Daily Archives: Sunday, February 3, 2013

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “This paper draws on postcolonial feminist theory, and sociology of work and migration in understanding the ways in which identity practices of a group of Malaysian migrant women working in the Australian educational context are reworked under conditions of mobility. Malaysia is one of the main Southeast Asian source countries of migration to Australia. These women have migrated from the highly stratified, ethnicized and politicized Malaysian context to Australia, which is seen to be a ‘western’, post-industrial, neo-liberal and capitalist society. In-depth interviews with this group of Malaysian migrant women show how they draw on multiple educational and cultural resources in the (re)making of their cultural and work identities. The analysis shows these women use essentialist definitions of cultural binaries to understand their transnational material realities. Yet at the same time, their identities are shaped by discourses of a dynamic and becoming self that extended beyond these stereotypes. The ways these women engage in on-going processes of interpretation, particularly in regard to re-negotiating social positions and boundaries, provides insights into the complexities of transnational identities in these globalizing times.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Across the globe, academic work is changing in order to meet the demands of the global knowledge economy. This process of change is characterised by the dominant discourses of competition, accountability and excellence, which produce an imaginary of a seemingly disembodied researcher. Departing from a Swedish higher education and research policy landscape, the aim of this article is to explore how, in comparison with their Swedish colleagues, women academics with a migrant background make representations of the good researcher in their work practices. This involves exploring how processes of racialisation – including processes of whiteness – are at work when different layers of migration are read through a white Swedish normality. The results indicate that whiteness is an attributed quality and contributes to constructing success, and that racialised researchers stand out as being particularly invisible representations within a Research Excellence framework. In this article I suggest that this visibility/invisibility paradox (Mirza 2009) can be interpreted not only as a reflection of the number of racialised researchers in Swedish higher education, but also as a general discourse of colour-blindness and Swedish white privilege.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The inability of Congress to provide a solution to address illegal immigration have left states to shoulder the economic and social costs associated with the nearly 11 million unwelcomed guests within their borders. This Paper examines the current legislative efforts in Arizona and eight other states intended to curb illegal immigration.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Unlike in the case of refugees, there is neither an international convention nor a dedicated UN agency in place to protect internally displaced persons. This discrepancy has, however, not stopped the law on internal displacement from emerging, filling the normative void around internal displacement. The UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement of 1998, a soft law instrument on the protection of the rights of internally displaced persons, is a success story, having faced disapproval in the past but now being an internationally recognized standard. Most importantly, the principles have become the point of reference for states developing national laws and policies addressing internal displacement. These national developments across the globe are an expression of the recognized and assumed responsibility of national authorities for the displaced and, although such instruments show shortcomings and weaknesses, their greater good for the better protection of internally displaced persons is undeniable. While national instruments on the protection of internally displaced persons are a still emerging tool of protection, they are also the future of the UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article takes Italy’s widely-debated 2009 push-backs to Libya campaign as a point of reference to address whether bilateral agreements for technical and police cooperation provide the legal foundation for the forced return of intercepted refugees to countries of embarkation. Through a detailed analysis of both the facts and the texts of the published and unpublished bilateral accords, it concludes that, although push-backs do not have a clear legal basis, the agreements between Italy and Libya constitute a fundamental component of the multifaceted legal and political framework underpinning Italy’s practice of interdiction and return.

