Daily Archives: Sunday, December 7, 2014

Calls for Papers: “Trafficking, Smuggling and Human Labour in Southern Africa” (Journal of Trafficking, Organized Crime and Security)

Call for Papers

Journal of Trafficking, Organized Crime and Security Special Issue – “Trafficking, Smuggling and Human Labour in Southern Africa”

FOCUS AND SCOPE

Over the past decade, much international attention has been placed on the issue of human trafficking throughout the world. This international focus has resulted in pressure being placed on governments to enact and enforce human trafficking legislation. As a consequence, all the Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries, with the exception of Botswana, have now introduced legislative measures to curb human trafficking. At present there is a dearth of information and scholarly debate on human smuggling, trafficking and labour in the SADC region. The purpose of this issue is to address this deficit in our knowledge base by critically examining the: intersection between the region’s complex historical and contemporary migration patterns; realities of and vulnerabilities to human trafficking; and the intersection between labour practices and both human trafficking and smuggling.

In this special issue we seek to deal with the following themes: trafficking and smuggling in the SADC, trafficking and human labour in the SADC, and smuggling and human labour in the SADC region. Under these themes this volume will address a broad range of issues such as: the differences between smuggling and trafficking in the region as well as the complex inter-relations between the two; the barriers to implementing trafficking and smuggling legislation within the region as a whole or within specific countries; the extent to which an emphasis on trafficking can undermine existing migration policies; the extent to which migrant vulnerability can be as much the result of migration policies as the result of trafficking; the manner in which obstacles to migration can and do give rise to trafficking; and the ways in which the enactment of trafficking legislation can criminalise the actions of irregular migrants. Within the overall theme of the volume, we seek to focus on questions such as: what are the implications of implementing trafficking laws based on a UN Convention without reference to the local context? What data has been used by governments to support the need for legislation on human trafficking and how reliable and valid is this data? To what extent have Governments sought to contextualize their legislation? Whose aims and objectives does trafficking legislation serve? What overlaps are there between trafficking legislation and existing legislation? To what extent is smuggling within the region dealt with under trafficking legislation? To what extent do historical migration flows create individual vulnerability to trafficking? To what extent does internal trafficking exist within countries in the region and is this ignored due to the focus on cross-border movements?

This issue also concerns itself with issues of labour and human trafficking. In this respect, we seek to address  issues such as: the extent to which exploitative labour practices may now be ignored due to the focus on human trafficking; the ways in which a focus on the victims of trafficking has created a hierarchical view of victims that prioritizes trafficking victims while little attention is paid to labour exploitation; the manner in which the emphasis on trafficking has impacted on or indeed undermined the livelihoods of those working in areas that have traditionally been associated with exploitative occupations; and the degree to which specific types of work such as sex work may be conflated with trafficking. In this focus on labour exploitation we seek to address a number of questions. Has the focus on trafficking for sexual exploitation led to an increase in other forms of labour exploitation? Does the labelling of the migrant as the victim of trafficking resonate with the experiences of migrants themselves? To what extent can a focus on trafficking enable Governments to deal with general patterns of labour exploitation? In what ways, might a hierarchy of exploitation emerge, whereby some forms of labour are associated with exploitation to the exclusion of others? To what extent is the movement of people in the SADC linked to concerns about labour and employment conditions? To what extent do those who are smuggled become victims of exploitative labour practices and how they view such conditions?

While contributions are welcome which seek to address any of the above themes and questions, papers on additional themes and topics relevant to the volume will also be considered. We particularly welcome contributions from authors within or outside the region who are conducting research in this area as well as from those who offer a comparative perspective on the SADC region.

Timeline and Important Dates

Abstract submission: December 31st 2014 (Abstract limit 500 words with 4-6 keywords)
Review of abstract/acceptance: January 31st 2015
Complete manuscript submission: April 30th 2015
Manuscript review completed: June 30th 2015
Final revised manuscript submission: August 31st 2015
Initial abstracts and final paper submission to JTOCSpapers@gmail.com
For Manuscript Submission information please see “Authors Guidelines” at brownwalker.com/ojs/index.php/JTOCS/index
For questions and queries, please contact Guest Editors.

