Daily Archives: Sunday, October 4, 2015

CFP: ‘Experiencing Displacement in Hazardous Climates: Anthropological Perspectives’ at RAI Conference on Anthropology, Weather, and Climate Change, May 2016

CFP: ‘Experiencing Displacement in Hazardous Climates: Anthropological Perspectives’ at RAI Conference on Anthropology, Weather, and Climate Change, May 2016

Short Abstract

This panel engages the displacement of populations by environmental degradations, weather and climate change related disasters from an ethnographic perspective. It aims at carving out what sets these apart from other forms of mobility, and what implication this has for conceptualizing the intersections of climate change and mobility.

Long Abstract

As the world is warming, weather variations, environmental degradations or disasters are predicted to translate into population displacement across the globe. This constellation is widely invoked in media and scholarly writing as a future condition, legal problem and often enough along xenophobic imageries regarding climate change scenarios. Within recent academic debates, movement is discussed as either successful or failed, as an exceptional or routine form of adaptation to it.

Yet we still know very little about how these displacements today play out locally. To address this gap, this panel focuses on displacement in a rather narrow sense. We are interested in understanding dynamics by which populations are ousted or expected to be ousted by the vagaries of weather and environment. Therefore, we seek empirically grounded papers looking at the ways, weather and climate related displacements are anticipated, lived through and negotiated among exposed populations.

We are particularly interested in how such displacements are incorporated into already existing registers of mobility in everyday lifeworlds. We welcome papers engaging the different temporal dimensions of displacement including socially mediated anticipations or afterlives. We ask individual papers to focus on the ways, these temporal dimensions shape present negotiations among affected populations.

We invite papers focusing on all geographic regions. We ask authors to critically reflect on methodological problems arising when researching the intersections of climate change, weather, environment and displacement.

For our panel, we propose the roundtable format based on pre-circulated papers. Each paper will be commented on by a designated discussant and then further explored by all participants.

Convenors Arne Harms (Uni Leipzig, Germany)
Rebecca Hofmann (Uni Freiburg, Germany)

Please consider submitting an abstract via the panel page http://www.nomadit.co.uk/rai/events/rai2016/panels.php5?PanelID=3821

The deadline for proposals is January 8th 2016.

Further information on conference, venue and other panels can be found on the conference page https://therai.org.uk/conferences/anthropology-weather-and-climate-change-2016

Refugee sea arrivals in Greece this year approach 400,000

New Punishments: Immigration Bill 2015

United Kingdom Immigration Law Blog

The onslaught continues. The Immigration Act 2014 promised to root out the ills of the system but now fresh legislation has been proposed to cure things even further and the home office recently announced a welter of new (improved) anti-immigrant measures in the Immigration Bill 2015. For example, in addition to the right to rent checks introduced under part 3 of the 2014 Act, it is now apparent that rogue landlords will be made subject to the new criminal offence of renting to illegal immigrants. Pursuant to the new punishments, the home office will also be able to close any business down for 48 hours for reason of employing illegal workers (illegal migrants in the UK are estimated to be between 420,000 to 860,000 – the Migration Observatory reports). Those hiring illegal workers “will be hit from all angles” said James Brokenshire in August 2015 as he promised to…

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Daily News and Updates on Refugee and Forced Migration Studies 10/04/2015

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Daily News and Updates from ReliefWeb 10/04/2015

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Research Articles for Refugee and Forced Migration Studies (weekly) (weekly)

