New Journal Research Articles for Refugee and Forced Migration Studies 02/13/2016

  • “This study examines the organizational practices and experiences of congregational diversity in an evangelical urban church. Based on data collected using ethnographic methods over an 18-month period, this study suggests a principal organizational practice (managed diversity) employed by white church leaders produces complex and consequential outcomes for the racial experiences of congregation members. Specifically, the management of diversity results in three techniques integral to organizational outcomes that reveal the mechanisms by which race is conceptualized and manipulated to navigate new religious markets. This study contributes to ongoing scholarship about the conceptual apparatus that voluntary organizations engage to foster racial diversity. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “In an era of growing transnational practices, this paper considers the trend of second-generation Chinese Americans who have ‘returned’ to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to work. Previous studies of return migration to China have focused on issues of ethnic and racial identity that arise during temporary homeland trips undertaken by those seeking to connect with ancestral and cultural origins. Accordingly, most research has highlighted the sense of cultural ‘in-betweenness’ experienced by Chinese Americans whose travels in the ancestral homeland bring an uncomfortable realisation that they are considered neither fully Chinese nor fully American. By contrast, my in-depth interviews with 52 second-generation Chinese American professionals in Beijing and Shanghai suggest that this liminality can be particularly useful in the workplace. I argue that first-world Chinese co-ethnics who work on a long-term basis in the PRC can uniquely leverage Western training with their assumed knowledge of Chinese culture to create personal economic advantage: a practice that I refer to as ‘strategic in-betweenness’. Nonetheless, while participants described distinct career-related benefits to being Chinese American in the PRC, they also feared they would soon be replaced by high-skilled, Western-educated Chinese natives who are moving back to their home country in large numbers.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Immigration scholars have long considered cities to be important environments that mediate how immigrants are incorporated into receiving countries. While most scholars recognise that cities have some importance, they continue to prioritise national-level institutions, organisations, networks, and cultural dynamics. This paper introduces the special issue on ‘Migrant Cities’. The special issue asserts that cities are not simply backdrops where national-level processes and mechanisms unfold. The contributing scholars reveal how cities are distinctive environments with unique constraints and opportunities. Following a basic introduction, the paper examines how to apply these general assumptions about cities to understanding the political formation of immigrants. The paper does this by urbanising Nancy Fraser’s concept of ‘counterpublic’. We suggest that cities possess certain qualities that enable the formation of immigrant counterpublics, which in turn become critical spaces of politicisation.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Little is known about mortality among descendants of immigrants in western host countries because many descendants have not yet reached the ages of high mortality. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the migrant mortality advantage recently observed among immigrants in England and Wales persists, converges to levels of the White England and Wales-born population or reverses among their descendants. Survival analysis is used to study mortality among over 500,000 individuals in a large, longitudinal dataset (Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study). A recent update to this data provides a longer time series with an older sample of descendants to study. The analysis finds that, as a combined group, the descendants of immigrants have higher mortality than immigrants and White England and Wales-born. After adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics, mortality among descendants attenuates to the mortality level among the White England and Wales-born but remains high relative to immigrants. Analysis by ethnic minority group suggests there are important differences in mortality among descendants, particularly in the persistent high mortality among the descendants of Black Caribbeans. However, the age structure among descendants is still young and the estimates for ethnic minority sub-groups may not be robust. We await the further ageing of descendants to confirm or challenge these interesting sub-group findings by ethnicity.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Most research studies on return migration analyse remigration and reintegration as individual projects, without considering the interconnectedness of remigrants with their family members. This article addresses this research gap and seeks to add to our understanding of the role which the family plays in shaping reintegration outcomes through a qualitative analysis of the experiences of highly skilled Austrians who returned, with their co- or inter-ethnic family members, in the last 10 years. Results show that the relationship between family and reintegration is complex. Core family members may act both as constraints and as enablers of readjustment. Partners and children ease reintegration by providing enthusiasm, motivation and emotional support. At the same time, family members may also complicate the reintegration process by increasing the amount of administrative work to be done in order to re-organise family life or by triggering feelings of alienation, when family members face (re)-integration challenges. The reintegration process was also found to have a significant impact on highly skilled returnees’ family life. The problem-solving strategies which returnees develop during their process of reintegration either impede the formation of new families, impact on the structure of existing families or change the division of family work in the household.