    Moreover, by entrusting a non-EU third country with the authority and legal competence for the maritime operations, bilateral agreements for migration control may distance the responsibility (for international wrongful acts) of the outsourcing state. Migrants and refugees are autonomously intercepted by the third country in international waters, or in its coastal waters, before their arrival at the EU’s gateways. By venturing into the labyrinth of state responsibility in general international law, this article considers Italy’s possible liability for ‘aiding and assisting’ Libya, in a variety of ways, in the unlawful containment of irregular migration by sea and the resulting refoulement of intercepted refugees ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article addresses a relatively new area of interest for refugee scholars: the effect on refugee law and policy of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The article explains the paradigm shifts that this Convention represents for persons with disabilities who find themselves displaced by war or persecution. It focuses on the two broad areas of most concern to refugee advocates and adjudicators working with persons with disabilities seeking protection as refugees: status determination processes and the interpretation of the definition of refugee. It considers the threshold legal question of whether the obligations enshrined in the Disabilities Convention are owed in respect of refugees – and thus whether they are relevant to refugee status determinations. The issues surrounding the determination of refugee status at a procedural level are examined, outlining the implications that the Disabilities Convention has for decision makers charged with adjudicating asylum claims. Finally, the article looks at the Refugee Convention to consider how disability can affect a person’s ability to qualify for protection under that instrument. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The European Union is currently in the process of revising the central directives that make up European Union refugee law, a project that will touch on almost every aspect of seeking asylum in Europe. This article will focus on the implementation of one doctrine, the internal protection or internal flight alternative, under the recently recast Qualification Directive. The article will first examine the application of the internal protection alternative, based on the text of the 1951 Convention, and UNHCR and academic commentary. Following this examination, the article will critique the recast Qualification Directive, concluding that, by effectively providing two alternative standards for IPA, it is unlikely to result in greater harmonization in Europe, and that both standards are problematic from the perspective of international law. Despite these shortcomings, recent European Court of Justice jurisprudence has clarified and improved previous interpretations of EU asylum law. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In recent years an increasing number of North Korean escapees have attempted to claim asylum outside of South Korea. One of the principal legal questions that tribunals face when addressing these claims is whether these asylum seekers should be considered as dual North/South Korean nationals, and, if so, whether that would disqualify them from refugee status due to article 1(A)(2) of the 1951 Refugee Convention. This states that an asylum seeker who is a dual national must fear persecution in both of his or her countries of nationality in order to be considered a refugee. This dilemma exists because under South Korean law, North Korean escapees are usually considered to be South Korean nationals, as the South Korean Constitution defines the country’s territory as encompassing the entire Korean peninsula. However, South Korean nationality is often viewed as merely theoretical, as it arguably does not automatically provide a right to actually enter or reside in South Korea. This article examines recent court cases from Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom dealing with the issue of North Korean asylum seekers’ possible dual nationality. In each country, tribunals have employed different analytical frameworks to come to different conclusions. This article argues that these recent cases represent largely unsatisfying attempts to deal with a challenging issue, and that it would make more sense for tribunals to analyze the potential dual nationality of North Korean asylum seekers using the principle of ‘effective nationality’, which has often been endorsed by commentators but less commonly used by tribunals in recent years. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The case HJ (Iran) and HT (Cameroon) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] UKSC 31 was celebrated as a ‘fundamental shift in asylum law’. In this decision, the UK Supreme Court rejects the ‘reasonably tolerable test’ that had been applied in the case of the gay men HJ, a 40-year-old Iranian, and HT, a 36-year-old citizen of Cameroon. On the basis that the claimants could be reasonably expected to tolerate being discreet about their sexual identity in order to avoid persecution, their applications had been unsuccessful. This ‘reasonably tolerable test’, which was fairly well established in case law, was much contested and its rejection was overdue. Yet in their decision, the Justices not only reject this old test, they go a step further and formulate a new approach to be followed by tribunals in asylum claims on grounds of sexual orientation.