Guest Editors

Treasa Galvin, University of Botswana (galvin@mopipi.ub.bw)
Rebecca Walker, University of Witwatersrand (bexjwalker@gmail.com)
Camden Behrens, University of Botswana (camden.behrens@mopipi.ub.bw)

New Journal Articles (weekly)

  • “This article examines the educational selectivity of immigrants in France—i.e. how their level of education contrasts with that of non-migrants in their country of birth–and the influence of this selectivity on the educational attainment of their children. I combine the Barro-Lee data set (2010) with the French TeO survey (2008–2009) to construct a measure of ‘relative educational attainment’, i.e. an immigrant’s position in the distribution of educational attainment among the population of the same cohort and gender in the immigrant’s country of birth. I demonstrate that the level of immigrants’ relative educational attainment differs both between and within countries of origin. I then show the positive influence of immigrant parents’ relative educational attainment on their children’s educational attainment, over and above family socioeconomic status in France. The intergenerational transmission of cultural resources and subjective social status are the proposed sociological mechanisms that can account for the intergenerational effect of immigrant educational selectivity. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines attitudes among 14-year-old native students in 14 Western countries to assess how out-group size, as measured by the proportion of first- and second-generation migrant children in a class, is related to inclusive views on immigrants. It develops three competing hypotheses: (i) higher proportions of immigrants contribute to inclusive views everywhere; (ii) higher proportions have a negative effect on inclusive views everywhere; (iii) the effect of out-group size depends on the ratio of first- to second-generation migrant children: the higher this ratio, the weaker the effect. It discovers that out-group size is positively related to inclusive views on immigrants in countries where second-generation outnumber first-generation migrant children (i.e., the old immigration states), and that there is no significant link with such views in countries where the reverse is the case (i.e., the new immigration states). The same regularity applies at the classroom level: in classes with more second than first generation students, out-group size enhances inclusive views while it shows no relationship to such views in classes with more first than second generation students. The results thus support the third hypothesis. The non-relation in contexts with many first generation students may well be a temporary phenomenon, however. Once immigrant communities have become more settled and integrated in the destination countries, positive effects of ethnic mixing could well emerge everywhere. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “If transitional justice initially emerged as handmaiden to liberal political transitions, it has increasingly become associated with postconflict peacebuilding more generally. While this may suggest a significant moment in the evolution of the field’s foundational paradigm, it remains unclear what any emerging ‘transitional justice as peacebuilding’ narrative might mean in practice and how, if at all, it might differ from what came before. I argue that the particular conceptions of ‘transition,’ ‘justice’ and ‘peacebuilding’ that come to undergird any such emerging narrative matter a great deal. This article seeks to deconstruct each component of that narrative based on historically dominant and narrow assumptions about what they can and should mean in the aftermath of mass atrocity. I look to concepts from critical peacebuilding theory – including ‘positive peace,’ ‘popular peace,’ ‘the everyday’ and ‘hybridity’ – that might serve as useful correctives to these narrow assumptions, bridging the way to a more emancipatory ‘transitional justice as peacebuilding’ narrative. “

