to guide and influence international refugee law. In doing so, as meticulously chronicled by Corinne Lewis, UNHCR has had significant influence on how international refugee law has evolved.

    Lewis takes a largely chronological approach to the link between UNHCR and international refugee law by beginning with an examination of the predecessors to UNHCR in order to demonstrate how the lessons learnt from their experience and ultimate demise influenced the strong emphasis on legal protection in UNHCR’s statute. Early emphasis in the book is on UNHCR’s statutory role, which Lewis identifies as comprising two separate functions, being the ‘development’ and ‘effectiveness’ of international refugee law. These functions, which are based upon paragraph 8(a) of UNHCR’s statute,2 are used throughout the book as the foundation for an examination of the evolution and challenges of UNHCR’s statutory role.

    As the focus shifts to the evolution of this role, which Lewis explores by reference to UNHCR’s statute, the means by which the organization interprets its own functions (that is, implied powers) and the development of ‘UNHCR doctrine’, the reader begins to get a sense of UNHCR as a dynamic and autonomous organization, rather than, as has been argued, a mere ‘handmaiden’ for states’ concerns.3″

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article analyzes the Canadian Federal Court and Federal Court of Appeal decisions assessing the Safe Third Country Agreement between Canada and the United States (STCA). It examines how each court’s treatment of the location and operation of the Canada–US border influences the results obtained. The article suggests that both in its treatment of the STCA and in its constitutional analysis, the Federal Court decision conceives of the border as a moving barrier capable of shifting outside Canada’s formal territorial boundaries. The effect of this decision is to bring refugee claimants outside state soil within the fold of Canadian constitutional protection. In contrast, the Federal Court of Appeal decision conceives of the border as both static and shifting. In its treatment of the STCA, the Court conceives of the border as a moving barrier that shifts outside Canada’s formal territorial boundaries to extend state power outwards. Yet, in its constitutional analysis, the Court conceives of the border as a static barrier that remains fixed at the state’s geographic perimeter to limit access to refugee rights. By simultaneously conceiving of the border in these opposing ways, the Court of Appeal decision places refugee claimants in an impossible legal bind: it requires them to present at the (static) border to claim legal protection, but at the same time shifts the border in ways that preclude them from doing so. The decision thus suspends refugee claimants between two opposing directives, deprives them of otherwise actionable rights, and denies them recourse to meaningful legal action under Canadian law. The article argues that, in this key way, the Federal Court of Appeal decision does much more than clarify the executive discretion of the Governor-in-Council, as it purports. Rather, it redefines the Canadian refugee regime as fundamentally exclusionary towards STCA claimants, and calls into question the central principles by which this regime is distinguished and defined. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Article 5 of the United Nations Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea, and Air, to which Australia is a state party, requires states not to criminalize migrants for being the object of migrant smuggling. This international obligation raises questions about Australia’s response to migrant smuggling and its treatment of asylum seekers. This article examines the principle that smuggled migrants should not be punished for seeking refuge through illegal entry to a receiving state. It explores the extent of the obligations created by article 5, and, on that basis, assesses the compatibility of Australia’s legislative and practical responses to the smuggling of migrants. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “We test with a field experiment in a Nairobi slum whether violence suffered during the 2007 political outbreaks affects trustworthiness when interethnicity becomes salient and participants face opportunism in common pool resource games (CPRGs) between two subsequent trust games (TGs). Our findings do not contradict previous one-shot results but qualify and extend them to a multi-period setting, enriching our understanding of the effects of violence on social preferences. More specifically, the victimized exhibit higher trustworthiness in the first trust game but also a significantly stronger trustworthiness reduction after experiencing opportunism and interethnicity in the CPRG game. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Unaccompanied refugee mothers—young mothers living in another country and separated from their parents—are, in research and migration policies, often defined in terms of four social categories: refugee, unaccompanied, adolescent and mother. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty unaccompanied refugee mothers from different countries of origin and now living in Belgium to listen, first, to their feelings and experiences. These narratives revealed four central themes in the mothers’ experiences (constrained and constraining daily living conditions, emotional challenges, connectedness and motherhood as a turning point), which appeared to be, in a second analysis, related to intersections between the four social categories. However, the intersectional analysis revealed large gaps between the mothers’ and migration policies’ interpretations of these categories: the mothers not only define the categories differently, but also set other priorities as they identify themselves first as mothers, while the policies prioritise their status as refugees. These findings, together with reflections on the value of adopting an intersectional perspective, lead to several recommendations for research, social work practices and migration policies. