Daily Archives: Thursday, October 8, 2015

New publication: FMR 50 – Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 years on from Dayton Peace Agreement

FMR 50 now online – Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 years on from Dayton Peace Agreement, plus general articles

Forced Migration Review issue 50, on ‘Dayton +20’, is now online at www.fmreview.org/dayton20

Twenty years on from the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement in November 1995, the consequences of conflict – including the long-term effects of displacement – are still being felt in the Western Balkans. FMR 50 examines the case of people who were displaced from and within Bosnia and Herzegovina as a result of the 1992-95 war, and reflects on the lessons that may be drawn from the successes and failures of the Agreement. These lessons have resonance for current crises – such as in Syria or Ukraine – and merit attention.

This issue of FMR includes 20 articles on ‘Dayton +20’, plus five ‘general’ articles on: safe shelters for survivors of SGBV, inconsistencies in asylum appeal adjudication in the UK, assisted voluntary return of young Afghans, refugees’ perspectives on successful resettlement in the US, and the fragmentation of the ‘protection landscape’.

The full list of contents, with web links, is given at the end of this email.

FMR 50 will be available in print in English, Bosnian (Latin and Cyrillic) and Arabic. These four editions plus Spanish and French editions will also be available online. FMR is free of charge in print and online.

If you do not regularly receive a print copy of FMR and would like to receive a print copy for your organisation, or multiple copies for onward distribution or for use in training or at conferences, please contact us at fmr@qeh.ox.ac.uk, specifying how many copies you need, in which language/s, and providing a full postal address.

We are grateful to Catholic Relief Services-USCCB, the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs and UNHCR’s Regional Bureau for Europe for their financial support of this issue.

Details of our forthcoming issues – on ‘Destination: Europe’ and ‘Thinking ahead: displacement, transition and solutions’ – can be found at www.fmreview.org/forthcoming

Apologies for any cross-posting.

Best wishes

Marion Couldrey & Maurice Herson
Editors, Forced Migration Review

FMR 50 Dayton +20 – contents with web links


Foreword: Addressing the legacy of violence
Valentin Inzko (High Representative to Bosnia and Herzegovina)

Annex 7: why are we still discussing it?
María del Pilar Valledor Álvarez (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos)

Political and social consequences of continuing displacement in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Lana Pašić (Consultant)

Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 years on from Dayton
Andrew Mayne (UNHCR)

Resolving a protracted refugee situation through a regional process
Olga Mitrovic (IOM Belgrade)

Voices in displacement
Claudia Meyerhoefer (social worker)

Property rights and reconstruction in the Bosnian return process
Inmaculada Serrano (Carlos III University)

Resolving protracted displacement through social housing
Marc D’Silva and Sanela Imamovic (Catholic Relief Services Bosnia-Herzegovina)

Asking the right questions in research on psychosocial well-being
Selma Porobic (Centre for Refugee and IDP Studies, University of Sarajevo)

Wartime division in peacetime schools
Valery Perry (independent researcher and consultant)

Their last name is ‘refugee’: return and local activism
Peter Lippman human rights activist and independent researcher)

Human rights shortcomings of the Dayton Peace Agreement
Lisbeth Pilegaard (Consultant) and Jasminka Dzumhur (Ombudsperson for Bosnia and Herzegovina)

If women are left out of peace talks
Gorana Mlinarević (Gender of Justice Project at Goldsmiths University), Nela Porobić Isaković and Madeleine Rees (Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom)

Interpretations of Annex 7: assessing the impact on non-returnees in the UK
Gayle Munro (The Salvation Army)

The role of remote voting in encouraging return
Djordje Stefanovic (Saint Mary’s University, Halifax) and Neophytos Loizides (University of Kent, UK)

Home after Dayton: IDPs in Sarajevo
Gruia Badescu (Centre for Urban Conflicts Research, University of Cambridge)

The compound effects of conflict and disaster displacement in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Wesli H Turner (Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre)