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Migration scholars often assume a close association between transnational social practices and transcultural forms of belonging. Nonetheless, we argue that the distinction of both concepts is analytically important and helpful in understanding the transnational lives of second-generation migrants. To analyse the biographical accounts and network maps of second-generation Spaniards living in Switzerland, we draw a theoretical distinction between social practice (transnational networks) and forms of belonging (transcultural belonging). Our analysis shows second-generation migrants maintaining social networks over time, interrupting them, or reconnecting with them. Their sense of belonging may either endure or fade. Although the interconnection between social networks and the sense of belonging is neither straightforward nor causal, we can nevertheless identify five types of network/belonging combinations. These types describe the various ways in which second-generation migrants are likely to articulate transnational networks and transcultural belonging in their lives.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “In this article, I argue that, by offering ageing return migrants new opportunities both to organize their lives and to rethink their social attachments, the extension of public healthcare in Taiwan constitutes a new contextual feature of the transnational social field bridging Taiwan and the USA. I use the concept of ‘transnational healthcare seeking’ to describe how returning seniors try to maintain their physical, psychological and social well-being by accessing the benefits of public healthcare available in their homeland rather than in the USA. Furthermore, I offer the concept of ‘logics of social right’ to demonstrate how older returnees seek to reconfirm their social commitment to their homeland and to defend their entitlement to its state-provided benefits against public criticism that they are free riders. In so doing, this article contributes a nuanced understanding of how ageing migrants imagine, pursue and construct an ideal later life across national borders.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “In this article, I examine the transnational identities that return migrants create upon resettlement in their country of origin. Specifically, I draw on interviews with Republic of Ireland-born return migrants from the United States between the years 1996 and 2006. The analysis shows that return migrants – like other migrant groups – maintain and establish translocal identities and practices that straddle ‘here’ (Ireland) and ‘there’ (United States) upon return. However, the article goes further, asking why returnees develop such border-spanning social fields. Some recent scholarship suggests that some migrants develop transnational identities as an adaptive response to a hostile receiving society. The analysis here shows a similar process at play for certain return migrants in the post-return environment. Doubtless, for some returnees, a transnational identity is a natural outgrowth of having spent several years in the United States. Yet for others, one can better explain this transnational identity as a coping strategy to buffer resettlement anxieties and disappointments.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “In this article, we study the emergence of the political spaces of activism of second-generation Swiss Tamils resulting from a critical event – the suffering of Tamils during and after the final battle in early 2009 of a civil war in northern Sri Lanka that had lasted for decades. We contend that we can explain the geographies of newly emerging second-generation activism committed to achieving Tamil Eelam through two factors. These are first, this generation’s multiple senses of belonging both to Switzerland and to the Tamil ‘nation’ and, second, the way a specific politics of affect remoulded second-generation identities because the pain of witnessing the brutality of war and suffering of Tamils occurred concurrently with a perceived lack of interest from their ‘new home’ (Switzerland). The combination of these factors made them want to acknowledge their Tamil ‘roots’ and encouraged them to become politically active. Consequently, these second-generation activists primarily sought to engage with their host society – to awaken it from its indifference to the suffering of Tamils and from its passivity in taking action on an international level. We thereby witness the emerging of a new type of Tamil activism in Switzerland, which is firmly located in and bound to the host country.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “We argue that social media are not only new communication channels in migration networks, but also that they actively transform the nature of these networks and thereby facilitate migration. Despite some limitations, which stem from the ‘digital divide’ and the lower trustworthiness of virtual ties, qualitative data reveal four relevant ways in which social media facilitate international migration. First, they enhance the possibilities of maintaining strong ties with family and friends. Second, they address weak ties that are relevant to organizing the process of migration and integration. Third, they establish a new infrastructure consisting of latent ties. Fourth, they offer a rich source of insider knowledge on migration that is discrete and unofficial. This makes potential migrants ‘streetwise’ when undertaking migration. Based on these empirical findings we conclude that social media are transforming migration networks and thereby lowering the threshold for migration.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “In this article, we contribute to the growing and diverse literature on the lived experiences of children and their agency in the context of migration. Drawing on in-depth interviews with children whose migrant parents have left them behind, as well as with those who care for them in Vietnam, we demonstrate that the various ways in which they affect migration decision-making and transnational communication shape the children’s imaginations of migration. The context-specific social construction of childhood, or more specifically adult perceptions of children’s agency and needs, in turn structures these processes. We emphasize the need for debates on children’s agency to take into account both broader socio-economic processes at the macro level and the concrete and local scale at which children’s lives unfold. By outlining how children’s experiences of parental migration are constitutive of their attitudes toward this livelihood strategy, we also argue that the ability of those ‘left-behind’ to exercise agency is closely intertwined with processes of social becoming and navigation in the transnational social fields constructed for them by adults.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Thirty months after the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, thousands of families in Aceh Province, Indonesia, remained in temporary barracks while sanitation conditions and non-governmental organisation support deteriorated. This study sought to determine the factors associated with functional impairment in a sample of 138 displaced and non-displaced Acehnese children. Using multivariate linear regression models, it was found that displacement distance was a consistent predictor of impairment using the Brief Impairment Scale. Exposure to tsunami-related trauma markers was not significantly linked with impairment in the model. Paternal employment was a consistent protective factor for child functioning. These findings suggest that post-disaster displacement and the subsequent familial economic disruption are significant predictors of impaired functioning in children’s daily activities. Post-disaster interventions should consider the disruption of familiar environments for families and children when relocating vulnerable populations to avoid deleterious impacts on children’s functioning.