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Older works on ‘the British and the Balkans’ traditionally focused on foreign policy and its role—whether benign or sinister, interventionist or absenteeist—in the development of national states in the region. More recently, especially in the 1990s against the background of the Yugoslav conflicts and issues of contested identities, a cultural turn was inaugurated, not only by literary historians Ludmilla Kostova (Tales of the Periphery, 1997), Vesna Goldsworthy (Inventing Ruritania, 1998), and David Norris (In the Wake of the Balkan Myth, 1999), but also by mainstream historians of the region such as Maria Todorova (Imagining the Balkans, 1997) and Mark Mazower (The Balkans, 2000). All these books identified stereotype-forming processes in British and other literature about the region and pondered their consequences. Subsequent books, such as Božidar Jezernik’s Wild Europe (2004) and Andrew Hammond’s The Debated Lands (2007), focused on travel writing; but while they brought … “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “David Glover has written a magnificent book. It is a virtuously slim volume deriving from serious scholarship. Much could be said about it, but space permits me to address just a few of the most pertinent themes. First, the emergence of the figure of the ‘undesirable alien’ and its various cognates: the ‘destitute alien’; the ‘alien sweater’; with rather more precision, the ‘alien anarchist’; and, underwriting all these usages, the ’Jew’, and its derivative, the ‘indigent Jew’. These terms arose, in their modern meanings, from the intensification of global migration from the 1870s, which sparked the emergence of a new network of restrictions on where, and which people, could travel and settle, based on the putative imperatives of racial classification. Outside Europe the principal fear of white settlers turned on the role of the Chinese—the so-called ‘yellow peril’—while in Britain these anxieties came primarily to be articulated by the idea of the Jew, or of the destitute Jew. Here, as Glover shows, two discursive currents converged: the terminology of anti-Semitism, which entered the English language in the early 1880s, originally signifying a peculiarly continental distemper, and the notion of alien itself, which accreted a new set of racial–national associations. In consequence, the figure of the Jew evolved into the quintessential foreigner, a shift accompanied by the development of specialist knowledges wielded by socially recognized experts in the field: esteemed public figures who travelled to eastern Europe to investigate the ‘problem’ at first-hand; new public functionaries, … “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Race Relations Act of 1965 has been remembered by historians as one prong of a governmental strategy to deal with the impact of black and Asian post-war immigration to Britain, an attempt to improve inter-group relations at the same time as efforts were being made to restrict Commonwealth immigration. This iconic Act was the first to criminalize racial discrimination and outlaw the incitement of racial hatred. This article focuses on the creation and use of one part of this new law, Section Six, the incitement clause. It argues that early patterns of prosecution under this legislation reveal a government agenda which was not solely focused on the protection of black and Asian Britons but instead on longer-running issues relating to the tolerance of political violence. Far from simply outlawing racism, this article argues that the incitement clause ultimately enabled a re-articulation of racial discourse, tweaking the linguistic parameters of racist agitation while consciously allowing for its continuation. In doing so, it reflected a nation which was still unsure about the merits of multiculturalism, where it remained largely acceptable to argue that black and Asian Britons did not belong. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “A large percentage of professionals, including social workers, practise in a country other than where they obtained their professional qualification. Reasons for migration have been well documented and vary by country and population. Common migrating factors for social workers include employment challenges and opportunities related to the aging population, increased government expenditure on health and social care services, and insufficient numbers of new graduates entering the profession. This article draws on research about the experiences of migrant social workers in New Zealand. It highlights this population’s perceptions of the status of social work as a profession and their own professional identity. The study utilised a combination of qualitative and quantitative strategies in a three-phased project. The findings provide insights into the nature of the transitional experience for migrant professionals and new vantage points on views of social work as practised in different contexts. We identified perceptions reflecting what we term ‘enduring professional dislocation’, and argue that maintaining a broad view of social work is the foundation for understanding the profession in a new country. We advocate for strategies to facilitate migrant social workers’ adjustment to a new setting, especially where some degree of social and cultural contextualisation in social work practice is required. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Food insecurity and hunger, which are on the rise in affluent Western countries, may negatively affect children’s physical, social, emotional and cognitive functioning. Although there is growing evidence of the high rate of food insecurity and hunger among Bedouin families and their children in Israel, little is known about how the children themselves experience the problem and how it impacts their life. The present study sought to explore and clarify children’s experience of food insecurity. The research population included forty-two Israeli Bedouin impoverished children, aged nine to eleven. The analysis of children’s drawing was chosen as the research instrument because it enabled psychological as well as phenomenological insight into the children’s experience of food insecurity. This study, however, goes beyond the use of art to assess children’s emotional state, because enabling the children to draw food insecurity gave them a strong and communicative public voice of their own. After the study had been completed, the drawings also proved useful in efforts to promote awareness about the personal, community, cultural and social dimensions of the problem and the need for community action and policy change to mitigate and eliminate it. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community education on immigration issues, and political action toward a more humane immigration reform. Detailed examples of human rights abuses and the WICIR activities described in response to the abuses serve as illustrations of social work advocacy, education, and policy formulation that affect the general public, policymakers, and law enforcement officials. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study examines xenophobic attitudes of secondary school pupils in the Netherlands. This study builds upon a previous research in three ways. First, attitudes of pupils from both the ethnic majority and minority groups are examined. Second, the impact of positive as well as negative inter-ethnic contacts both within and outside the school environment is determined. Finally, hypotheses about inter-ethnic contacts are tested while simultaneously reckoning with alternative mechanisms that might explain xenophobic attitudes. Cross-classified multilevel regression analyses show that the level of xenophobia is lower when pupils evaluate their inter-ethnic contacts as positive, and higher when they perceive these contacts as negative. However, the impact of positive inter-ethnic contact in class disappears or even reverses when multiculturalism is more emphasized during lessons. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article analyses migration from East to West Germany, focusing on the influence of education on migration and on the self-selection processes involved in decisions regarding education and migration. Using human capital, signalling, and segmentation theory, hypotheses are derived on the influence of education on migration. The migration patterns for men and women are investigated on the basis of the German Socio-economic Panel data from 1992 to 2007. The results of the hierarchical logit regression models show that the level of education influences the migration decisions of both men and women. However, Heckman selection models reveal that only the migration patterns of women are defined by a selection of upper secondary education. For women, the results suggest that the same mechanisms drive their participation in upper secondary education and in migration. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study attempts to further our understanding of the contextual sources of anti-immigrant sentiments by simultaneously examining the impact of immigrant group size, negative immigration-related news reports and their interaction on natives’ perceived group threat. We test our theoretical assumptions using repeated cross-sectional survey data from Spain during the time period 1996–2007, enriched with regional statistics on immigrant group size and information from a longitudinal content analysis of newspaper reports. Drawing on multilevel regression models, our findings show that a greater number of negative immigration-related news reports increases perceived group threat over and above the influence of immigrant group size. Additionally, our findings indicate that the impact of negative immigration-related news reports on perceived group threat is amplified (weakened) in regions with a smaller (larger) immigrant group size. Collectively, these results testify to the importance of immigrant group size and negative immigration-related news reports as key contextual sources of natives’ perceived group threat. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explores the conceptual basis for the recognition of a right to information. It commences by reviewing developments in the recognition of a right to information in international human rights law. The role of the right to freedom of expression in furthering the recognition of a right to information is highlighted while the engagement of other rights in such recognition is also explored. The article considers the contribution made by the instrumental approach to the recognition of a right to information in international human rights law. Finally it explores whether there might exist an intrinsic right to information independent of other rights. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article argues that the fate of veil bans under European law is uncertain. It shows that European commitments to free speech and freedom of religion cannot accommodate an absolute ban justified solely on grounds of the offensiveness of the veil. However, a ban that applies to public face-covering in general (rather than a ban that only targets the veil), that relates to the specific (though admittedly broad) context of social life and that provides some exceptions allowing the veil to be worn in specific religious or expressive contexts, has a reasonable chance of being upheld by European courts despite the significant infringement of personal autonomy it would involve. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article contrasts the approach of the ICJ with two other international courts/tribunals when, in disputes before them, they have had to consider Islam as a source of legal norms. The article assesses the approach of the ICJ to Islam; when it has referred to Islam; why the ICJ may not have done so more frequently; and what the risks and benefits of the ICJ referring to it are. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Legal judgments concerning equality or human rights and religion or belief have frequently provoked controversy in Britain. This article examines why this has occurred. It does not attempt a detailed analysis of the case law; rather, it discusses how the law has been understood and invoked in public discourse. It argues that debate about religion or belief and its place in society has been unduly dominated by particular—and sometimes partial—understandings of legal judgments. It proposes that the most productive level of engagement for those who wish to advance debate, practice and understanding in relation to religion or belief is with ‘front line’ decision-makers, such as public servants and workplace managers. It ventures that in the long term an approach based on human rights principles is likely to be more satisfactory than one which is based principally on equality. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

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New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “We analyse the difference in average wages (the so called ‘wage gap’) of selected ethno-religious groups in Great Britain at the mean and over the wage distribution with the aim of explaining why such wage gaps differ across minority groups. We distinguish minorities not only by their ethno-religious background, but also by country (UK or abroad) in which people grew up and acquired their qualifications. We find that within all minority ethno-religious groups the second generation achieves higher wages than the first generation, but the amount that is explained by characteristics does not necessarily increase with generation. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines the changing uses of political rhetoric around the burial of Julius Nyerere in 1999. It argues that the ruling party uses rhetoric as a means of ‘soft power’, but also documents how this rhetoric, though geared towards legitimizing Nyerere’s successors, employed tropes that were rejected by some people and were used by others to critique leaders who were perceived to lack the selfless integrity attributed to Nyerere. The article compares funerary songs by a government-sponsored band, popular at the time of Nyerere’s death, with memories of Nyerere in rural areas in the early to mid-2000s. While the image of Nyerere in the funeral songs as a benign family patriarch writ large still persists, it coexists with strongly divergent constructions of Nyerere as an authoritarian ruler or a self-seeking profiteer. Moreover, the ‘official’, benign Nyerere has been employed not only by government and party faithful, but also by striking workers, opposition politicians, and critical newspapers as a measure of the shortcomings of his successors. The invocation of Nyerere as a paragon of an endangered ideal of virtue in public office indicates widespread anxieties towards a state that often disappoints but occasionally delivers, in unpredictable turns, and the limits of the government’s ability to shut down dissent. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The African Union’s new offices in Addis Ababa stand upon the site of the city’s former central prison, known as Alem Bekagn, where thousands of people suffered and died. This article traces the history of the prison and examines efforts to create a memorial at the site. These initiatives illustrate the African Union (AU) in transition. They echo AU commitments to act against atrocities and in support of rights and justice and suggest a distinct vision of pan-African community and a corresponding institutional culture. But, much like the AU itself, the meaning of the planned memorial is ambivalent and contested. The fact that the AU bulldozed Ethiopia’s most notorious prison in order to establish its new offices and a conference hall is richly symbolic of ‘buried memory’ – the tendency of post-colonial elites to suppress the memory of victims of state violence while celebrating chosen heroes. The AU still venerates leaders and is quiet about current violations, but the organization’s promise and process to remember the ordinary victims of state violence indicate a political opening and may contribute a novel space for the recounting of human rights abuses. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Article 5 of the United Nations Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea, and Air, to which Australia is a state party, requires states not to criminalize migrants for being the object of migrant smuggling. This international obligation raises questions about Australia’s response to migrant smuggling and its treatment of asylum seekers. This article examines the principle that smuggled migrants should not be punished for seeking refuge through illegal entry to a receiving state. It explores the extent of the obligations created by article 5, and, on that basis, assesses the compatibility of Australia’s legislative and practical responses to the smuggling of migrants. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In recent conversations about ethics in oral history, most of the topics tend to fall into two main categories—legislated or voluntary. Interactions with Institutional Review Boards and the nature and content of consent and release forms tend to fall into the former, being controlled by legal constraints. Some of the more complex ethical issues often belong to the “voluntary” group, however, as they are driven largely by individual and institutional consciences rather than by hard-and-fast written guidelines. These dilemmas tend to be more situational in nature, and they include privacy concerns, responsibility to narrators, and accountability to communities in the new digital era. This article discusses some of the ways in which these ethical quandaries are being addressed, as well as some new considerations that are currently emerging. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Front line social work in non-government organisations (NGOs) providing services for refugees and asylum seekers is demanding and challenging. Increasing numbers of social workers work with newly arrived communities; however, there are few studies that examine the demands and issues they face. Asylum seekers and refugees face restricted access and limited entitlement to health and social care. This article draws on evidence from a qualitative study conducted in 2006–11 that analysed the narratives of thirty front line workers to identify the challenges faced in delivering effective services and support. It was found that immigration policy in Australia and the UK placed pressure on social workers working with those who are subject to tight state controls and who experience poverty and destitution. In most NGOs in the UK, there is no supervision or structural support for front line social workers, whereas Australian NGOs are informed by a culture of supervision. This article highlights the demands social workers face in their work and recommends improved conditions in NGOs, and targeted social work education, training and research. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “For the past thirty years, Palestinian historian Nur Masalha has been at the forefront of scholars writing about the Nakba, the catastrophe that befell indigenous Palestinians with the creation of Israel sixty-five years ago. Long an advocate of the importance of oral history, and the Director of the Centre for Religion and History at St. Mary’s University College (UK), Masalha has been mentoring a new generation of historians of Palestine whose fresh approaches are guided by their use of oral history.

    As a work of both history and historiography, Masalha’s current book should appeal both to those interested in Palestinian and Israeli history and to oral history practitioners. Drawing on a wide range of scholarship, he explores how the formation of Israeli identity was premised on the erasure of Palestinian history and identity. While not explicitly discussed in the opening chapters, oral history’s role in historical reclamation is an underlying theme throughout the book. As Masalha argues, it is at the heart of the challenge to hegemonic Israeli discourse and to reasserting Palestinian memory. Moreover, it also subverts the silencing of ordinary people’s voices by the early male-dominated Palestinian nationalist leadership. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “‘Post-national’ scholars have taken the extension of social rights to migrants that are normally accorded to citizens as evidence of the growing importance of norms of ‘universal personhood’ and the declining importance of the nation-state. However, the distinct approach taken by the state toward another understudied category of non-citizen – stateless people – complicates these theories by demonstrating that the state makes decisions about groups on different bases than theory would suggest. These findings suggest the need to pay more attention to how the state treats other categories of ‘semi-citizens’. This article examines the differential effects of universal healthcare reforms in Thailand on citizens, migrants, and stateless people and explores their ramifications on theories of citizenship and social rights. While the state has expanded its healthcare obligations toward people living within its borders, it has taken a variegated approach toward different groups. Citizens have been extended ‘differentiated but unambiguous rights’. Migrants have been granted ‘conditional rights’ to healthcare coverage, dependent on their status as registered workers who pay mandatory contributions. Large numbers of stateless people, however, saw their right to state welfare programs disenfranchised following passage of the new universal healthcare law before later being granted ‘contingent rights’ through a new program.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The theme of this article is political citizenship among people with disabilities. Political citizenship on the basis of gender and ethnicity has received attention internationally. However, there has been little attention on political citizenship of persons with disabilities. The article sheds light on political representation at the local level in Norway. The data used are from a survey sent to 767 political representatives in local politics and 50 administrative representatives. Our study shows that disabled people are under-represented in local political assemblies, and thus, their political citizenship is not fully acknowledged. We apply Fraser (N. Fraser, 1997. Justice Interruptus. Critical Reflections on the ‘Postsocialist’ Condition. New York and London: Routledge) concepts of redistribution and recognition to analyse the lack of representation of disabled people. According to the dimension of redistribution, the analysis shows that neither the physical conditions nor the organization of the different meetings is particularly well adapted for disabled people. The dimension of recognition shows that disabled representatives are expected to be more occupied with issues concerning disability than other representatives. The analysis also shows that over time it has become more important for elected disabled representatives to put issues concerning disability on the agenda.