Prijedor: re-imagining the future
Damir Mitrić (La Trobe University) and Sudbin Musić (Bridges for the Future Association)

Mass evacuations: learning from the past
Caelin Briggs (Norwegian Refugee Council)

Bosnia revisited: a retrospective on the legacy of the conflict
Brad K Blitz (Middlesex University)


Inconsistency in asylum appeal adjudication
Nick Gill, Rebecca Rotter, Andrew Burridge, Melanie Griffiths and Jennifer Allsopp (Universities of Exeter, Edinburgh, Bristol and Oxford)

Sheltering displaced persons from sexual and gender-based violence
Julie Freccero (University of California)

Changing how we measure success in resettlement
Justin S Lee (University of North Carolina at Greensboro), Suzie S Weng (University of North Florida) and Sarah Ivory (Church World Service)

Young Afghans facing return
Kim Robinson (Deakin University) and Lucy Williams (University of Kent)

A fragmented landscape of protection
Roger Zetter (University of Oxford)

ToC: Journal of Refugee Studies Table of Contents for September 1, 2015; Vol. 28, No. 3

Oxford journals have published the latest edition of the Journal of Refugee Studies for September 1, 2015; Vol. 28, No. 3.  Further details of the articles detailed in this volume are outlined as follows:


Searching for Directions: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in Researching Refugee Journeys
Gadi BenEzer and Roger Zetter
Journal of Refugee Studies 2015 28: 297-318

Refugee Health and Wellbeing: Differences between Urban and Camp-Based Environments in Sub-Saharan Africa
Thomas M. Crea, Rocío Calvo, and Maryanne Loughry
Journal of Refugee Studies 2015 28: 319-330

The Resilient Voter? An Exploration of the Effects of Post-Election Violence in Kenya’s Internally Displaced Persons Camps
Stephanie M. Burchard
Journal of Refugee Studies 2015 28: 331-349

Becoming (Im)Perceptible: Forced Migrants and Virtual Practice
Saskia Witteborn
Journal of Refugee Studies 2015 28: 350-367

Factors Influencing Contraception Awareness and Use: The Experiences of Young African Australian mothers
Mimmie Claudine Ngum Chi Watts, Celia McMichael, and Pranee Liamputtong
Journal of Refugee Studies 2015 28: 368-387

Social Engineering for Reintegration: Peace Villages for the ‘Uprooted’ Returnees in Burundi

Jean-Benoît Falisse and René Claude Niyonkuru
Journal of Refugee Studies 2015 28: 388-411

From Bottom-Up to Top-Down: The ‘Pre-History’ of Refugee Livelihoods Assistance from 1919 to 1979
Evan Elise Easton-Calabria
Journal of Refugee Studies 2015 28: 412-436


Call for papers for a session at: Association of Critical Heritage Studies Third Biennial Conference Montreal, Canada, 6-10th June 2016

Please circulate widely.

Call for papers for a session at:
Association of Critical Heritage Studies Third Biennial Conference
Montreal, Canada, 6-10th June 2016

Session Title: Changing places, changing people? Critical heritage(s) of diaspora, migration and belonging.

Session Organizers: Dr Susannah Eckersley (Newcastle University, England, UK), Professor Ullrich Kockel, Dr Katherine Lloyd, Professor Máiréad Nic Craith (all Heriot-Watt University, Scotland, UK)


Session Abstract:
Much is being made of the perceived breakdown of the nation state, which was historically configured as a “container” of heritage formations, adopting and perusing local traditions where possible but oppressing them where deemed unsuitable. Migration is seen as eroding the rigid boundaries of this configuration, potentially liberating identities and heritages in the process. This session addresses the relationship between critical heritage and redefinitions of self, other, community and place within the contemporary global reality of movement and flux. Diversity and hybridization are usually regarded positively, displacement, alienation, conflict and normative repression negatively; yet is that necessarily so? Heritage can be seen as a tool for discursively drawing boundaries of inclusion and exclusion, but who is doing the drawing, for what purpose, and what difference does that make? Challenging conventional heritage discourses projecting heritage as sited in place(s), and/or attached to specific groups and communities, we invite contributions exploring the various, sometimes conflicting “imagined communities” of heritage by raising critical issues, such as:

·        How do ideas of place and place attachment shape or limit the positions individuals and groups may adopt? What roles do auto-biography, memory and history play in shaping such ideas?