  • “Governments and Media often don’t get along very well, particularly when the press challenges core political positions. This is certainly the case in Rwanda, where information and communication management is an important political weapon used by the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) to protect its hold on power. The RPF has developed a coherent and comprehensive narrative on the past, present, and future of the country and its citizens, and tightly policing this ‘truth’ is an essential ingredient of its political strategy. Domestically, this control is achieved through legislation on ‘divisionism’ and ‘genocide ideology’, as well as through repression that relegates alternative views to the ‘hidden transcript’.1 Independent media and critical civil society organizations have been eliminated. Internationally, the narrative is protected by the genocide credit the regime exploits and by systematically and at times aggressively countering challenges to the ‘truth’, directly through government statements or by using foreign lobbyists.2 It also benefits from Rwanda’s adherence to neo-liberal economic policies and its contribution to international peacekeeping operations. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “In 2012 Mali faced a crisis disrupting nearly twenty years of democratization – a coup and rebel insurgency. This article investigates policy priorities amongst rural Malians living on the border of state and rebel-controlled territory during the crisis. While academic and policy-making communities have focused largely on Mali’s recent and sudden regime and territorial breakdown, the villagers defined the crisis in terms of their unmet needs for public services and infrastructure amidst high food and water insecurity. Concern for the sudden ‘juridical state’ breakdown – the collapse of the democratic regime – was trumped by the focus on long-term ‘empirical state’ breakdown. Using recent Afrobarometer data on diverse dimensions of empirical statehood, we show that the problem of rural neglect emphasized by seminal scholars is persistent not only across Mali, but also across many African countries. The tendency of academics and policy makers to focus on the immediate or more volatile political problems of the coup and rebel insurgency facing the Malian state, while important, risks understating and underestimating the power of slow-moving crises of daily life that are more important to rural citizens. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “In contrast to similar organizations in its neighbouring countries, Niger’s domestic Salafi associations have remained peaceful and apolitical. Drawing on historical institutionalist scholarship and on recent conceptualizations of the state as a religious actor, this article examines how the Nigerien state has tried to regulate religious practices since Seyni Kountché’s military coup in 1974. It argues that the institutional regulation of religious practices is one important variable that accounts for Niger’s deviant trajectory. During Niger’s autocratic period (1974–91), the government established the Association islamique du Niger (AIN) as the sole legal authority regulating access to Niger’s Friday prayer mosques. Committed to peaceful and apolitical interpretations of the Koran, the AIN confined access to Niger’s religious sphere to local clerics and Sufi brotherhoods. After the breakdown of autocratic rule in 1991, the AIN served as a religious advisory body. Salafi associations could assemble freely but had to abide by certain criteria. Confronted with the prospect of Islamic violence in 2000, the Nigerien state intervened in Niger’s religious sphere in several ways. Among other initiatives, the government began to resurrect a more rigorous system of religious supervision in order to monitor religious practices on an ongoing basis. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Recent trends towards community-based and participatory approaches to peacebuilding and acknowledgment of the greater need to incorporate women’s voices have resulted in experiments devolving responsibilities for building peace to women’s organizations at the grassroots level in post-conflict situations. This article discusses one such experiment that women’s savings and credit cooperatives in Nepal have undertaken to mediate conflict and build peace at the local levels. Using women’s narratives emerging from interviews and focus group discussions, the gendered assumptions behind women’s community-based peacebuilding activities, and implications for women’s sustained participation in peace work, are examined. The findings reveal that this model of peacebuilding relied on educating and training women but neglected to explore the structural inequalities that cause violence. Indeed, the expectation placed on women’s savings and credit co-operative members to perform unremunerated and sustained peace work in their communities may itself reflect inequalities of power that community-based peace models need to address. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Worldwide, societies are experiencing unprecedented shifts in their age compositions. For the first time in human history, the number of older people will surpass the number of children that are under the age of fourteen representing one of the ‘biggest social transformations’ societies will experience. The great shift in demographics demand that sustainable development efforts are age-inclusive and support the well-being of people throughout their life course – including the later life years. The purpose of this article is 2-fold. First, we delineate the linkages between the proposed sustainable development goals (SDGs) and development issues related to older persons and an ageing population, arguing that the success of the SDGs also rests on the ability to address such issues. Second, we explore community development’s role in the implementation of the SDGs and addressing age-related development issues, proposing that community development’s unique perspectives, values and approaches contribute to innovative development pathways conducive to age-inclusive sustainable development. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “In September 2015, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) replaced the millennium development goals. The ambitions of the SDGs are to transform the current aid architecture and promote environmental, economic and social well-being on a global scale. The process of how this new global framework for sustainable development has been designed is unique in terms of the extent of opportunities for people’s participation. This article considers what lessons the debate on community development can offer the new global development framework. First, we analyse existing attempts to include ‘voices’ from the local level in the process of formulating the SDGs, drawing on existing literature on critical community development and citizen participation. We find that the inclusion of citizen perspectives in the SDG process was largely tokenistic. Building on this critique, we go on to explore the propositions within the critical community development literature about an approach to implementing the SDGs that could be truly transformative. Finally, we consider the insights from the critical community development literature in relation to the findings of a global network of participatory research that aimed to influence the SDG design and implementation. We explore how citizen’s participation in the new global framework could become more significant through deeper and more strategic forms of representation and engagement. In conclusion, we return to examine the prospects and practical requirements for a more bottom-up and transformative approach to implementing the new global framework. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “At the end of 2013, the Australian Government reintroduced a policy to turn around or tow back vessels carrying irregular migrants, many of them asylum seekers. This policy is designed to prevent their arrival in Australia and return them to the place from where the vessels departed. A similar policy was in operation in late 2001 when, in the aftermath of the so-called ‘Tampa Affair’, four vessels were returned to Indonesia. This article examines the context, objectives, and controversies of this policy and explores the known successful and attempted ‘turn-backs’. The article critically evaluates the rationale and operation of the past and present policies and reflects on the question of whether to retain or repeal this approach. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “By way of side-effect, and to an extent that had not been foreseen, the Netherlands is confronted with asylum applications from persons involved in proceedings before the International Criminal Court (ICC), which it hosts in The Hague. These applications have led to an unprecedented body of case law from both the ICC and the Netherlands judiciary regarding the protection of the applicants. Central to this case law is the question of allocation of responsibility for the protection of the persons involved, particularly with respect to the prohibition of refoulement. This article provides an analysis of the relevant cases regarding asylum applications from persons involved in ICC proceedings, namely, detained defence witnesses, voluntary witnesses for the prosecution, and acquitted suspects. It particularly examines and evaluates the jurisdictional delimitations made by the ICC and the Dutch courts, and the fundamental questions of refugee and human rights protection that are addressed in these cases. With regard to domestic case law, the focus will be on the way in which key provisions of international refugee law – such as the application of articles 1A, 1D and 1F of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees – and the safe third country concept are applied. The article concludes that the basic rights of former ICC witnesses and suspects are not always addressed adequately and appear to be lost in the divide created by the jurisdictional battles between the ICC and its host state. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “This article investigates how involvement by the International Criminal Court (ICC) in situations of ongoing conflict affects peace processes. It argues that the level of ICC involvement is crucial for the Court’s impact on peace settlements and that this impact takes the form of delegating politico-legal and discursive authority away from peace process actors. To make this argument, the article disaggregates the processes of ICC involvement and peacemaking into component parts and conceptualizes a broad notion of judicialization. This analytical framework is applied to two cases with different negotiation outcomes: the Juba talks between the Ugandan government and the Lord’s Resistance Army and the Kenya National Dialogue and Reconciliation between the Party of National Unity and the Orange Democratic Movement. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • Taking four countries—Britain, the Netherlands, France and Germany—with distinct state approaches and public debates over accommodating Muslims, we study the views of ordinary people from the majority and Muslim populations on Muslim group rights. We compare their responses to questions on mosque-building, teachers wearing religious symbols, and religious classes in schools, to determine whether there is a significant ‘gap’ between the majority and Muslim minorities. We find highly significant ‘gaps’ between the majorities and Muslims over Muslim group rights in all countries, with the majorities less supportive. Importantly, it is a shift by the majority population against Muslim group rights that produces this ‘gap’ as the question moves from provision for Christians to Muslims, while Muslims hold similar views over rights for Christians and their own religion. In Britain and Germany, the two countries where church/state relations privilege Christianity over other religions, majorities especially support Christian over Muslim group rights. The British findings are remarkable, because a country which substantially grants and has the most supportive public debate for Muslim group rights, produces the largest ‘gaps’ between its majority and Muslims. We think this is due to political context, where in contrast to the Netherlands, there is no outlet for political opposition to Muslim group rights.