    This article argues that this new approach fails to discard ‘discretion’ as a concept in asylum cases as a whole, contrary to the submissions of the intervening parties in the case, namely, UNHCR and the Equality and Human Rights Commission. The new test continues to be constructed on ‘discretion logic’ – which is not tenable for a series of reasons. First, the test creates two distinguishable categories, openly demonstrated sexuality and concealed sexuality. Secondly, it assumes that this distinction and the underlying choice are relevant for assessing whether the applicant is at risk of persecution. Finally, the case relied heavily on the subjective element of assessing the ‘fear’ of persecution, which leads to a stricter test than necessary. The assessment of the existence of a well-founded fear of persecution in LGBT cases should instead be made without reference to whether or not the applicants would conceal their sexual orientation. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This opinion addresses the question of whether international humanitarian law (IHL) prohibits the forced displacement of civilians during armed conflict. It argues that the relevant rules of IHL do not take as their starting point a general prohibition of displacement. Rather, the author contends that the laws of war depart from an understanding of this phenomenon as a sad and often inevitable fact of war. As a result, only certain forms of forced displacement are directly regulated by this body of rules. The opinion is written in a concise format with the non-specialist humanitarian practitioner in mind. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In recent years, the Madrid Region (Comunidad de Madrid) has experienced a huge increase in immigrants accessing the labour market. In this paper, a dynamic input-output exercise is presented, yielding the direct and indirect effects of this migration inflow on the Madrid GDP. In addition, the induced demand effect is estimated, offering a complete estimate framework of the impact of migrant access on regional value added.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper examines theoretical propositions regarding the social mechanisms that produce hostility and discriminatory attitudes towards out-group populations. Specifically, we compare the effect of perceptions of socio-economic and national threats, social contact and prejudice on social distance expressed towards labour migrants. To do so, we examine exclusionary views held by majority and minority groups (Jews and Arabs) towards non-Jewish labour migrants in Israel. Data analysis is based on a survey of the adult Israeli population based on a stratified sample of 1,342 respondents, conducted in Israel in 2007. Altogether, our results show that Israelis (both Jews and Arabs) are resistant to accepting and integrating foreigners into Israeli society. Among Jews, this is because the incorporation of non-Jews challenges the definition of Israel as a Jewish state and poses a threat to the homogeneity of the nation. Among Arabs, this is probably due to threat and competition over resources. The meanings of the findings are discussed within the unique ethno-national context of Israeli society and in light of sociological theories on ethnic exclusionism.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Immigrants’ economic assimilation in host countries is determined by patterns of self-selection on both – observed attributes (mainly human capital) and unobserved attributes of the immigrants from their source countries. In the present study immigrants’ economic assimilation in the United States and Israel are compared. More specifically, the study compares the impact of immigrants’ unobserved characteristics on their earnings in both countries by applying a model for decomposing difference in differentials. It makes use of United States and Israeli decennial census data for comparing self-selection patterns on unobserved attributes of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) who arrived in the United States and Israel during the 1970s. The results indicate that FSU immigrants who chose the United States have significantly higher levels of unobserved earnings determinants than those who chose Israel. These results are discussed in light of migration theories.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Researchers have long posited that immigrant social structures play an important role in the settlement and adaptation of immigrants in most host countries, including Canada. Recent studies report that immigrant organizations can have divergent effects on the economic outcomes of the communities they serve. However the topic has yet to be addressed adequately for lack of systematic information on immigrant organizations. This article proposes to partially fill this gap by measuring the impact of several new variables drawn from infrequently used, but readily available administrative data collected by the Canadian government on three census labour market variables: income, unemployment, and self-employment. This addresses a specific part of the labour market impact of immigrant social structures: the role of officially recognized charitable organizations serving specific ethno-immigrant communities in fostering their labour market integration. The results of descriptive analysis and regression models show that organizational density is positively associated with self-employment and negatively associated with income and unemployment.