·        How are scales of identity, place and belonging exhibited or influenced differently by both heritage and politics? What transitional identities and redefinitions of self, community, other and place develop in relation to the heritage practices, mediated memories and “past-presencing” of migrants?

·        How do displaced people negotiate community and place in tension between the “here and now” and the “there and then” that shapes their heritage discourse as much as the elite discourse they are confronted with in everyday life?

·        How are contested heritage practices, discourses and associations of ‘authenticity’ negotiated between communities, and what role do official discourses and practices play in alleviating or aggravating these contestations?

·        As displacement is becoming a common experience, what significance do memorates of “roots and routes” have in various socio-historical or geo-political contexts for shaping journeys of return, (re)discovery, pilgrimage or ‘closure’ that figure in heritage tourism?

·        How compatible are notions of cultural citizenship based on parity of esteem with the coexistence of perhaps conflicting heritage discourses? Why is conceptualising conflict as heritage so difficult?

·        Given the continued reality of multi-facetted place attachment, how may migration and displacement be turned into opportunities for re-placing communities and heritages while avoiding the trap of a shallow essentialism, and sanitization of uncomfortable heritages?

·        What is needed to make critical heritage sustainable in a social, political and economic environment in radical flux (migration, climate change, financial crisis, political upheaval and conflict)? How do we decide which heritages should be sustained, who legitimizes these decisions, and to what extent are such questions about merely replacing one elite with the power of definition by another?

We are keen to examine issues such as these from multi- and interdisciplinary perspectives combining theoretical explorations with applied concerns. Along with papers we encourage creative engagement using other formats with a capacity to capture our subject matter, such as artwork, poetry or performance.

Submissions for papers or posters should be sent with a brief resume (biographical notice and main publications or achievements) of no more than 300 words and an abstract of no more than 600words presenting the topic or main argument, its relation to the specific session and its interest in the field of critical heritage studies. Paper abstracts should also demonstrate scientific quality through references to a theoretical framework, a methodology or by outlining the contribution to knowledge. It is expected that poster submissions also outline their contribution and state how the poster format will allow a better understanding of the subject treated.

Enquiries to: Susannah Eckersley (susannah.eckersley@ncl.ac.uk) and Ullrich Kockel (u.kockel@hw.ac.uk)

Submission through the open call via https://achs2016.uqam.ca/secure/submitAbstract.php by 1st November 2015, with the session code: OS067 Changing places, changing people? Critical heritage(s) of diaspora, migration and belonging

More information is available on the conference website at: http://achs2016.uqam.ca

Daily News and Updates on Refugee and Forced Migration Studies 10/08/2015

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Daily News and Updates from ReliefWeb 10/08/2015

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New Journal Research Articles for Refugee and Forced Migration Studies 10/08/2015

  • “Portugal’s migration history has been extensively explored in academic literature, including in legal scholarship. Yet, very little attention has so far been directed towards Portuguese refugee law. This may be due to the relatively low number of asylum seekers that Portugal receives, but that does not justify neglecting the study of the Portuguese socio-legal framework applicable to asylum seekers and refugees. This article addresses this gap by analyzing the framework in a European context, enhancing the analysis with a case study of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, and intersex (LGBTI) asylum seekers. The analysis explores the evolution of the current legal framework, the procedures and remedies available to asylum seekers, the substantive standards applied in decision making, and the broader socio-legal resources offered to asylum seekers. Several shortcomings and possible avenues of improvement are also identified. “