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “This paper tests the theoretically assumed relationship between the parliamentary presence of radical right parties (RRPs) and anti-immigration attitudes over time. Data come from six rounds of the European Social Survey between 2002 and 2012. Using multi-level models with applications for repeated cross-sectional data, the study examines the implications of changes tied to the political advancements of the radical right with a focus on three possible scenarios: people’s attitudes about immigration have generally become more negative, opposition towards immigration has become more dependent on immigrants’ ethnicity, and attitudes towards immigration have become more polarised. Contrary to expectations, it is found that neither the presence, the representational strength, nor the nationalistic framing of an RRP affect opposition towards immigration over time. Thus, the conclusion is that the RRPs, so far, have not driven anti-immigration attitudes in Europe. Possible explanations for these results are discussed in the concluding section.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Across Western democracies, the place for newcomers in the host society is debated, involving often a questioning of immigrants’ belonging to their new nation. This article argues that immigrants’ feeling of host national belonging depends on how the host nation imagines its community and its concomitant boundaries. Utilising survey and country level data in multilevel regressions, immigrants’ belonging is found to vary significantly across the 19 countries included. A central contribution is the finding that citizenship policies do not explain this cross-national variation. Instead, what matters is the informal boundary drawing produced in the majority population’s conception of what is important for being part of the national ‘us’. Thus, immigrants’ belonging is significantly greater when the majority population prioritises attainable criteria of national membership. In addition, these priorities are shown to have deep historical roots as immigrants’ belonging is greater in settler countries and in nations which democratised early. By showing that national imageries have consequences for a country’s welcoming capacities, and by showing that these welcoming capacities are historically path dependent, the study contributes to the debate within nationalism studies about national identity’s causal significance.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines how corruption affects reintegration. The literature on return and reintegration shows that return migrants often struggle to adjust and adapt to life in their place of origin because that environment can be very different from what they grew accustomed to abroad. One stark difference is the prevalence and meaning of corruption. In many sending countries that migrants come from and then return to, corruption is endemic. By contrast, in many receiving countries that migrants go to and return from, it is incidental. Yet, we know little about how the discrepancy affects reintegration. This study examines how corruption affects the psychosocial and economic reintegration of Iraqi Kurds returning to Iraqi Kurdistan from Norway and the United Kingdom. Interviews with returnees reveal that they consider corruption a major challenge for their own reintegration. Psychosocially, it alienates them from the ideology of the Kurdish nation-building project, challenges their identities, undermines a sense of belonging and creates insecurity. Economically, it shapes economic behaviour and outcomes by obstructing entrepreneurship, producing relative deprivation and conditioning their employability.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “This article concentrates on the ‘post migrant’ perspective formulated by migration scholars and cultural producers in to analyse migrant subjectivities, and practices beyond the culturalising and ethnicising logics of migration scholarship and public debates. I put the spatial and temporal frameworks informing this approach to migrant dynamics under scrutiny and argue that this concept remains of limited analytical value as it denies migrants coevalness with ‘non-migrants’. I suggest an alternative perspective deploying concepts of displacement, disposession and emplacement, which might allow us to avoid the spatial and temporal impediments of the post migrant perspective and would instead facilitate us to approach migrants and non-migrants from within a common analytical lens. In the last part of the article, I situate the strategic success of the post migrant intervention in Vienna, despite its analytical fault lines, within the scalar dynamics of city making at a particular conjuncture in time.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Considering that established migrant associations often play an active role in migrants’ rights advocacy, the relationship between them and the growing numbers of irregular migrants needs careful scrutiny. Looking at the encounters between irregular Bulgarian Turkish migrants and associations established by their co-ethnics who hold Turkish citizenship in Turkey, our ethnographic evidence shows that co-ethnic migrant associations mobilise the legal frame of ‘ethnic deservingness’ with the intention of welcoming co-ethnics to the Turkish homeland. In the absence of other formal organisations for rights advocacy, associations’ appeals to this frame emerge as a civic resource for the irregular newcomers in their permanent residency claims. At the same time, the same frame hides unequal power relations within co-ethnic communities, that is, newcomers’ peripheral positions within associations and the economic costs of filing claims via associations. This situation creates a representational gap in the associational context between its active members with higher legal capital and irregular newcomers with lower legal capital. Tackling the problem of representation determined by the legal hierarchy, this study questions whether migrant associations should still be considered important political actors when undocumented/irregular migrants outnumber regulars—especially with regard to the immediate political/legal actions they require.