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this paper we study the factors altering the probability of migrants to acquire additional on-the-job skills while abroad, and the determinants of their earnings level, using a sample of 6120 returned migrants from Bosnia, Bulgaria, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Romania, and Tadjikistan. We use a two-stage procedure to estimate a system of two equations where on-the-job skills and earnings are determined simultaneously. The probability of acquiring skills on-the-job is found to be positively affected by the level of earnings. It is also higher for migrants who are employed in the same sector (pre- and during migration), and for migrants with lower initial financial status. Interestingly, the probability is lower for migrants with university education. The earnings level is positively affected by acquired on-the-job skills, the level of education, and the duration of migration. Women have lower earnings while those (males and females) who have learned the language of the destination country have higher earnings. The country variables are statistically significant in all cases but one, indicating that there are differences in the acquisition of skills and earnings reflecting unspecified differences among the countries of origin.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Our study drew on a data set of 513 Chinese immigrants that was collected in Toronto in 1998 and 1999. We looked at how prior experiences in the ethnic economy affect current job transitions. Our analysis went beyond previous studies by situating job transition in the context of the economic integration of immigrants, with consideration of possible competing job transition outcomes and previous recurrent job transitions. Descriptive information in the study showed evidence of both forms of job transition outcomes, that is, either shifting away from or staying in the ethnic economy. Based on the competing risks model of event history analysis, which simultaneously considers different job transition outcomes, the results confirm that prior experience in the ethnic economy increases the likelihood of job transition away from and also remaining in the ethnic economy. However, the results also clearly suggest that those who have a higher level of English language ability are more likely to shift away from the ethnic economy. Results from the repeated events model show that the recurrent job transition experience does change the effects related to job transitions within the ethnic economy, where a customary working environment is expected.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Most studies of temporary labour migration use economic models or examine the economic rationales of migrants to explain why people are moving. Although in migration research new approaches and perspectives have been introduced lately, temporary labour migration, especially in the global South, is still defined primarily as purely economic in nature. This article concentrates on the migrants and their rationalities for migrating, their networks as well as their perceptions and interpretations of the situation they are confronted with abroad to argue that concentrating solely on economic aspects means to lose sight of the tremendous role images and myths about migration in general and receiving countries in particular do play. Bangladeshi migrant workers in Malaysia, who have contributed to the remarkable economic success of the country during the last decades, are in the focus. The construction of the images and the role networks play within these processes will be analysed using data gathered from field research in both settings. Of special interest in this context is the construction of a Muslim brotherhood between the countries for an understanding of the migration flows. This article intends to broaden the current discussions on temporary labour migration by analysing not only the different motives and rationalities but relating them to the constructed images in the new spaces that temporary labour migration has constituted. This important link is missing so far in studies on this global phenomenon.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper explores the development of the labour mobility provisions within the multilateral GATT–WTO system in parallel with smaller regional and bilateral agreements. Because expanded labour mobility provisions have failed to generate a critical mass of support within the WTO, it is argued that developing countries seeking market access for lower-skilled workers are better off seeking alternative venues, even though this is a more costly strategy. At the same time, it is useful for states to continue labour mobility negotiations within the WTO system because the regime serves as an important forum for the negotiation of common administrative processes and definitions. Multilateral efforts to increase transparency and reduced administrative costs will not only help to improve effective market access for commitments already in place, but will increase confidence in the ability of the WTO system to contribute to the management of global labour mobility.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

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  • “This study examines the relationship between symbolic racism and native-born citizens’ policy opinions toward legal and undocumented immigration. With data from the 1994 General Social Survey and the NPR/Kaiser Foundation/Kennedy School of Government 2004 Immigration Survey, the results from logit regression models indicate that symbolic racism significantly predicts opposition to legal immigration, immigrant access to federal aid, and standard costs for college, citizenship for U.S.-born children, and work permits for undocumented immigrants. The effects are independent of group threat and other factors. Symbolic racism explained more variation in policy opinions toward government assistance, while group threat explained more variation toward immigration levels and citizenship status. Depending on the issue, native-born citizens likely derive their immigration policy opinions from moral ideologies in addition to intergroup competition.