  • “This article discusses the impact of Somali habitus and symbolic violence on the decisions of resettled Somali refugee women in the UK to obtain an education, which leads to employment. I highlight the significance of employment to their resettlement success and cultural capital. However, cultural capital continues to be unattainable in their host country because it was not present in Somalia. Self-sufficiency is a primary element of resettlement but depends heavily upon learning the host country’s language, which requires classes, time and a complete paradigm shift. Using Bourdieu’s cultural capital/symbolic violence as a framework, I discuss the dilemma these women faced in trying to attain cultural capital in their host country, and how a lack of it impacts upon their resettlement. Additionally, the norms of Somali patriarchal society exclude both girls and women from education, leading to illiteracy in English and, for most of the participants, in the Somali language. The research highlights the challenges faced by the women in their attempts to navigate the UK’s elite socio-cultural economy.”


  • “This article focuses on the experiences of Scotland’s largest foreign-born minority group, namely Poles, in the run-up to the Scottish independence referendum in 2014. We draw on 20 in-depth interviews to explore our participants’ intentions and justifications for voting (or not) in the referendum. We found that our participants tended to emphasise the jus domicili principle when justifying their eligibility to vote in the referendum. However, our participants extended the jus domicili principle in their justifications to also include the intention to stay in Scotland as a central aspect of their continuing stake in (and right to vote in the referendum to determine) Scotland’s future. Through exploring our participants’ justifications for voting in the referendum, we were able to examine and better understand how migrants constitute their citizenship through articulating their substantive attachments (social, economic and relational or familial) in their adoptive country and in their country of origin.”


  • “Despite acclaimed gender equality during the struggle for liberation and post independence in their country, the entrenched system of gender-based inequality has forced many Eritrean women to flee their country. On their difficult flight and during their journey, Eritrean women were exposed to blackmail, sexual abuse and rape. Those who made it through the difficult journey sought asylum in Israel but have not been able to escape gender violation and discrimination in their host state. This article traces the experience of Eritrean woman asylum seekers in Israel from the moment of their escape from Eritrea, through their torturous journey and after their entry into a state that refuses to consider their right to refugee status. Data were obtained using in-depth interviews with women asylum seekers in Israel, records of radio interviews and Paltalk discussions in the Tigrigna language, and close reading of unpublished reports by human rights activists and of Hebrew-language Israeli newspapers. Analysis of these diverse bodies of data reveals that gender is largely ignored by the few scholars who attempted to document the Eritrean asylum seekers experience in Israel. Drawing on post-colonial feminist Canadian scholar Sherene Razack (1999), who urges us to develop ‘a more political understanding of why women flee’, we examine here the experience of Eritrean women asylum seekers in Israel within a critical feminist analytical framework that documents their agency within changing historical and political circumstances and forces. We use this larger historically specific framework to disengage from the trope of ‘pity and rescue’ and offer instead a critical examination of how Eritrean women act as agents from the moment they decide to flee their country and until they settle in Israel. “


  • “From 2011 until 2012, members of the Canadian parliament debated three iterations of legislation relating to the detention of asylum seekers. The final bill, unlike its predecessors, exempted children under the age of 16 from mandatory year-long detention, opening the door to children’s prolonged separation from parents or invisible detention as guests alongside mandatorily detained parents. Using a critical discourse analysis approach, we examine parliamentary debates and seek to determine how speech acts within the Canadian parliament construct a (detained) migrant child. Our results suggest that parliamentarians invoke logics of human rights and humanitarianism and that a reconfiguration of these paradigms places the state rather than the refugee in need of protection, thus introducing a hierarchy of compassion. Within this discourse, children are rendered so vulnerable as to be voiceless, enforcing the corollary image of the threatening adult refugee, which ultimately allows detention of children to be framed as a protective measure. We hypothesize mechanisms that make such constructions possible and discuss the implications for advocacy efforts. “


