Daily Archives: Sunday, December 21, 2014

Call for Papers: Postgraduate Conference: Contested Spaces of Citizenship

Postgraduate Conference

CONTESTED SPACES OF CITIZENSHIP

Durham University, Department of Geography

Wednesday 29 April 2015

Room W007

Keynote speaker: Professor Engin F. Isin

Space is at the core of political struggles and contestations. Brown (2010) highlights how borders and territory are, almost paradoxically, increasingly important in a globalised world. In this neoliberal era borders are apparently more detached from their geographical location (Sassen 2005; Bigo and Guild 2005), yet an increase in international migration has highlighted the violence at the borderzone (Bigo 2007). Along with the idea of a borderless world a new form of spatial management became relevant, the space of camp (Agamben 1998; Minca 2005) that is proliferating as a way of managing those who trouble the territorial order, such as the Roma (Sigona 2005), refugees and asylum-seekers (Hyndman 2000), and undocumented migrants (De Genova and Peutz 2010). At the same time, these camps also produce new forms of resistance and everyday practices (Ramadan 2013; Sigona 2014).

In this postgraduate conference the notion of political space will be investigated in relation to the concept of citizenship. Citizenship is more than membership, it is a way of being political (Isin 2002) that emerges through struggles. Citizenship is also fundamentally spatial: space “is a fundamental strategic property by which groups […] are constituted in the real world” (Isin 2002, p. 49). Space is crucial to the creation, embodiment and lived experiences of political subjects. It is in spaces of encounter and struggles that new and old political subjectivities are contested and resisted. Space is not only the neutral background of political struggles. It is actively and strategically used, as tool to disempower abject subjects (Isin and Rygiel 2007), but also as a resource for enacting new scripts of activist citizens, not only through contestation but also through solidarity (Isin and Nielsen 2008). At the same time, space is constituted by political struggles and forms of citizenship, affecting the ways in which new political subjects come to emerge, for instance traversing and interstitial spaces can generate opportunities to rethink political subjectivities (Isin 2012).

This one-day conference aims to bring together postgraduate students working on issues of politics and space, territory and borders as sites of struggles, control, contestation, resistance and solidarity among political subjects. We also encourage papers based upon collaborative and participatory research. In order to develop a critical and interdisciplinary approach to the relation between citizenship, space and contestation we welcome papers addressing, but not limited to, the following questions:

  • How can investigating the spatial dimension of contestation develop new understandings of citizenship and political subjectivities?

  • What can Isin’s concept of ‘acts of citizenship’ bring to understandings of contested spaces?

  • What can an attention to spatiality bring to the understanding of the affective dimensions of citizenship?

  • What spaces of encounter and/or struggle open up new political subjectivities?

  • How does investigating cyberspace as a ‘contested space’ open up new ways of thinking about politics and citizenship? What new forms of resistance emerge in cyberspace?

  • To what extent do citizen subjects create solidarity with abject citizens? What new political subjectivities emerge from these acts of solidarity?

  • How do the contested spaces of the border reconfigure, challenge and perform new political subjectivities?

Please send abstracts of no more than 250 words by 20 January 2015 to:g.d.m.maestri@durham.ac.uks.m.hughes@durham.ac.uk,s.p.slatcher@durham.ac.uk.

Please note that space is limited at this conference, and so we warmly encourage abstracts that are directly related to the conference topic. Successful submissions will be contacted by the end of February 2015.

Gaja Maestri, Sarah Hughes, Sam Slatcher

Bibliography

Agamben, Giorgio. 1998. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

Bigo, Didier. 2007. “Detention of Foreigners, States of Exceptio, and the Social Practices of Control and the Banopticon.” In Borderscapes. Hidden Geographies and Politics at Territory’s Edge, edited by Prem Kumar Rajaram and Carl Grundy-Warr, 3–34. Borderlines. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Bigo, Didier, and Espelth Guild, eds. 2005. Controlling Frontiers: Free Movement into and Within Europe. London: Ashgate.

Brown, Wendy. 2010. Walled States, Waning Sovereignty. New York: Zone Books.