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In spring 2006, the United States witnessed immigrant marches throughout the nation. Although Latina/os are often depicted as the “face” of the immigrant marches, we know little about how racial and citizenship statuses shaped Latina/os’ perceptions of how the marches influenced public perceptions of undocumented immigrants. Using logistic regression on data from the 2006 National Survey of Latinos, we find that Latina/os identifying as white are less likely to be supportive of the immigrant marches than those who defied standard racial classifications, and instead identified as “Latina/o.” Moreover, Latina/os who are born in the United States are not as supportive of the immigrant marches in comparison with naturalized citizens and non-citizen Latina/os, accounting for demographic and human capital factors. This study suggests there is a “racial- and citizenship divide” among Latina/os that fragments perceptions on the immigrant mobilizations in the United States.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Many key development outcomes depend on women s ability to negotiate favorable intrahousehold allocations of resources. Yet it has been difficult to clearly identify which policies can increase women’s bargaining power and result in better outcomes. This paper reviews both the analytical frameworks and the empirical evidence on the importance of women’s bargaining power. It argues that there is sufficient evidence from rigorous studies to conclude that women’s bargaining power does affect outcomes. But in many specific instances, the quantitative evidence cannot rigorously identify causality. In these cases, a combination of quantitative and qualitative evidence may suggest policy levers. Taken together, there are sufficient data in place to support a greatly expanded focus on intrahousehold outcomes and bargaining power. Additional data at the individual level will allow for further and more detailed research. A growing literature supports the current conventional wisdom — namely, that the patterns of evidence suggest that women s education, incomes, and assets all are important aspects of women s bargaining power. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Does the existing evidence support policies that foster growth by reducing gender inequality? We argue that the evidence based on differences across countries is of limited use for policy design because it does not identify the causal link from inequality to growth. This, however does not imply that inequality-reducing policies are ineffective. In other words, the lack of evidence of a causal link is not in itself evidence that the causal link does not exist. Detailed micro studies that shed light on the mechanisms through which gender inequality affects development and growth are needed to inform the design of effective policies. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Although numbers of individuals seeking asylum in the UK have significantly reduced since the late 1990s ( House of Commons, 2007), it remains the case that people continue to flee conflicts, war and other ‘push’ factors, to seek sanctuary in a safer land. At the same time, border controls, particularly in Western countries such as the UK, have become ever more tightly controlled and policed with the apparent aim of excluding ‘outsiders’ ( Bohmer and Shuman, 2008; Friedman and Klein, 2008). The profession of social work has a long association of service to people in need. However, the prevailing academic discourse thus far, particularly in the UK context, largely depicts social workers, usually in the statutory sector, as collaborating with immigration controls that are accused of being inherently racist and exclusionary ( Humphries, 2004a, 2004b, 2004c; Hayes, 2005, 2009). In this paper, we suggest that the reality of social work with adult asylum seekers is much more complex, challenging and potentially transformative than a discourse of social workers as colluders with restrictive immigration controls implies. The authors, both qualified social workers, draw on their experiences of work with adult asylum seekers within a voluntary agency in north-west England. We argue that the approach of the work undertaken provides a useful template for social workers for hospitality-based practice in work with adult asylum seekers. This we feel to be consonant with the values that the profession purports to hold towards the people it serves. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The concept of integration is central for understanding the experiences of groups in marginalized positions in contemporary urban societies. Research on integration has primarily focused on international migrants, especially immigrants. Yet internal migrants like rural-urban migrant workers in China also face formidable institutional, economic, cultural, and social barriers in the host society. Informed by integration theory, and drawing on a questionnaire survey of 1,100 migrants conducted in Wuhan, this research effort examines how institutional barriers intersect with economic, social/cultural, and identity integration to explain the experiences of rural migrant workers in Chinese cities. The authors’ analysis, based on OLS and logit regressions, shows that the hukou system is a persistent barrier to migrant workers, despite improvement over time of their economic, social/cultural, and identity integration into urban society. Their findings also indicate that human capital is important for migrants’ economic and identity integration. Moreover, migrant workers who are socially and culturally adapted, speak the dialect of the host society, and have the financial resources to be self-employed (or buy an apartment in the city) are more likely to develop a sense of belonging in the city than other migrants.