  • “This article will report on research that considers refugees in the UK who were teachers or doctors by profession in their country of origin, have lost this status after arrival in the UK and are seeking to regain their professions. This article draws on 39 in-depth interviews with refugee doctors and teachers to explore their strategies of re-entering their professions following migration to the UK. It explores the role of refugee agencies in shaping the process of integration into the profession. By so doing, it provides insights into how refugees themselves approach the process of integration into their professions, and finds that refugees’ professional aspirations and attitudes along with personal factors including their age, parenthood, gender and time of arrival in the UK had further impact on how they had responded to encountered barriers. “


  • “This article discusses the benefits of a gendered human security perspective on the issue of humanitarian action in internally displaced person (IDP) and refugee protection. It argues that a thorough analysis along the human security dimensions (economic, food, health, environment, personal, community, and political) strengthens our understanding of the gender dimension in the context of forced displacement. Based on an analysis of guidelines and humanitarian policy documents in the area of IDP and refugee protection, it shows that understanding not only gender specific needs but also the underlying gender relations is of importance, as these relations can be altered during displacement or as a consequence of humanitarian interventions. Moreover, the intersection of gender with other indicators creating vulnerability and insecurity (such as age, sexuality, race, religion, class and ethnicity) need to be addressed. This requires the collection of disaggregated data and a structural gender-sensitive analysis of the multilayered human security situation on the ground. “


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  • “The Swiss Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies (MIRIPS) study (n = 1,488) examined the impact of migrant students’ acculturation strategies on their psychosocial adaptation and educational success. The study focused on the comparison of students with an Italian, Portuguese and Albanian migration background, because these three groups differ in their socioeconomic living conditions, educational resources and opportunities in Switzerland according to official statistics. With respect to acculturation strategies, the results partially confirm the integration hypothesis: immigrant students who are oriented towards the heritage culture and students who align with both the heritage culture and the majority culture (integration) and who are interested in their multicultural environment have a better psychosocial adaptation than students who align with no culture (marginalisation). In relation to educational success, a multicultural orientation and a combination of a minority and multicultural orientation turned out to be the strategies of the higher-performing students. Unexpectedly, the three groups of migrants examined in this study did not differ in their life satisfaction, an indicator for psychological adaptation or in their educational success in terms of educational aspirations and German reading skills. Rather than the migration background of the students, other demographic variables such as educational resources of the family as well as factors related to school quality (type of school, quality of social relationships, achievement expectancy of teachers, multicultural education at school) turned out to be crucial for psychosocial adaptation and educational success.”


  • “In today’s global economy, small developing countries like Cape Verde have very few options to spur growth and sustain long term socioeconomic development. Small size, poor resource endowment, declining foreign aid, and decreasing opportunities in the world economy have sharply reduced their options for growth and competitiveness. In response, Cape Verde and other small states have been placing increasing focus on migration as a development resource. For a country with a centuries long history of migration and a diaspora estimated to be twice the size of the resident population, harnessing the diaspora is a viable option for Cape Verde. But under what conditions is such an option effective? This article analyses the evolution of the diaspora’s economic role, and assesses the conditions that enable or obstruct the diaspora’s role as a development resource.”


  • “Numerous studies have shown that even after controlling for relevant socio-economic background variables, the labour market position of immigrant minorities lags considerably behind that of natives. The label ‘ethnic penalties’ is often used to denote these gaps and reflects the idea that differences between natives and immigrants that cannot be explained by demographic and human capital variables must be due to discrimination by employers. I challenge this interpretation by looking at the role of sociocultural variables such as language proficiency, interethnic social ties and gender values as alternative sources of unexplained ethnic group differences. I use the data from the cross-national ‘Eurislam’ survey of four immigrant ethnic groups of predominantly Muslim belief—Turks, Moroccans, former Yugoslav Muslims and Pakistani—as well as native ethnics. The results indicate that once sociocultural variables are taken into account, differences in rates of labour market participation and unemployment between native ethnics and the Muslim groups are strongly reduced and in many cases become statistically insignificant. Using mediation analyses, I demonstrate that the findings do not fit a scenario that assumes that the causality primarily flows from labour market participation to sociocultural assimilation rather than the other way around.”