De Genova, N., and N. Peutz, eds. 2010. The Deportation Regime: Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of Movement. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Hyndman, Jennifer. 2000. Managing Displacement: Refugees and the Politics of Humanitarianism. Vol. 16. Borderline. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Isin, Engin. 2002. Being Political: Genealogies of Citizenship. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

———. 2012. Citizens Without Frontiers. London-New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Isin, Engin, and Greg M. Nielsen. 2008. Acts of Citizenship. London-New York: Zed Books.

Isin, Engin, and Kim Rygiel. 2007. “Abject Spaces: Frontiers, Zones, Camps.” In The Logics of Biopower and the War on Terror : Living, Dying, Surviving, edited by Elizabeth Dauphinee and Christina Masters, 181–203. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Minca, Claudio. 2005. “The Return of the Camp.” Progress in Human Geography 29 (4): 405–12.

Ramadan, Adam. 2013. “Spatialising the Refugee Camp.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 38 (1).

Sassen, Saskia. 2005. “When National Territory Is Home to the Global: Old Borders to Novel Borderings.” New Political Economy 10 (4): 523–41.

Sigona, Nando. 2005. “Locating the ‘Gypsy Problem.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31 (4): 741–56.

———. 2014. “Campzenship: Reimagining the Camp as a Social and Political Space.” Citizenship Studies.

News Stories (weekly) (weekly)

  • “A Prison and Probation Ombudsman (PPO) report on Brian Dalrymple’s six weeks in immigration detention paints a grim picture of how the vulnerable are treated. Although Dalrymple was a white man, we report on his case to show that, in immigration detention, immigration status ensures a grim equality of treatment.”

    tags: news

  • “Forcing private landlords to police undocumented migrants will exacerbate inequality and deflect blame for the housing shortage.

    The drive to embed immigration enforcement into all aspects of economic and social life is about to become even more intrusive. From 1 December, in a pilot scheme, residential landlords in Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Dudley, Walsall and Sandwell[1] will be obliged to carry out immigration status checks on all new tenants and adults living with them, on pain of a £3,000 fine if they are found to be renting to anyone without the right to be here. This will involve seeing, checking, and copying documents such as British and EU passports, biometric residence permits, refugee status documents, birth certificates and a myriad of alternative documents indicating that the prospective tenant has Home Office permission to be in the UK. They must retain documents for the duration of the tenancy and for a year afterwards, to avoid liability. If the prospective tenant has no documents or their status is unclear, the landlord (including a sub-letting tenant or someone taking in lodgers) must contact the Home Office’s Landlord Checking Service, which must respond within 48 hours, either issuing a ‘positive right to rent notice’ or telling the landlord that the person concerned is disqualified from renting.”

    tags: news

  • “David Cameron has urged other EU leaders to support his “reasonable” proposals for far-reaching curbs on welfare benefits for migrants.

    Britain’s prime minister said lower EU migration would be a priority in future negotiations over the UK’s membership and he would “rule nothing out” if he did not get the changes he wanted.

    Under his plans, migrants would have to wait four years for certain benefits.

    Brussels said the ideas were “part of the debate” to be “calmly considered”.”

    tags: news

  • “The backlog of overstayers in Britain whose whereabouts are unknown has swelled to more than 300,000 after the discovery of piles of unopened boxes left for years in basements and meeting rooms in Home Office buildings in Sheffield.

    John Vine, the chief inspector of borders and immigration, revealed the existence of a further 223,600 records of foreign nationals who have overstayed their visas, all dated before December 2008, in a report published on Wednesday.”

    tags: news

  • “(Brussels, December 17, 2014) – A Danish immigration report on Eritrea that suggests changing refugee policy for Eritrean asylum seekers is deeply flawed. Denmark and other European governments should await the outcome of the United Nations Commission of Inquiry on Eritrea, established in June 2014, before considering any major policy changes concerning Eritrea.

    tags: news

  • “The tears begin at Waterloo, the London terminus; not so many of the seers-off are going to Southampton; apart from the distance from London it is a special train and permission has to be got to board it if you are not a ship’s passenger.