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • Northern Ireland has seen a rise in racially motivated crimes and incidents reported to police in recent years and, although this has been accompanied by intensified media coverage, this phenomenon has been the subject of relatively little research. The purpose of this study is to evaluate empirically three theories that have been proposed to explain prejudice towards ethnic minorities in Northern Ireland; economic self-interest, social contact, and ‘sectarianism as racism’. Using the 2013 Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, which contains new questions on contact with ethnic minorities, this study looks at attitudes towards Eastern Europeans, Muslims and a third category of ‘other ethnic groups’. Results from multivariate linear regression provide evidence for all three theories but also show that the strength and significance of predictive variables for prejudice vary across the minority groups. The findings that there are different motivations for prejudice towards different groups can inform policies to tackle racism in Northern Ireland.

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • This article examines how different conceptions of national identity can be linked to attitudes towards cultural pluralism. The tensions between more culturally pluralistic societies and sustained support for nationalism represent an important political issue in modern western European politics. Such tensions are of particular relevance for stateless nationalist and regionalist parties (SNRPs) for whom national/regional identity is a major political driver. This article empirically tests the relationship between different conceptions of national identity and attitudes towards cultural pluralism in two SNRPs—the Scottish National Party and the Frisian National Party. The article draws upon evidence from two unique full party membership studies and is supported with evidence from documentary analysis. A key finding is that the manner in which members conceptualise national identity has significant implications for their attitudes towards cultural pluralism, which has the potential of becoming a source of tension within SNRPs. A key implication of the article is that there is evidence that attitudes of general members and officially stated party positions and narratives diverge on issues relating to cultural pluralism and national identity. These tensions could potentially be harmful for the party’s overall civic image.

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • This paper examines the branding of ‘Canadian experience’ in Canadian immigration policy as a rhetorical strategy for neoliberal nation-building. Since 2008, the Canadian government has introduced an unprecedented number of changes to immigration policy. While the bulk of these policies produce more temporary and precarious forms of migration, the Canadian government has mobilized the rhetoric of ‘Canadian experience’ as a means to identify immigrants who carry the promise of economic and social integration. Through a critical discourse analysis of Canadian print media and political discourse, we trace how the brand of Canadian experience taps into the affective value of national identity in an era of global economic insecurity. We also illustrate how the discourse of Canadian experience (CE) remains ideologically deracialized, such that the government’s embrace of CE as an immigrant selection criterion dismisses the discriminatory effects that this discourse is shown to have for racialized immigrants in Canada.

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • Grounded in the experiences of 30 gang-involved respondents in Calgary, this Canadian study examined criminal gang involvement of youth from immigrant families. Our analysis showed that gang-involved youth had experienced multiple, severe and prolonged personal and interpersonal challenges in all facets of their lives and that gradual disintegration of their relationships with family, school and community had resulted in the unravelling of self-concept, ethnic identity, sense of belonging and sense of citizenship and progressively propelled them towards membership in high-risk social cliques and criminal gangs. Our findings brought attention to the need for coordinated, comprehensive support for youth from immigrant families through family-based, school-based and community-based programs.

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • The relationship between ‘foreign’ and ‘immigration and asylum’ policy is complex and has significant consequences beyond these policy areas. Despite their ever increasing importance, migration and refugee studies have been rarely tackled within the foreign policy dimension of state’s responses, in particular regarding refugee crisis. This paper both demonstrates the importance for and impact of foreign policy orientations on immigration and asylum policies. It questions how ‘foreign’ policy and ‘asylum’ policy are intertwined and generate differences in coping with the mass influx with a focus on the Syrian refugee crisis and Turkey’s policy responses. We argue that assertive foreign policy of Turkey, particularly willingness to be the actor ‘establishing the order’ in the Middle East’ which led to the ‘open-door’ and humanitarian asylum policy at the initial stages of refugee flow. However, the isolation of Turkish foreign policy along with the increase in the numbers of refugees necessitated recalibration of the adopted policy towards the one based on ‘non-arrival’, and ‘security’ emphasizing ‘temporary protection’, ‘voluntary return’ and the ‘burden share’.