  • “A demographic transition to greater ethno-racial diversity, the product in part of large-scale immigration over decades, will create challenges and opportunities for Western societies in coming decades. In this paper, based on our study of the USA and four Western European countries, we sift evidence from the first decade of the twenty-first century to look for clues about the possible consequences of the transition for the integration of the second generation, specifically, the children of low-status immigrants. We find unmet challenges when it comes to educational attainment and early labour-market position. That is, although on average the second generation advances beyond its parents, in each society it lags well behind its agemates from the native majority. Yet we also find, using data from the USA, that segments of the second generation are experiencing social mobility into the upper tiers of the occupational hierarchy and socially integrating with members of the majority group, arguably expanding the societal mainstream. This paradoxical picture, we argue, captures crucial dynamics that will affect the near future in the wealthy West.”


  • “This paper examines stateless nationalist and regionalist party (SNRP) discourses on immigration through an exploration of the economic dimensions of the centre-periphery cleavage. Using qualitative document analysis, the Republican Left in Catalonia (ERC) and the Scottish National Party (SNP) in Scotland are studied in order to see whether and how the relative economic position of a region shapes SNRP discourses on immigration. The period of analysis encompasses the last three terms of office for both parties, during which immigration and decentralisation have been very salient issues in Catalonia and Scotland. Results suggest that the relative economic situations and the economic crisis do not seem to affect general stances, which are positive in both regions. However, the economic contexts have an influence on how each party selects its main issues for debate, and the ways in which these are managed.”


  • “Sex trafficking (ST), a contemporary form of female slavery, is a human rights issue of critical concern to social work. The global response to ST has been substantial, and 166 countries have adopted anti-ST legislation. Despite considerable efforts to combat ST, the magnitude is increasing. To date, the majority of anti-ST efforts have focused on criminalization policies that target traffickers or purchasers of sexual services, who are predominantly male; prevention programming and services for predominantly female victims have received less support. Therapeutic services to assist pornography addicts and purchasers of sexual services are also necessary. In this article, authors examine current anti-ST policies, programs, and services, both domestically and globally, and present an innovative paradigm that addresses social inequities and emphasizes prevention programming. They conclude with a discussion of the paradigm’s implications for social work policies, practices, and services. “


  • “The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness has been strongly criticized as both gender blind and for using a technocratic approach to measuring aid effectiveness. This article analyzes three initiatives for providing a gender dimension to aid effectiveness developed by gender equality advocates following the signing of the declaration, and their proposed gender-sensitive indicators and approaches to engendering aid effectiveness. The analysis will consider the ways in which gender equality measurement is resisted and transformed within each initiative and what is subsequently made known about gender equality through the categories and tools developed. “


  • “Refugees can experience significant distress as a result of structural inequalities encountered when resettling in host societies. For those refugees whose complex needs are not able to be adequately addressed through broader interventions, support in the form of counselling may be required. Nonetheless, social workers in counselling roles may inadequately attend to the impact of these inequalities on refugees’ emotions, sense of self and capacity for agency, and a model of practice that embraces this is required. In this article, I seek to develop a model of practice for counselling refugees that acknowledges the deep interrelationship between psychological well-being and structural inequalities. Drawing on insights from Australia, I extend the scope of a psycho-social approach to incorporate understanding of socially structured feelings and explore two contemporary Australian practice models: the trauma/recovery model and the social model of healing. Each makes important contributions to work with resettling refugees but loses the contribution of the other. Here, I bridge the models through a psycho-social/structural model that recognises the complex interrelationship impacting refugees’ well-being, acknowledging their socially structured feelings. To fail to recognise this interrelationship is to risk rendering invisible, or even exacerbating, the sometimes harmful effects of resettlement. “