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “This paper compares the distribution of jobs by complexity and firms’ willingness to hire low-educated labour for jobs of varying complexity in Norway, Italy and Hungary. In investigating how unqualified workers can cope with complex jobs, it compares their involvement in various forms of post-school skills formation. The countries are also compared in terms of the proportion of small businesses, which, it is assumed, manage and tolerate the losses from functional illiteracy more than large firms do. Unskilled Norwegians benefit from synergies that exist between work in complex jobs, post-school skills formation and civil integration. Italy has an abundant supply of simple jobs and its small businesses employ unqualified workers even in complex jobs. Inadequate post-school skills formation and the lack of a sizeable small-business sector set limits on the inclusion of low-educated Hungarians.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “Rights-based approaches have become prevalent in development rhetoric and programmes in countries such as India, yet little is known about their impact on development practice on the ground. There is limited understanding of how rights work is carried out in India, a country that has a long history of indigenous rights discourse and a strong tradition of civil society activism on rights issues. In this article, we examine the multiple ways in which members of civil society organizations (CSOs) working on rights issues in the state of Rajasthan understand and operationalize rights in their development programmes. As a result of diverse ‘translations’ of rights, local development actors are required to bridge the gaps between the rhetoric of policy and the reality of access to healthcare on the ground. This article illustrates that drawing on community-near traditions of activism and mobilization, such ‘translation work’ is most effective when it responds to local exigencies and needs in ways that the universal language of human rights and state development discourse leave unmet and unacknowledged. In the process, civil society actors use rights-based development frameworks instrumentally as well as normatively to deepen community awareness and participation on the one hand, and to fix the state in its role as duty bearer of health rights, on the other hand. In their engagement with rights, CSO members work to reinforce but also challenge neoliberal modes of health governance.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “This paper surveys frameworks of labour migration in southern Africa and determines South Africa’s policy responses to inflows of migrants from seven neighbouring countries. Legislations, policy reports and scientific publications on migration were thoroughly reviewed and interviews and correspondence with key policymakers were conducted. Statistical analyses of data on foreign worker recruitments and permits issued by South Africa’s Department of Home Affairs were also performed. The absence of a migration protocol in southern Africa suggests SADC Members have not implemented the African Union’s migration policy basic guidelines. Two systems coexist in southern Africa that complicate migration governance: a South Africa-managed bilateral migration policy, and aspirations for a formal SADC-managed migration policy. Bilateral agreements between South Africa and neighbours have established a labour migration system that dims prospects for a regional migration policy. SACU Members could establish a two-tier policy to achieve free movement while maintaining managed migration policy outside SACU. An official multilateral migration governance mechanism would serve SADC better than the current ad-hoc measures.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “The potential of migrant remittances to foster access to financial services for low-income households has been largely unexplored. Comparing three Latin American countries – the Dominican Republic, El Salvador and Mexico – this inter-disciplinary study links research on remittances and microfinance with multi-actor governance approaches. While the context of high remittance-dependence provides similar challenges in all cases, it finds remarkable variety both in the structure of the remittances market and the actors involved in microfinance and in the role governments play. It explains the diverging success of MFIs in remittance markets by pointing to the interplay of for-profit, non-profit and state actors embedded within the specific market structures of each country.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “This study investigates the experiences of psychological and sociocultural adaptation among 404 first- and second-generation South Asian immigrants in Hong Kong. Results indicate that for first-generation immigrants, lack of host language fluency, fewer contacts and friendships with host members, the strategy of marginalisation, and perceived discrimination are all related to higher psychological distress, lower self-esteem and less competence in sociocultural adaptation. For second-generation individuals, although they reported higher knowledge of the host language and higher preferences the for assimilation strategy, the levels of psychological distress were higher compared with the first-generation group. An interesting finding of this study is the preference for the marginalisation strategy as opposed to the assimilation and/or separation strategy. The findings of this study highlight the importance of considering the unique experiences of the second generation in order to further our understanding of immigration and acculturation processes.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

  • “A comprehensive review of online, official, and scientific literature was carried out in 2012–13 to develop a framework of disaster social media. This framework can be used to facilitate the creation of disaster social media tools, the formulation of disaster social media implementation processes, and the scientific study of disaster social media effects. Disaster social media users in the framework include communities, government, individuals, organisations, and media outlets. Fifteen distinct disaster social media uses were identified, ranging from preparing and receiving disaster preparedness information and warnings and signalling and detecting disasters prior to an event to (re)connecting community members following a disaster. The framework illustrates that a variety of entities may utilise and produce disaster social media content. Consequently, disaster social media use can be conceptualised as occurring at a number of levels, even within the same disaster. Suggestions are provided on how the proposed framework can inform future disaster social media development and research.”

    tags:newjournalarticles

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