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Migration is an increasing worldwide phenomenon that creates multicultural societies with a growing number of adolescents who have experienced a process of migration or who have an ethnic background other than that of the majority. Migration may lead to loss of social relations and create challenges related to acculturation in the new country. These experiences may induce feelings of loneliness. Research on ethnic and migrant disparities in loneliness among adolescents is limited and inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine how adolescents’ immigration background and self-identified ethnicity are associated, independently and combined, with loneliness. We used data from the Danish 2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey which included a representative sample of 3083 13- and 15-year-olds. The results suggest that immigrants but not descendants of immigrants have an increased risk of loneliness compared to adolescents with a Danish origin. The results also suggest that adolescents’ self-identified ethnicity plays an essential role but differently for immigrants and descendants: identifying with the Danish majority was protective against loneliness among immigrants, whereas identifying with an ethnic minority group was protective against loneliness among descendants.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Contrary to studies of other migrant-receiving countries, most of which are developed countries, this paper examines impacts of immigrant workers on innovative capacities in Thailand, which is not only a representative of a receiving country that is a developing country but also a country where the majority of its immigrant workers are unskilled. Analysis of firm-level survey data in Thailand finds that employing unskilled and cheap labor from neighboring countries, namely Myanmar, the Lao PDR, and Cambodia, is like adopting a kind of “labor-saving technology” which actually impedes firms’ R&D investment. Contrary to developed countries in which immigrants are found to boost innovation and promote sustainable growth, in Thailand, even though employing unskilled immigrant workers helps firms maintain their cost competitiveness in the short run, its negative impacts on R&D investment tend to hamper improvements in productivity and thus diminish global competitiveness in the long run. Employing skilled or educated migrants, on the other hand, complements technological progress and encourages firms to innovate more quickly. In addition, the paper finds that providing government incentives and promoting access to financing have become effective tools in facilitating Thai firms’ investment in innovation.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “The UK’s FOI Act came into force in 2005. Three linked research projects were conducted to evaluate its overall impact and assess to what extent FOI has met its objectives across central and local government and Parliament. They conclude that FOI has met its ‘core’ objectives, making central government more transparent and accountable. However, it has not improved decision-making, public understanding, participation or trust. Nor has FOI significantly changed how government works, despite politicians’ fears of a chilling effect. The article concludes with a look at the key issues that will shape the future of FOI. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Article 34 of the European Convention on Human Rights lists admissibility criteria that act to filter complaints brought to the European Court of Human Rights. A new criterion, requiring that the applicant have suffered a ‘significant disadvantage’ from the alleged human rights violation, was added to this list with the aim of reducing even further the number of cases the Court receives and must decide on the merits. The article examines the application of this filter by the Court in the two years after it became operable. It finds that only general and rather subjective criteria were elaborated and that the Court was unable to avoid at least a cursory examination of the merits of the cases in question. A more appropriate method of reducing the Court’s caseload would focus less on the applicants and more on the respondent states, in particular those few who account for nearly two-thirds of the caseload. Failure to comply with judgments of the Court leads to many repetitious cases from these countries and has a far greater impact on judicial administration than does the number of smaller cases the Court deems insignificant. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “This article argues that despite the growing interest in the so-called fragmentation of international law, little, if any, attention has been paid to the role of the more favourable protection clause in addressing certain aspects of the interaction between treaties on human rights. It shows that both the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Human Rights do not employ the clause, found in their respective constitutive instruments, to fulfil its initial aim and design. The article compares the practices of the two courts and explores the underlying reasons for not using, or misapplying, the clause. Moreover, the analysis finds that even though the clauses in the European Convention on Human Rights and the American Convention on Human Rights are very similar, the two courts have adopted completely different understandings of how the clause should be applied, thereby strengthening the fragmentation narrative. The discussion proceeds to suggest a novel way in which the more favourable protection clause may be used. It contends that the clause is a provision subject to violation by the contracting parties by way of offering an alternative manner in which international courts can engage with the proliferation of human rights treaties and revisit the allocation of competence among international and national courts. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Purpose