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • Turkey has followed an “open door” policy towards refugees from Syria since the March 2011 outbreak of the devastating civil war in Syria. This “liberal” policy has been accompanied by a “humanitarian discourse” regarding the admission and accommodation of the refugees. In such a context, it is widely claimed that Turkey has not adopted a securitization strategy in its dealings with the refugees. However, this article argues that the stated “open door” approach and its limitations have gone largely unexamined. The assertion is, here, refugees fleeing Syria have been integrated into a security framework embedding exclusionary, militarized and technologized border practices. Drawing on the critical border studies, the article deconstructs these practices and the way they are violating the principle of non-refoulement in particular and human rights of refugees in general.

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • In political, social and economical terms, Turkey is the most affected country of the Syrian crisis. More importantly, Turkey as a host country of Syrian refugees has been living a dramatic demographic change. The most marginalized group living in Turkey is children. Refugee education has hence become of top priority. The global report in refugee education is below the critical level, but Turkish report is even worse in the contexts of not only accessibility and quality. This work refers to uniquely gathered dataset from AFAD and UNHCR in order to portray the current demography of Syrian refugees in particular concentrating on the ones living in camps. Main purpose is elaborating the current educational assessment of Syrian child refugees in Turkey. Our findings indicate the significant number of refugee children in need of access to basic education at all levels and underlines the magnitude of scarce of education program development mainly due to lack of financial matters. Hence, it advises a kind of collaboration among implementing public and private partners at the local, national and international levels.

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • In this study we analysed the perceptions about Syrian refugees as reflected in the newspapers. A qualitative design based on content analysis was adopted in this research. The news on Syrian refugees appeared in Hurriyet, Yeni Safak and Cumhuriyet newspapers between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2014 have been analysed. These were classified on the basis of themes, styles, main concepts, and photographs used. Our findings show that, the political standing of the newspapers and their attitudes towards the Turkish government strongly affect the ways they shape the news about Syrian refugees.

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • Turkey has been a stage for human mobility for many years, yet it did not have a comprehensive migration and asylum regime until recently. Being the worst refugee crisis of the last decades, the Syrian crisis actually had an impact on developing such a regime of which the Law on Foreigners and International Protection (LFIP) is a crucial element. The LFIP provides temporary protection to the Syrians in Turkey. However, it is recently observed that more and more Syrians are leaving the country. Examining their exodus, the present article is seeking answers to the question of “Why are the Syrians desperately trying to leave Turkey?” Two arguments are put forth in the article. First, Turkey’s new migration and asylum regime has not been able to decrease the refugees’ vulnerability because of its “expectation of temporariness”. Secondly, it is argued that Turkey’s “new asylum regime” is in fact “not that new” due to the fact that asylum-seekers coming from non-European countries have been provided a de facto temporary protection. The article reveals that the Syrian refugees are vulnerable in many fields mainly because they are subject to a protection regime marked by temporariness. As the regime is putting them in limbo, they are leaving Turkey. Turkey’s new asylum regime appears not that new after all.

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • From the mid-1950s through the mid-1980s, migration between Mexico and the United States constituted a stable system whose contours were shaped by social and economic conditions well-theorized by prevailing models of migration. It evolved as a mostly circular movement of male workers going to a handful of U.S. states in response to changing conditions of labour supply and demand north and south of the border, relative wages prevailing in each nation, market failures and structural economic changes in Mexico, and the expansion of migrant networks following processes specified by neoclassical economics, segmented labour market theory, the new economics of labour migration, social capital theory, world systems theory, and theoretical models of state behaviour. After 1986, however, the migration system was radically transformed, with the net rate of migration increasing sharply as movement shifted from a circular flow of male workers going a limited set of destinations to a nationwide population of settled families. This transformation stemmed from a dynamic process that occurred in the public arena to bring about an unprecedented militarization of the Mexico-U.S. border, and not because of shifts in social, economic, or political factors specified in prevailing theories. In this paper I draw on earlier work to describe that dynamic process and demonstrate its consequences, underscoring the need for greater theoretical attention to the self-interested actions of politicians, pundits, and bureaucrats who benefit from the social construction and political manufacture of immigration crises when none really exist.

    tags:newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.