Daily Archives: Sunday, April 28, 2013

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “This article assesses the economic role of refugee settlers in Australia. Refugee-humanitarian labour force participation rates are lower than for other migrant groups or the Australia-born. However, their labour market performance converges toward that of the Australia-born over time. Moreover, the second generation performs at a higher level. There are a number of significant impediments to participation including language, education, structural disadvantage and discrimination. Indeed, there is evidence of a significant refugee gap which can only be explained by discrimination. It is shown that refugees represent a significant stock of human capital that is not being fully realized. They suffer more than other groups through non-recognition and there is substantial “brain waste” with negative results for the economy and the migrants themselves. Finally, it is shown that refugee-humanitarian settlers show greater propensity to form their own business than other migrants and that risk-taking, entrepreneurialism and an ability to identify and take advantage of opportunities is a key characteristic of the group.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights has recently published her much anticipated report on strengthening the United Nations (UN) human rights treaty system. The latest in a series of initiatives launched by the UN over the years to improve the beleaguered treaty system, the report contains a series of recommendations aimed at improving the impact of the treaty system on rights-holders and duty-bearers at the national level. The proposals in the report are based on years of extensive consultations with key stakeholders in the treaty body system that were designed to intensify awareness of the current challenges facing the system as well as to stimulate suggestions for reform. This article considers in detail the potential of the High Commissioner’s proposals to tackle the problems in the system and their overall feasibility in the current political climate. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The proclamation of India’s ‘tryst with destiny’ in 1947 was hailed as a watershed in expanding the possibilities for liberation in the colonized world. This article will assess the changing roles of India in the decolonization process of one such colonized region—Africa. Central to the tales of Indo-African brotherhood that characterize writing on the topic stands one behemoth of the Indian independence movement, Mohandas Gandhi, who famously began his political career in South Africa. In India, this experience was rightfully woven into the broader hagiography of his fight for equality and philosophical transformation into the ‘Mahatma’. In so doing, however, certain anachronistic celebrations of his commitment to African rights have on occasion formed part of the India-Africa narrative.

    It should not be forgotten that the young lawyer was specifically concerned with Indian rights in Transvaal and Natal, as well as the liminal place of South Africa’s Indians within burgeoning concepts of Indian nationhood.2 Indeed, the special position of his infamous night at Pietermaritzburg station in 1893 within the story of satyagraha arguably masks the opinions of the young man on Africans and racial hierarchy. Nevertheless, as in India, so too in Africa did the heroism of the Mahatma live on during the heady days of the freedom struggle. Thus, while many African commentators understandably did not draw directly on Gandhi’s specific African experiences in discussion of Indian roles in African liberation, leaders such as Kwame Nkrumah did pay hearty tribute to the influence of Gandhism on their own protest.3″