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The typical refugee has not only fled her native country and been evicted from her native social architecture, but also her sense of personhood has been displaced. She is faced with the daunting need to relocate self in a new cultural space. Re-establishing a life after the crisis often means resettlement in a new home country where smooth resettlement often hinges on the refugee’s ability to rebuild her social network in the host culture. The purpose of this study is to describe the social architecture of female refugee identity. A multiple case study of seventeen (N = 17) female refugees, representing 135 relational ties, is used to explore the composition of refugee social networks from 14 different countries in order to understand intercultural identity from a socio-structural perspective. The study demonstrates that refugees occupy a relationally thin identity space; commonly that means a high-density, low-heterogeneity, small network that leaves very little flexibility for new identity formation. The mean network heterogeneity across all cases was 0.27, indicating a low presence of host nationals in the networks. Working from their stories of liminality and the search for communitas, the study provides insight into the variability within social architectures for refugee identity and the particular acculturation narratives represented within a socio-structural space of redefinition. The study furthers our understanding of the interconnections between structural properties and communicative properties of identity formation through the depiction of female refugee-immigrant ethno-graphs.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “As a result of the growing presence of foreign immigrants settling in Italy, recent years have seen a significant increase in the number of mixed unions. However, little research has been carried out on the subject in this country, in part due to insufficient availability of suitable data. The aim of this study is to investigate the “market” of formal and informal mixed unions and to understand whether ethnic origin contributes a new element to the marriage/union market, and to verify the applicability of the “exchange theory” to the Italian context. We analyzed a particular segment of the marriage market – mixed parental couples included in the 2005 Sample Surveys of Births. The results showed a clear gender divide in the ethnic preferences of Italian spouses, a high rate of previous marital experience for both Italian and foreign people in mixed pairings, and a high frequency of unmarried and casual mixed relationships. Compared with endogamous couples, the foreign male or female spouse/partner in mixed couples is young and more educated relative to the Italian partner, but is less present in the work market and, when employed, often occupies a less well-qualified position. The “informal union market” works in very similar ways to the “marriage market”; the slight attenuation of relationships observed in the former being attributable to the lesser degree of security guaranteed by an unofficial union. Therefore, the mechanism of mate selection implies that foreigners’ appreciated qualities such as youth and high education may be offered in exchange for economic security, upward socio-economic mobility and access to the social network of the native partner: this is a variant of the exchange theory that was found to apply well to transnational marriages/unions in Italy.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Many anti-sex trafficking analyses use the term institution in a narrow meaning, comprising mainly formal-legal political structures (public laws and governmental organizations). However, by bringing in the new institutionalism approach, it is argued that an anti-sex trafficking institution should refer to a relatively enduring collection of rules – including also informal rules such as norms and routines – and organized practices that prescribe appropriate behaviour for any actor, public or private, combating sex trafficking. Based on a review of current research it is concluded that anti-sex trafficking institutions in the early 21st century tend to focus on behaviour that aims at detection, prevention, protection, crisis management, consequence management, and response. Finally, reflecting different strands of the new institutionalism approach, it is argued that the design of anti-sex trafficking institutions depends on path-dependencies, social constructions, international institutions, and domestic politics.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper explores the attitudes to work and experiences seeking employment of professionally qualified refugees enrolled on a course to enhance their employability skills in Leeds, United Kingdom (UK). We analyse the results within the framework of conceptual models describing the transition of refugees into employment (which are essentially linear) and those that categorize refugees according to their resettlement styles based on their social features and the host society’s response. Our data reinforce that these people are (initially at least) highly motivated to work, strongly identify with their profession and suffer considerable loss of self-esteem as they are unable to secure appropriate employment. Attitudes to securing employment were often related to their length of time in the UK. Recent arrivals were more positive about returning to their profession, even if this meant retraining, developing skills and time spent in alternative employment. Many of those here for longer were resigned to retraining, and the worst cases felt despair and feelings of betrayal. Our work showed that many had poor job search strategies and a lack of knowledge of the culture and norms of their chosen profession. We argue that the generic support of statutory employment services or the voluntary sector is inappropriate and that there is a role for professional bodies to be more active in their engagement with these groups of people. The results suggest that conceptual models need to be more nuanced to capture the experiences of these refugees: attitudes to work can cycle from optimism to disillusionment, so a linear model will not capture the full complexity, and we also found evidence of shifting among categories of resettlement styles.