    This is a very different boat-train from those which go from Victoria to the Continent. There are no smart clothes and no gaiety. This train is taking people to an immigrant ship for Australia and the bulk of the passengers seem to be made up of families with young children. There are a number of unattached young men, but there are more families – and so many children that one gets a confused feeling after a time that a child is as indispensable a piece of baggage for the journey as a suitcase and should be labelled “Cabin.””

    tags: news

  • “This appeal concerns a challenge to the Secretary of State for the Home Department’s policy, practice and procedure in respect of the detention of applicants for asylum in the fast-track system (“the DFT process”) after the refusal of asylum by the Secretary of State and pending an appeal against that decision. The DFT process is designed to facilitate the expeditious determination of applications for asylum and of appeals. It involves the detention of all applicants for asylum whose claims the Secretary of State considers can be determined quickly and a tight timetable for decisions on applications and appeals against a refusal of asylum to the First Tier Tribunal and the Upper Tribunal. Those who meet what I describe as the “quick processing criteria” in the Secretary of State’s Detained Fast-Track Processes Guidance (the “DFT Guidance”) are detained even if they do not meet the more stringent general detention criteria in her Enforcement Instructions and Guidance (“EIG”). The “general detention criteria” require all reasonable alternatives to be considered before detention is authorised and focus, for example, on whether a person poses a risk of absconding. “

    tags: news

  • “The Home Office is to release asylum seekers in the detained fast track system who have appeals pending and who show no risk of absconding.

    The indication from the Home Office comes as the Court of Appeal ruled that locking up asylum seekers who show no risk of absconding while their appeal is pending is unlawful.

    The news is the latest outcome of a long running legal challenge brought by charity Detention Action against the Home Office’s detained fast track system. Judges had previously ruled that the detained fast track system carried an unacceptable risk of unfairness.”

    tags: news

  • “Two young boys set their eyes on the horizon of the new city they have recently moved to, leaving behind memories of violence and conflict. The yellow swing they sit in offers them a window onto their new home, a refugee camp in Cairo.”

    tags: news

  • “The problem of low pay in the UK extends far beyond migrant workers and in many instances is at it worst in parts of the country with very small proportions of migrants.

    The Resolution Foundation said the numbers earning less than two thirds of median hourly pay – equivalent to £7.69 an hour – increased by 250,000 last year to reach 5.2 million. According to the Migrant Advisory Committee – the body which advises the government on the economic impact of migration – the majority, over 80%, are British citizens. Many of these very low-paid jobs are located in areas of the country with low migrant population”

    tags: news

  • “Gay and lesbian asylum seekers must not be asked to prove they are homosexual in order to stay in Britain, following a judgement by a European court yesterday.

    Asking refugees detailed questions about their sexual habits in order to establish whether they are at risk of persecution at home is a breach of their fundamental human right to a private life, the European Court of Justice ruled. “

    tags: news

  • “The Scottish Refugee Council has raised concerns over proposals to transfer newly-arrived asylum seekers from the Red Road housing development to hostel accommodation.

    They have also urged the council to scrutinise plans to develop the former Scottish Water site in Balmore Road into housing for people seeking refuge in the country.

    The plea came after the application received around 300 objections from residents.

    The Evening Times reported last week how a drop-in meeting at Lambhill Stables turned into a heated debate.”

    tags: news

  • “PLANS to rehouse newly-arrived asylum seekers in Scotland have been thrown into disarray after a proposal to develop an industrial site was suddenly withdrawn.

    PLANS to rehouse newly-arrived asylum seekers in Scotland have been thrown into disarray after a proposal to develop an industrial site was suddenly withdrawn.

    Housing provider Orchard and Shipman, which works on behalf of Serco and the Home Office, had identified the old Scottish Water office in a business park on Balmore Road in Possil as a new location for short-stay accommodation for migrants.”

    tags: news

  • “The hint has come in a paper the party has published today called ‘Changing Britain Together’. The 52 pages of text in the document include a section entitled ‘Immigration’ which sets out the argument that the Conservatives have “let people down on immigration.”