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines the democratic status of irregular immigrants from the vantage point of different models of democratic inclusion. The argument developed is that irregular immigrants are in fact members of the democratic state by virtue of being subjected to the legally binding norms in the territory of the state. The extension of the vote and other political rights to irregular immigrants nevertheless remains problematic due to their ‘illegal’ status. Because this status follows from the restrictive border policies implemented by most contemporary states, it shows that the ideal of democratic inclusion is scarcely reconcilable with a policy of restrictive cross-border movement. The conclusion defended in the article is that the interest in keeping borders restricted reduces the prospects for democratic inclusion in contemporary states.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “With the growth of immigrant population over the past couple of decades, a ‘multicultural’ discourse has emerged in Japan. A notable point is that immigrants are expected to be incorporated into the host society primarily as foreigners rather than as Japanese nationals with full citizenship rights. The purpose of this article is to understand this prevailing mode of immigrant incorporation and to consider the comparative implications. By examining the discursive aspects of claims-making on behalf of both old-timer and newcomer immigrants, I argue that the underlying opportunity structures have been reproduced in each phase of immigration-related development in Japan, facilitating the use of the ‘foreigner’ category in advocacy efforts. Official recognition of the category has also helped to further institutionalize it as the main target of immigrant policy. In comparative perspective, ‘incorporation as foreigners’ can be understood as a variant of the ethnic model of immigration regimes in that it tends to reinforce the dominant ethnocultural conception of Japanese nationhood.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Drawing upon qualitative fieldwork, this paper analyzes the occupation of an abandoned park in the south of Buenos Aires by the city’s urban poor, delineating the implications of this incident for notions of citizenship in the context of deeply fragmented social rights. While public space has historically been understood as an expression of the universality of rights bearing membership in a political community, I show how this universalism became the object of struggle during a conflict over the park between the local middle class and squatters, many of which were of immigrant origin. The discourses mobilized by various social groups blurred the distinction between citizenship as a set of legal–formal rights versus a project of normative inclusion. While public space is juridically constructed as universal, particularistic claims to these spaces are imbued with increased legitimacy in a context in which social rights – conceived as a set of provisions guaranteed by the state under a regime of liberal citizenship – are unrealizable. By claiming this space for particularistic uses, squatters drew attention to the contradictions embedded in public space’s democratic pretensions in a setting in which putatively universal rights are ignored by the state.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Discussing new or recently reformed citizenship tests in the USA, Australia, and Canada, this article asks whether they amount to a restrictive turn of new world citizenship, similar to recent developments in Europe. I argue that elements of a restrictive turn are noticeable in Australia and Canada, but only at the level of political rhetoric, not of law and policy, which remain liberal and inclusive. Much like in Europe, the restrictive turn is tantamount to Muslims and Islam moving to the center of the integration debate.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explores the idea of the Mujahideen in Bosnia as ‘cosmopolitan citizens’. During the Balkan War in the early 1990s, these foreign fighters flocked to Bosnia in order to take up arms alongside those whom they understood to be their besieged Muslim brethren. Although this act of transborder mobilization can be framed as an act of cosmopolitan citizenship, the subsequent ‘problem’ of the Mujahideen in a post-9/11 context destabilized their original cosmopolitan act through a re-enactment of borders and the revocation of their (literal) citizenship. Within the larger post-9/11 narrative, where the Mujahideen must necessarily be understood as terrorists/potential terrorists, they are an interesting point of study in an examination of what can be seen as the sinister side of transnational citizenship, and they expose what Appadurai (A. Appadurai, 2006. Fear of small numbers: an essay on the geography of anger. Durham: Duke University Press.) calls our ‘fear of small numbers’. Particularly compelling is that the post-9/11 Mujahid is an unsympathetic figure, and is always already a questionable candidate for ‘citizenship’ as it is commonly understood. Furthermore, his (sic) original ‘cosmopolitan’ act suggests that, although the ‘cosmopolitan ideal’ is the achievement of a citizenship that transcends or escapes borders, the cosmopolitical must nevertheless be assigned value in order to be ethically intelligible.