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The United States has been a top destination country for science and engineering (S&E) graduate education for foreign talent for many years. Despite the clear existence of foreign students in the USA, relatively little is known about the factors influencing the flow of foreign students. In this study, we examine foreign doctoral students in science and engineering, and test whether “ethnic affinity” plays a role in the ethnic composition of research laboratories (in what follows, “labs”) in US universities. In order to test this hypothesis, we conduct a web search, and select 164 science and engineering laboratory web pages for analysis. Among these 164 labs, 82 are directed by foreign-born faculty (Korean, Chinese, Indian or Turkish). These 82 are matched with labs that are in the same department of the same university, but directed by a native (US origin) faculty member. We find strong evidence that labs directed by foreign-born faculty are more likely to be populated by students from the same country of origin than are labs directed by native faculty. The percentage of students working in a lab from a nationality (foreign or native) is higher when they share nativity with the director. We seek to draw attention to the effect of affinity on the ethnic composition of research labs at the micro level that translates into the ethnic composition of the scientific community at the macro level. Further, these results emphasize the role of lab directors in future enrolments, creating scientific human capital, and contributing to the “brain circulation” phenomenon in the global context.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The impact of orthodox, free market reforms on emigration was contested by two schools of thought. Following the standard comparative advantage argument, the dominant school maintained that trade, capital, and labour market liberalization would serve as substitutes for emigration, especially as capital flows complemented abundant and ‘flexible’ labour endowments. Another school argued that liberalization would generate short-run frictions, causing a temporary emigration increase or ‘hump’ until it assumed greater efficiency and growth diminished migrant flows. Using Mexico and Ecuador as case studies, it is argued that both schools were incorrect. Instead, the productive modes and stabilization policies that accompanied market reforms assured labour market failures and persistent emigration from both countries.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “A salutogenic approach explored themes of strength and well-being in life stories of Burmese refugees (N = 18) in Australia. Previous refugee studies have tended to focus on negative responses to traumatic events (e.g. posttraumatic stress disorder, depression). To widen the scope of refugee related research the focus of the current study was informed by a salutogenic perspective, exploring sources of strength that may facilitate well-being. Semi-structured narrative interviews explored: the participant’s life before fleeing Burma, the journey of exile, and post-migration in Australia. Eight women and 10 men (Mage = 39 years) were interviewed and transcriptions analysis of narratives was conducted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with major themes being explicated. Super-ordinate themes pertaining to strength during times of hardship were identified and explicated as: support from interpersonal relationships, the pivotal role of values, a sense of future and agency, and reliance on spiritual or religious beliefs. Results indicate the existence of sources of strength that may contribute to human responses in times of hardship. Recognition and reflection of strengths may be incorporated into therapeutic and resettlement approaches for people from refugee backgrounds.”

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  • “We present findings from an anthropological field study on the role of language and language policy in migration from Poland to Norway, and the larger implications for emerging language and immigration policy in Europe. Initial fieldwork in Norway found that Polish workers without knowledge of the Norwegian language struggled to secure employment in the formal economy. The 2008 financial crisis intensified competition in the labour market and underscored fluency in Norwegian as a means of discriminating among workers. Comparative case studies of language schools revealed that these organizations are active participants in channeling Polish migrants’ movements into a segmented labour market, often in ways that involve cooperation between private companies and the State. We frame the Norwegian case within the larger context of Europe and the trend there toward favoring integration over multiculturalism. The emergence of restrictive language policies in Europe may be interpreted as a legally and culturally acceptable means for discouraging access to rights associated with permanent residency or citizenship by work migrants from CEE countries, while at the same time permitting them access to the labour market for temporary work. The long-term consequences of such policies for European society are uncertain.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article juxtaposes theoretical notions concerning the relationship between migrant remittances and socio-economic inequality with an anthropological case study of remittances in Cape Verde. Contemporary theorizing involves, firstly, the idea that remittances do not benefit the poorest; secondly, the conclusion that the impact of remittances changes over time; thirdly, the notion that family structure influences the distribution of remittances; and fourthly the proposition that remittances have a stronger impact on social stratification when linked to the return of a migrant. The primary aim of the article is to use these theoretical notions as entry-points for analysing how remittances interplay with patterns of inequality in Cape Verde. A second aim is to examine the explanatory power of the theories through applying them to this specific case.

    The article demonstrates that remittances in some cases benefit the poorest in Cape Verde and that this has to do with the long history of migration, which means that nearly everyone, irrespective of class, has a close relative abroad. It also shows that Cape Verdeans generally receive quite small amounts of money, which implies that they are seldom able to improve their economic situation in a more substantial way.