    It says that David Cameron has failed in his plan to bring net migration down to the tens of thousands and also claims that “illegal immigration” is a growing problem. The grounds for this claim come in the assertion that “Fewer people are being stopped at the border, more people are absconding and fewer foreign criminals are being deported; yet the government still has no way of properly tracking who is coming into the country and who is leaving.””

    tags: news

  • “Is it possible to demand a common reflex, a unified emotional response from all the citizens of a country to the symbols or cultural traditions that epitomise the nation? Across Europe, tensions are growing around specific symbols, whether it be the St George’s flag in England or Zwarte Piet in the Netherlands. Similarly, but from a different direction, veils are part of the new culture war, with bans and restrictions on ‘covering’ cast as essential for national coherence, marking out who belongs in Europe and who does not.”

    tags: news

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

New Journal Articles (weekly) (weekly)

  • “People seeking to understand the scope and scale of violence in the Central African Republic over the past two years have cited a variety of social grievances centring on the political manipulation of religion, belonging, and access to opportunities. Without denying that these factors have played a role, this article argues that the violence must be understood in the context of social practices of violence that long predate the war, especially in light of the diffuse and non-centralized mode of organization through which the ongoing war has played out. The article focuses on the prevalence of popular punishment and vengeance, which have long histories as elements of statecraft in the CAR and have become even more widespread amid the generalized insecurity and anomie that have set in over the past few decades. The article presents evidence of the workings of popular punishment from the intra-family level to that of the crowd and quartier, in both rural and urban locales. Though people have important reservations about popular punishment, they also see vengeance as an important tool for enforcing a circumscribed mode of empathy and a minimum set of standards for social behaviour. These experiences in the CAR suggest that those wishing to understand how wartime mobilization happens must consider not just fighters’ grievances but also people’s conceptions of the practical and symbolic efficacy of vengeance and popular punishment as elements of politics and the management of threats. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines the role of two regional actors in the Asia–Pacific region, namely the Bali Process and the Asia Pacific Refugee Rights Network (APRRN), a platform of civil society organizations, as two very different models of mechanisms and agenda-setting on Global Refugee Policy (GRP). The Bali Process has limited actors and a narrow discourse on refugees which reflects a hierarchical agenda-setting process or ‘steering mode’. By contrast, the APRRN is a non-state network actor which works through non-hierarchical mechanisms as a transnational activist network (TAN) and has a normative agenda. This article demonstrates the tension within GRP which is being created within the region through these two intermediaries between the global North and the global South. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “International refugee law is seen by many as constitutive for national refugee policy. Yet, as asylum has become politicized, many countries have adopted procedural and physical deterrence mechanisms to prevent refugees from accessing protection. The present article examines these policies, as well as the legal responses to them, as a critical case study for understanding the relationship between international law and refugee policy. Based on a theoretical triangulation of the dominant accounts of the interplay between international law and politics within liberal, realist and critical legal studies scholarship, it is argued that the two should rather be seen in a dialectic process of co-evolution. This speaks both to the continued power of international refugee law, but also to the instrumentalist approach of certain states trying to contest or circumvent their international legal commitments. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “When Tanzania announced its willingness to naturalize some of the 220,000 Burundian refugees it had hosted since 1972, this became a test of a new global policy on protracted refugee situations and its ability to leverage durable solutions for refugees. This article examines the impact of global policy on naturalization in Tanzania, and argues that while global policy partially contributed to the formulation and early implementation of Tanzania’s naturalization policy, it has not been able to ensure the full implementation of the policy in light of increased domestic opposition to local integration. In contrast, a range of domestic factors, especially within Tanzanian politics, more fully explain the formulation and uneven implementation of the naturalization policy. As such, the case of Tanzania illustrates the challenges associated with implementing global refugee policy in a domestic context and underscores the importance of ongoing political analysis in the future study and practice of global refugee policy. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Global, regional and national refugee law and policy present important sites for contestation, agenda setting, normative pronouncements and symbolic action. But international and even domestic legislation seldom realize the promises of protection. In the kind of weakly legalized environments in which many self-settled refugees reside, progressive protection regimes may be far removed from the realities of refugees’ lives. Drawing primarily on research from South Africa, this paper makes a two-part argument. The first highlights the narrow practical and analytical value of focusing on legal reforms and formal ‘refugee’ policy as determinants of protection, given that legal status and documentation have only limited practical protection effects. The second argument is that even in analysing refugee policy, we must grant considerable space for bureaucratic autonomy. The paper concludes with a dual call: first, to broaden our focus of refugee law and policy to include a range of other social and political policy fields so that formal commitments to refugee protection can be translated into practical protection; second, it asks analysts to take sub-national bureaucracies far more seriously as sites of policy formation and practice. Such a perspective requires introducing a spatialized, socialized and politicized understanding of institutional incentives and operations. Together these will offer a more realistic understanding of protection possibilities through policy and illuminate the practices associated with state actions relating to the displaced. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “UNHCR’s Executive Committee is the only specialized multilateral forum which contributes to the development of international guidance on refugee protection. Based on observation of the negotiation of ExCom Conclusion No. 107, this article examines global refugee norms in the making. It argues that empirical studies can further our understanding of global refugee policy, by re-embedding norms and policies that claim to be global into the specific configurations of state and non-state actors that produce them. The ethnographic approach in particular sheds light on how different stakeholders’ conflicting interests, beliefs and legal frameworks are turned into a depoliticized and consensual narrative of global refugee protection, having an apparently positive and ambitious connotation. These narratives produce a hegemonic ‘truth regime’ on refugee issues but also windows for contestation. Moreover, the article illustrates how global refugee norms may not necessarily be about improving refugee standards for decision-makers but may be used for other, implicit, reasons such as perpetuating narratives, maintaining social prestige, making claims for political consideration, or legitimizing new bureaucratic interventions. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This review examines the literature on Global Public Policy (GPP) to identify concepts, themes and debates that might help inform the study of Global Refugee Policy (GRP). It specifically considers GPP’s focus on non-state actors, its attention to processes of contestation and norms, and its starting assumptions of globalization and interdependence. In spite of unanswered questions and challenges, including the critique that GPP only offers new descriptive labels rather than an explanatory model, the review suggests that GPP may provide a useful approach for the future study of global refugee policy processes. Not only does GPP offer a working definition of ‘global policy’, it also helps to systematize and organize policy processes that include diverse actors and evolving issue-areas, and identify the types of questions future research on GRP might ask.1