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Refugee studies rarely address historical matters; yet understanding ideas about sanctuary, refuge, and asylum have long roots in both Western and Eastern history and philosophy. Occasionally the Nansen era of the 1920s is examined or the opening years of, say, the Palestinian refugee crisis is addressed. But by and large the circumstances, experiences, and influences of refugees and exiles in modern history are ignored. This article attempts to contribute to an exploration of the past and to examine the responses of one State – the late Ottoman Empire – to the forced migration of millions of largely Muslim refugees and exiles from its contested borderland shared with Tzarist Russia into its southern provinces. The article focuses on one particular meta-ethnic group, the Circassians, and explores the humanitarian response to their movement both nationally and locally as well as their concerted drive for assisted self-settlement. The Circassians are one of many groups that were on the move at the end of the 19th century and their reception and eventual integration without assimilation in the region provide important lessons for contemporary humanitarianism. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Palestinian refugees’ right of return is an inalienable right enshrined in international law. Palestinian refugees are united in their demand that this right must be recognized, but their proposed political narratives and scenarios differ on how exactly it should be implemented. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in refugee camps in the West Bank, Lebanon, and Jordan from 2008–2011 I trace and compare different political cultures on the right of return as articulated and practiced by refugees themselves across these three different locations and across different generations. While members of the Nakba generation tend to long for a permanent return to their homes, identities, and status in their villages of origin, many from the middle generation follow a rights-based approach, using United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 and other international legal instruments to call for the implementation of the right of return. Young Palestinian refugees often formulate the most innovative political imaginaries on return. They tend to frame the right of return within broader struggles of justice, democratisation, human rights, and equality and can also imagine more flexible scenarios for a future Palestinian nation-state. By going beyond a territorially-based nationalist frame, their political narratives thus offer critiques to classic political theory as well as to elite (Palestinian, host country, as well as regional and international) politics. Doing so, they urge us to rethink what – doing and imagining – politics for Palestine means today. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Kenyan elections of 2007 and their violent aftermath inspired a burst of academic productivity, including a number of articles that have informed the pages of African Affairs over the past five years. Having told us much about the causes and consequences of what has become known as the ‘Kenya crisis’, this work also has a great deal to say about the dynamics of Kenyan politics today and the prospects for conflict and instability around the next general elections, scheduled for 4 March 2013. It is because these articles remain so relevant – for policy makers and Kenyan political leaders as much as for the academic community – that we decided to collate the best of our recent publications on Kenya into a free-access Virtual Issue.

    It is hard to overestimate the impact of the 2007 elections on Kenya. Following largely peaceful voting on 27 December, the counting process descended into farce, sparking accusations of malpractice by the opposition and European Union election observers. Against this backdrop, the controversial announcement on 30 December that President Kibaki had won a second term in office, coupled with a hastily arranged swearing-in ceremony, sparked a wave of violence in which over 1,000 people lost their lives and 600,000 more were displaced. There were multiple sites of conflict. Some ethnic communities supportive of the main opposition candidate, Raila Odinga, rioted and attacked communities assumed to have supported Kibaki, most notably in the Rift Valley. In response, the police violently repressed the protests, while militias aligned with the ruling party carried out ‘revenge attacks’. In the space of just a few weeks, public trust in political leaders and institutions, which had been building gradually since Kenya’s first democratic transfer of power in 2002, was shattered. Inter-communal relations also rapidly deteriorated as violence hardened … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Like other commemorative landmarks, the fiftieth anniversary of Algerian independence in 2012 was preceded by an array of new publications, each seeking to cast light on a hitherto neglected aspect of the War of Independence (1954–62) and the legacies of this conflict. David Porter’s substantial volume, Eyes to the South, joined this trend by offering an impressively detailed overview of how French anarchists have understood and engaged with events in Algeria over the past six decades. This work builds on and combines Porter’s longstanding interests in both anarchism and Algeria; interests which previously have led him to produce volumes on Emma Goldman and Spanish anarchism, as well as doctoral fieldwork on Algerian worker self-management (autogestion) in the early years of Ben Bella’s post-independence regime.