    The objective of this systematic review is to provide a comprehensive perspective of the documented physical and mental health issues Karen refugees from Burma face as a result of war and refugee trauma, and migration. The review will address the question: What is the impact of trauma and migration on the physical and mental health of Karen refugees?
    Design/methodology/approach

    A total of 18 articles were systematically selected for inclusion in the final review. The focal content for included articles includes qualitative and quantitative research representative of the health and migration experiences of Karen refugees.
    Findings

    The findings of this review demonstrate significance for health providers from a public health standpoint as programs and services are targeted to meet the specific health needs of the Karen community. It also highlights the contribution of the Karen forced migration experience to the complexity of individual and community health needs, particularly as a result of the protracted conflict.
    Originality/value

    This critical appraisal of the body of literature describing the health experiences of Karen refugees from Burma, with a particular focus on outcomes relevant to resettlement, demonstrates value as programs are developed with an integrated refugee perspective.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Purpose

    Somali immigrants are a strong, vibrant community in the Twin Cities area of Minnesota. However, the legacy of resettlement and the challenges of adjustment can lead to complex physical and mental health challenges. The Somali community is considered to be underserved, particularly with regard to mental health, but the health system must understand the perception of mental health in the Somali community in order to address current disparities.
    Design/methodology/approach

    This qualitative research drew on the Social Ecological Model (SEM)nand was conducted with the goal of learning more about how mental illness is perceived in the Somali community living in Minnesota. Four focus groups were held, with a total of 35 participants, 19 female and 16 male.
    Findings

    Several main themes emerged from the data. The community’s foundations of the perceptions of mental health inform and shape their perspective on mental illness, including the way mental illness is defined. Historical experiences, the impact of trauma, strong religious beliefs, and stigma towards mental illness influenced both the perceived causes of mental illness and views on seeking treatment.
    Originality/value

    This research suggests there is value in drawing on the SEM to as the perception of mental illness is both layered, and shaped by the Somali community’s historical and social context. Forming community partnerships that address concerns about mental illness are essential next steps towards improving mental health in the Somali community. These partnerships should build on existing community assets, particularly religious leaders.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Purpose

    This study examines health issues among Liberian refugees living in Staten Island and access potential barriers to accessing healthcare.
    Design/methodology/approach

    Qualitative methods including interviews (n = 68) with West African immigrants, predominantly Liberian refugees, and long-term ethnography were employed to elicit West Africans’ views on health, acculturation, and access to service providers. Framework analysis was employed to analyze the data thematically.
    Findings

    Chronic health diseases, depression, isolation, and inadequate access to healthcare were the main concerns of the population studied. The findings are in contrast to the public health experts’ concentration on infectious diseases.
    Practical implications

    The barriers to access proper healthcare have implications for healthcare providers and government institutions and information about these barriers can help them to refocus their health efforts to better address the needs of West African refugees.
    Originality/value

    Africans are among the newest immigrants in the U.S. and are considerably understudied compared to other groups such as Latin Americans and Asians. Additionally, there is an abundance research about refugees’ health status when they first arrive in the U.S., but there is little data on their health after their resettlement. ”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • Purpose

    The term ‘parenting’ has come to assume a specific sociological meaning: it defines parents’ role and agency not only with regard to their children, but also to the state, medical doctors, psychologists and educators. How normative stances toward parenting affect the lives of parents has started to be analyzed in the social sciences, however less is known about how the ‘culture of parenting’ impacts on the way migrant families take care of their children. This paper untangles the conceptual and disciplinary roots of parenting studies stemming from early anthropological studies of kinship and ethno-psychological theories, through to the anthropology of childhood and childrearing and the current socio-anthropological studies of parenting. This review offers conceptual tools for the creation of a critical perspective on migration and parenting.
    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper acknowledges the theoretical and empirical gap in the study of migration and parenting by illustrating the sparse and interdisciplinary literature which has dealt with migration and parenting
    Findings

    The paper discusses the presented literature’s limits and potentialities in light of the new culture of parenting
    Originality/value

    The paper addresses future paths for ethnographic work.

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Purpose

    The article tries to link the multifarious problems of the elderly in a socio-economic and psychological framework.
    Design/methodology/approach

    The universe of the sample is elderly left behind in emigrant households in Kerala. 600 samples were mustered using multistage stratified random sampling method. The paper, with the aid of Factor Analysis, Chi-Square and Correspondence Analysis, blemish the principal factors responsible for the migration induced exclusion of the elderly.
    Findings

    The empirical result derived from the study shows that migration induced exclusion is all pervasive in Kerala. The elderly left behind yearn for the presence of their children rather than the emigration and concomitant remittances.
    Research limitations/implications

    The findings of the study are helpful to the policy makers to understand the issues faced by the elderly and include all stakeholders concerned to find a solution to tackle these problems faced by the elderly due to emigration of their children.
    Practical implications

    The study is practically relevant in developing appropriate policy framework in Kerala as it illumines the role of the government to overcome the exclusionary trend and other manifold problems of the elderly.
    Originality/value

    The study is a unique one and tries to situate the principal factors responsible for the emigration-induced exclusion of the elderly in Kerala with empirical evidence.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

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