    Although a literature on GPP has existed since at least the mid-1980s (Soroos 1986), it has yet to be applied to the process by which refugee policy is made at the global level, as distinct from national refugee policy. As outlined in this review, however, GPP literature can make a useful contribution to the study of GRP by offering a framework developed in response to global policy in multiple issue areas, and organizing some of the complex processes at work in the global refugee regime. Moreover, the approach offered by the GPP literature helps specify the context, actors and venues of GRP, unpacking who is involved in making refugee policy, how it is made, where it tends to be made, and in what context. While GPP is not a substitute for related areas of research in refugee and forced migration studies, such as global refugee governance, it does help bring clarity, organization and framing to the contested concept of refugee policy existing at a global level. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Researchers visiting the Headquarters of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Geneva will frequently encounter discussions about efforts to develop ‘global refugee policy’. These efforts may relate to changes to existing UNHCR programmes, such as its approach to refugees in urban areas, or to new areas of activity, such as the organization’s response to displacement resulting from natural disasters. These efforts become ‘refugee policy’ when they result in a formal statement of a problem relating to protection, solutions or assistance for refugees or other populations of concern to the global refugee regime and a proposed course of action to respond to that problem. According to Soroos (1990: 318), this policy is ‘global’ when it takes the form of ‘either regulations that define the limits of permissible behavior for national governments and those under their jurisdiction or, alternatively, as programs administered by international agencies,’ such as UNHCR.