    In Eyes to the South Porter pursues three interrelated projects by offering ‘an alternative history of contemporary Algeria, an introduction to the French anarchist movement since the 1950s, and a heavy plateful of major generic anarchist theoretical and strategic issues’ (p. 475). These three strands are placed within a five-part chronological structure divided according to key … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Markakis has produced a magisterial work that synthesizes a half-century’s research into Ethiopia’s state formation, assessing the achievements and successes of the ruling elites of the imperial, Afro-Marxist, and Federalist regimes. Going against the conventional stance, which assumes that the Ethiopian state long ago passed the threshold of state formation and has moved beyond consolidating control over its territory and citizens, Markakis argues that the ‘nation-state building project’ which began in the late 1890s ‘has made much progress but is nowhere near an end’ (p. 1). Surveying the long and violent history of the empire he argues for the belated acknowledgment of ‘warfare [as] … the crimson thread’ that has stitched together the polity and institutionalized a hierarchical society predominantly based on Abyssinian norms and values (p. 3). The author strips away the mythical and ideological veils of the Ethiopian state and lays bare the legacies of slave raids, military conquest, settler colonialism, and armed insurgencies. He …”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Background

    Concepts of ‘what constitutes mental illness’, the presumed aetiology and preferred treatment options, vary considerably from one cultural context to another. Knowledge and understanding of these local conceptualisations is essential to inform public mental health programming and policy.
    Methods

    Participants from four locations in Burundi, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were invited to describe ‘problems they knew of that related to thinking, feeling and behaviour?’ Data were collected over 31 focus groups discussions (251 participants) and key informant interviews with traditional healers and health workers.
    Results

    While remarkable similarities occurred across all settings, there were also striking differences. In all areas, participants were able to describe localized syndromes characterized by severe behavioural and cognitive disturbances with considerable resemblance to psychotic disorders. Additionally, respondents throughout all settings described local syndromes that included sadness and social withdrawal as core features. These syndromes had some similarities with nonpsychotic mental disorders, such as major depression or anxiety disorders, but also differed significantly. Aetiological concepts varied a great deal within each setting, and attributed causes varied from supernatural to psychosocial and natural. Local syndromes resembling psychotic disorders were seen as an abnormality in need of treatment, although people did not really know where to go. Local syndromes resembling nonpsychotic mental disorders were not regarded as a ‘medical’ disorder, and were therefore also not seen as a condition for which help should be sought within the biomedical health-care system. Rather, such conditions were expected to improve through social and emotional support from relatives, traditional healers and community members.
    Conclusions

    Local conceptualizations have significant implications for the planning of mental-health interventions in resource-poor settings recovering from conflict. Treatment options for people suffering from severe mental disorders should be made available to people, preferably within general health care facilities. For people suffering from local syndromes characterized by loss or sadness, the primary aim for public mental health interventions would be to empower existing social support systems already in place at local levels, and to strengthen social cohesion and self-help within communities. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Despite official discourses of donors, the most corrupt countries receive the highest amounts of foreign aid. The most corrupt countries are however also the poorest, and this is why they may receive more aid. This paper provides the first theoretical and empirical grounds for this rationale. The key is that corruption is not exogenous but, instead, an equilibrium phenomenon. We build a multi-country model of optimal aid in which we disentangle the correlation between aid and corruption into two components: the first reflects variations in the quality of institutions and the second variations in productivity levels. The data suggest that both components of the correlation are significant; however the effect of variations in productivity levels is stronger. Because the cross-country heterogeneity in productivity is more important than the heterogeneity in institutional quality, it is optimal to give more foreign aid to more corrupt countries. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.