    In conclusion, the article contends that in order to fully appreciate the complex relationship between remittances and socio-economic inequality it is necessary to take into account the importance of other sources of income. Moreover, it argues that the contemporary restrictive immigration regimes in receiving countries have a fundamental impact on the socio-economic distribution of remittances. In studies of the relationship between remittances and inequality, this is an aspect that has been left out. Instead, theorizing tends to focus on factors that are internal to the countries of origin, and on the migrants’ links to these countries.”

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  • “In this article, we analyse the process of migration by applying a social network methodology. Using the personal network approach, we focus on a case study of the Brazil-US migration system to analyse the formation of the so-called “industry of illegal migration”. We suggest that in migration systems, brokerage evolves not only because of historical and cultural changes, but also because the changes emerge within a structured environment in which brokerage can thrive, and this, in turn, causes the social networks to support and produce specialized actors (individuals and organizations) embedded in the “right positions” of the social structure in the migration process. In this particular case study, we suggest that brokerage seems to take place through gender-oriented networks and the personal experience and structural power of returned migrants. These returned migrants usually have more varied social contacts and types of relationships from which they can obtain richer information about the migration system.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study examines Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs in Greece in order to identify patterns of ethnic entrepreneurship and socio-economic challenges faced by ethnic entrepreneurs. The research aims to enhance understanding of the characteristics and business profiles of Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs in Greece’s capital, Athens, and make recommendations for the development of a follow-up three-year longitudinal study of Pakistani immigrant businesses in Athens. A survey administered to 13 Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs recorded a wide range of data from which frequency distributions were processed as well as cross-tabulations and Chi-square tests, to reveal strong associations. Findings of note reveal that Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs set up enterprises with their own capital rather than turning to the private financial sector, are mostly well-educated despite earlier research noting the opposite, Greece is the terminal migration destination of choice for Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs, their market-share of work permits is proportionately larger than their residence permit share, they differ from other ethnic groups by substantial preference for operation of call centers, and they are very much bound to their ethnic enclaves. This body of research offers a unique contribution to an area which has until now been largely ignored.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Historically migrants have been constructed as units of labour and their social reproductive needs have received scant attention in policy and in academic literature. The growth in ‘feminist-inflected’ migration research in recent decades, has provoked a body of work on transnational care-giving that poses a challenge to such a construction, at least as it relates to female migrants in general and mothers in particular. Researchers, however, have demonstrated less interest in how migrant men give meaning to and perform their fathering roles. Such neglect is increasingly problematic in the context of rising social, political and academic interest in the significance of fathering in European (and other) societies. With the purpose of making a preliminary contribution to knowledge on migrant men’s fathering narratives, practices and projects, this article draws on findings from interviews conducted with recent migrants from Poland to the UK. By focusing on migrant fatherhood, we add to the understanding of transnational care-giving by illuminating the many parallels between migrant mothering and fathering. Our findings are consistent with much of the literature on transnational mothering, highlighting tensions between breadwinning and parenting and the various strategies fathers deploy to reconcile these tensions. Nevertheless, we find that migrant men’s fathering narratives, practices, and projects, while challenging the construction of male migrants as independent and non-relational, remain embedded within the dominant framework of the gendered division of labour. More uniquely, the article also demonstrates the importance of situated transnational analyses, in this case the institutional arrangements between the UK and European Union new Member States, which gave the Polish migrants privileged labour market access and social rights within the UK’s highly differentiated migration regime. This access allowed mobility, settlement and or family reunion according to the migrant’s specific circumstances and preferences with respect to the labour market and parenting.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Does food security policy effectively translate into more food for people? This article draws on a case study of a child undernutrition rehabilitation centre in a food-insecure district in western Africa, and shows that policy intentions are often not realized and policy recommendations not put into practice for reasons beyond local control. A major barrier to successful policy implementation is the ambiguity of responsibility and the expectation that national governments and local communities can single-handedly assure food security to their citizens. In the case of poor and food-insecure nations, this expectation is impractical and unethical because global power inequalities in the current economic world system mean that local and state power to influence international food supply production and distribution is limited. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

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