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Why have some democracies made considerable progress in prosecuting dictatorship-era human rights violations or in publicly exposing the truth about repression while others still have amnesty laws that prevent, or at least hinder, even the judicial review of such abuses? This article compares Spain, Chile and Argentina to understand the impact of their contrasting histories of repression on how they have dealt with their violent pasts. I assess whether a greater degree of legal repression and direct judicial involvement in repression explains why there is more resistance to prosecuting those responsible for human rights violations, establishing truth commissions or annulling the political sentences of the past during democratization. Once democracy has been consolidated, different dynamics may emerge, but this history of judicial complicity has proved to be a key factor in understanding the continuous lack of judicial accountability in Spain. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Persistent immigration towards industrialized countries has challenged traditional conceptions of citizenship. In Germany, immigration has visibly changed the ethic fabric of the national football team, which is one of the few national post-war icons. Although some commentators consider the team to be a role model for successful integration of immigrants, unanimous approval of a multi-ethnic team would be surprising, given substantial xenophobic tendencies in Germany. Therefore, by analysing regional TV ratings, we examine consumer discrimination against the presence of ethnic out-group players in the national football team and explore how such discrimination relates to discriminatory attitudes. We find some but limited evidence for consumer discrimination but also for a trend towards a ‘taste for diversity’, suggesting that the audience gets used to a multi-ethnic team. While identity politics seems to be important for sport consumption, the links between sport, identity, consumer discrimination, and discriminatory attitudes seem more complex than initially assumed. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this contribution, we aim to develop an understanding of the behavioural manifestations of nationalism. Building on social identity theory and ethnic competition theory, we examine to what extent nationalist attitudes and perceived cultural ethnic threat are related to domestic music listening, participating in national celebrations and commemorations and voting for far right parties. We use data from the Social and Cultural Developments in The Netherlands surveys (SOCON, wave 2007). We find that the stronger one’s nationalist attitudes and perceived cultural ethnic threat, the more likely one is to listen to domestic music. With regard to participation in national celebrations and commemorations, only nationalist attitudes have a positive effect, which seems to be mainly driven by feelings of national pride. With respect to voting for far right parties, perceived cultural ethnic threat is most important, whereas nationalist attitudes hardly affect far right voting. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Although home is central to any understanding of displacement, the concept has not been explored as fully as possible in forced migration literature. This may be due, at least in part, to the pervasive logic of the nation-state, which views migrants as a threat to the national and ‘natural’ order. Viewing refugees as a problem to be solved or ignored, as objects rather than subjects, leads to a preoccupation with determining their belonging to a “home” or “host” nation in order to normalise them. However, such Othering rhetoric denies the agency of individual refugees, at the same time as ignoring the complexity and diversity of the meaning of home, especially for those who have experienced displacement. This article moves beyond a “here” or “there” dichotomy to explore the lived experience of home for Cypriots living in protracted exile in London, since political unrest and partition forced them to leave Cyprus in the 1960s and 1970s. The article proposes one possible way of understanding the multi-faceted and often contradictory meaning of home by focusing on four key themes – the spatial, temporal, material and relational home – both before and during exile. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines transitional justice in the age of the French Revolution. It argues that the democratizing thrust of the Revolution gave rise to new moral and political dilemmas around accountability and shows how French society faced these dilemmas in the aftermath of the Reign of Terror, an episode of massive repression and violence. In this sense, the article makes a case for a broader view of the history of transitional justice and, indeed, for the inclusion of historians in ongoing debates in the field. In making its case, the article draws on primary sources as well as on the extensive secondary literature on the French Revolution.1”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article argues in favour of theorizing transitional justice in established democracies. Using a New Zealand example, the article employs liberal theory to develop a legitimating account of transitional justice. This account not only offers ways of replying to those who critique the transitional justice aspirations of established democracies but also constitutes a response to those who argue against the coherence of transitional justice as a theory. Although transregime legitimation is certainly not transitional justice’s only role, it is an important function and provides resources for a unified political theory of transitional justice. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “To most women’s rights academics and practitioners, the need to analyse and give weight to the various gender dimensions of any conflict and postconflict context is obvious. Yet, even more recent developments, such as International Criminal Court (ICC) prosecutions, have demonstrated an inability to make substantial progress in addressing gender-based crimes. A growing body of literature over the past decade, and particularly the past five years, has analysed this trend in international law and directed staunch criticisms at the failure of transitional justice to adequately take into account gender and violations of women’s rights in all their forms.

    As has been witnessed globally, gender-based violence is frequently an element of conflict. Impunity is pervasive and women often lack access to justice to address such crimes. While UN Security Council Resolutions 1325, 1820, 1888, 1889 and 1960 on women, peace and security and sexual violence in conflict have helped to garner global commitment to ending violence against women and ensuring women’s participation in postconflict processes, criminal courts have had limited success in prosecuting the many violations of women’s rights that take place in times of conflict.

    Moreover, much of the global discourse on postconflict justice has focused on crimes against women that are of a sexual nature. Even the jurisprudence that emerged from the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia, which has been heralded for redefining how sexual violence is categorized and prosecuted under international law, ignores the many distinct gender-based violations that do not fit the sexual violence victim archetype.1 Furthermore, interventions are often timebound. They fail to step adequately beyond the immediate postconflict period and to support essential long-term social and cultural change that would help to challenge norms around masculinities (and machismo) and femininities (and the ‘inviolability’ of women’s bodies) and to help create … “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

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