    UNHCR, states and NGOs invest considerable time and resources to develop, adopt and implement global refugee policy. Since 2007, for example, UNHCR has adopted new policies on: age, gender and diversity (UNHCR 2011); statelessness (UNHCR 2010); protection and solutions in urban areas (UNHCR 2009a); displacement resulting from natural disasters (UNHCR 2009b); return and reintegration (UNHCR 2008); and internal displacement (UNHCR 2007). This is in addition to Conclusions adopted by UNHCR’s Executive Committee (ExCom) on refugees with disabilities (2010), protracted refugee situations (2009) and refugee children at risk (2007), all of which constitute global refugee policy. Other notable examples of global refugee policy include the 2002 Agenda for Protection and UNHCR’s policies on older refugees (2000), refugee children (1993) and refugee women (1990). “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study identifies the damaging influence wielded by terrorism on the economy. It investigates whether international openness limits the negative consequences of terrorism on economic growth. The analysis is focused on 120 developing countries over the period 1976–2008. The positive interaction effect of terrorism and globalization suggests that the latter ameliorates the adverse impact of the former on growth. I also identify the critical values of the globalization index where the negative effects of both domestic and transnational terrorism are offset by the positive impact of openness; this, however, happens at a significantly high level of openness. The findings are robust to using the disaggregated measure of globalization and some individual indicators of economic openness. The result helps explain why the growth consequences of terrorism vary across nations and hold important policy implications. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “I develop a game-theoretic model in which the state first allocates limited resources across defensive and offensive security measures, simultaneously choosing whether to attempt forceful elimination of the group. The group subsequently chooses whether to use terrorism or attempt to take territory via guerrilla tactics. The results suggest that states most capable of fighting groups with territorial objectives experience the highest levels of terrorism. Under weak conditions, states always allocate their resources to deter groups from carrying out guerrilla attacks. Accordingly, when it is possible for both guerrilla and terrorist attacks to be optimal for a group, states allocate resources to ensure a terrorist campaign, even though this (mis)allocation facilitates more costly terrorist attacks than happen when facing a group that only uses terrorism. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “How many good guys are needed to find the bad guys? To answer this question, a staffing model is developed to determine the number of agents required to detect a specified fraction of terror attacks assuming that the hazard functions governing attack and plot detection are proportional. Given estimates of the benefit of preventing a terror attack and the cost of counterterror agents, the staffing model can be employed to determine both the socially efficient terror plot detection level and the implied number of counterterror agents. A game-theoretic version of the model emerges if strategic terrorists select their attack rate presuming that the state will respond optimally. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate potential applications using empirical estimates of the benefit of preventing attacks and the cost of counterterror agents. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “We study the nexus between US economic and military aid, human rights conditions, and the emergence of anti-American transnational terrorism in aid-receiving countries. Using data from 126 countries for the period 1984–2008, we show that a combination of local repression and military or economic dependence on the USA results in more anti-American terrorism. This relationship only breaks down at high levels of dependence. There is no evidence that the USA is made any safer by providing foreign assistance, even if this assistance is substantial or is channeled to highly oppressive regimes which might be less restricted in terms of their instruments of fighting terrorism. Our findings also hold true when we account for the potential endogeneity of US aid and human rights conditions to anti-American terrorism. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Using a panel data set of 170 countries and terrorism data from 1970 to 2007, we find that terrorist attacks decrease fertility as measured by both total fertility rates and crude birth rates. Furthermore, by using a novel instrumental variable approach, we identify a causal link and address endogeneity concerns related to the possibility of stress, caused by rising birth rates or transitioning demographics, affecting terrorism. We find that on average, terrorist attacks decrease fertility, reducing both the expected number of children a woman has over her lifetime and the number of live births occurring during each year. The results are statistically significant and robust across a multitude of model specifications, varying measures of fertility, and differing measures of terrorism. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article uses monthly data on bilateral trade in conjunction with monthly data on terrorism events and associated fatalities to shed light on the impact of terrorism on trade. Employing a structural model of trade, we provide evidence that, if at all, international terrorism displays effects on bilateral and multilateral trade only in the medium run (more than one and a half years after an attack/incident). The pure short-run impact of international terror on trade appears very small, if not negligible. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explores the determinants of terrorist groups’ location choice. A conditional logit estimator is applied to data consisting of 525 terrorist groups and 113 potential base countries of operation. The analysis shows that the number of existing groups in a country increases the probability of a terrorist group choosing the country as a base of operations. More important, terrorist groups are more likely to locate in a country where existing groups share similar ideology with the entrant, particularly for left-wing terrorist groups. A country’s political instability and/or state failure raise the chances that a terrorist group will locate there. Terrorist groups are more likely to base their operations closer to the venues of their planned terrorist attacks. Terrorist groups locate their base country of operation nearer to their planned venue countries. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This introduction sets the stage for the articles collected in this special issue of Oxford Economic Papers. It begins by introducing essential concepts including domestic terrorism, transnational terrorism, defensive actions, proactive countermeasures, and guerrilla warfare. Three terrorist event databases, used by seven of the articles, are briefly introduced. These data sets are then used to display some stylized facts about domestic and transnational terrorism during the past four decades. Next, some essential strategic distinctions are drawn between defensive and proactive measures in the case of transnational terrorism when multiple countries are confronted by a common terrorist group. These strategic concerns vanish for domestic terrorism as a central government is able to internalize potential externalities. Finally, the key findings of the articles in the special issue are highlighted in two tables. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study evaluates the controversial issue of whether economic growth exerts a dampening effect on terrorism. Unlike previous studies, it conceptualizes economic growth into two sectors (agricultural and industrial) and categorizes terrorism into three forms (domestic, international, and suicide). It offers a modified theory of hard targets, where richer industrial, but not richer agricultural, countries are more likely to attract suicide attacks. A cross-national, time-series data analysis of 127 countries for 1970–2007 shows evidence that when countries enjoy high levels of industrial growth, they are less disposed to domestic and international terrorist events, but are more likely to experience suicide attacks. These findings indicate that economic growth is not a cure-all solution for terrorism because it may be associated in some instances with more terrorist incidents. Nonetheless, healthy economic conditions are, without doubt, beneficial to the war on terrorism because the majority of suicide attacks occur in only a few countries. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explores the history of modern British humanitarianism. Specifically, it charts the rise of an extensive humanitarian aid ‘industry’ in Britain, between 1963 and 1985. It does so through a focus on the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC), an umbrella body for joint emergency fundraising established in 1963. The DEC is an enduring and important presence in the British humanitarian landscape, as it brings together leading aid agencies to make fundraising campaigns on television after major disasters. This article represents the first systematic historical analysis of the DEC, which it uses to illuminate larger questions about the politics of non-state humanitarianism, state-voluntary sector relations, the political impact of television, and the end of empire. It is shown that while DEC appeals fuelled the growth of its members, this was also a problematic process. Many principal aid agencies wished to shift their focus away from short-term disaster relief work to tackling the long-term structural causes of global poverty instead. It is argued that, despite an increasing political focus, humanitarian organizations were constrained from doing so by the power of television; a perceived lack of public support; the interventions of the British government; and competition between aid agencies in a crowded marketplace. Consequently, continued involvement in short-term, apolitical emergency assistance remained a requirement even for agencies sceptical about its value and impact. This analysis complicates linear narratives of a transition from emergency relief to development aid in post-war British humanitarianism, instead presenting the period as characterized by competing and even contradictory trajectories. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Through the granting of refugee status to victims of sexual persecution, the Canadian government simultaneously acknowledges and scorns the human rights practices of other states, while also assuring refugees that Canada is a modern, safer alternative. Canada is safe, however, only for those non-citizens—current and future—who adhere to Canada’s sexual customs, regulations, and norms. This paper explores the Canadian state’s use of Western understandings of sexuality and discrimination to assess the validity of refugee claims of sexual persecution. Ultimately, this paper questions the current Canadian refugee system’s dependency on a rigid conception of sexuality and discrimination, and explores the implications this has for non-Western sexual minorities. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.