  • “Children without parents or guardians who leave their home country to start a new life somewhere else are a contemporary and global phenomenon that represents a significant proportion of the migration to developed states. Although, historically, Swedish municipalities have been, through traditions of local self-government, able to decide whether to receive unaccompanied children or not, a significant subnational variation does exist. This study addresses this variation by examining the factors that explain whether a municipality offers to receive such children. To examine these factors, we derive from structural conditions and form a set of hypotheses that is based on assumptions about municipalities’ rational action and then continue with a statistical examination of all municipalities for a number of years. We complement these findings with intensive inquiries into two municipalities that have established a reception during the examined time period. The findings reveal that political factors, such as support for parties that are sceptical about immigration, are negatively related to a receiving policy. In addition, structural characteristics such as population size and levels of human capital have a positive effect on the outcome of the policy. The results from case studies add to such findings and emphasize that, although economic aspects are ubiquitous and hard to neglect, decision makers do stress the real and long-term benefits of reception. “


  • “Refugee camps and enclaves share a conceptual family resemblance. In Palestine, what endows these forms of confinement with specificity is their deployment in a modern and protracted colonial context. This article asks how each speaks to the other experientially and theoretically. Further, how are they entangled with historical processes, intent and experience? Each period in Palestinian displacement entails particular immobilizing physical structures and administrative procedures. Can we compare enclaves and camps, and what are the limitations of comparison? What sorts of subjectivities emerge in these spaces? Questions are proposed about temporality, bare life, mobility, discipline and bio-power, and subjectivities. Enclaves compel thinking beyond the ‘bare life’ sometimes associated with refugee camps to explore other ways of being simultaneously inside and outside a state. Enclaves exist if a grey zone of legal and political indeterminacy that renders life in them is precarious. “


  • “On 2 April 2015, in the televised leaders’ debate, the UKIP leader, Nigel Farage, used a question to argue that HIV patients from outside of the UK should be excluded from accessing NHS treatment. ‘What we need to do’, said Farage, ‘is to put the NHS there for British people and families, who in many cases have paid into the system for years’.1 Farage’s comments were the most tweeted about moment of the debate and attracted widespread coverage throughout the campaign. The intervention underlined UKIP’s decision to target its core supporters at the election—older, white and working-class voters, who mainly reside in England, and were united by anxiety over immigration, opposition to Britain’s EU membership and dissatisfaction with the established parties.2 Farage’s comments were quickly condemned by the leader of Plaid Cymru, Leanne Wood, as ‘scaremongering’, ‘dangerous’ and ‘divisive’. These were echoed by the leader of the Scottish National Party, Nicola Sturgeon, although the Labour leader Ed Miliband said nothing at the time. Yet there was evidence to suggest that some voters took a different view. According to one opinion poll by YouGov, which gave respondents Farage’s quotation and asked whether or not they agreed with ‘people coming to live in the UK being banned from receiving treatment on the NHS for a period of five years’, 50% agreed while 34% disagreed with Farage.3”


  • “Karen refugees from Burma have maintained their cultural identity while in the United States through aspects of their resettlement lifestyle including community and family support, faith and Christian values, and the intergenerational transfer of foodways knowledge and practices. In this ethnographic study, foodways are defined as the social meaning of food, gardening practices, cooking of food and the practice of eating together. Fourteen in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcripts were subjected to open, pattern coding and thematic analyses. Using life course theory as the guiding framework, findings are described in terms of three stages of the refugees’ resettlement experience: The Uproot, The Transplant and The Harvest. Findings suggest participants identify with their culture through traditional foodways and desire to preserve native dishes, gardens and celebrations for the sake of familial relations and cultural identity. “


Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.