Daily Archives: Sunday, January 27, 2013

Website:- Life without Papers: Stories of undocumented migrant families and young people

Life without Papers: Stories of undocumented migrant families and young people

Link:  http://www.lifewithoutpapers.co.uk

Details from the Migrants’ Rights Network press release:

A new website giving accounts of the lives of undocumented families and young people has been launched with the titleLife Without Papers.

The site is curated by Len Grant, a photographer and writer who specialises in social and urban renewal issues.

It currently features accounts of the lives of mother and daughter Ruth and Dyanna, and Sinan.

Ruth is a former domestic worker who was trafficked into the country when she was aged 14.  She is now 25 and has her own daughter, Dyanna, aged 4.

Sinan was refused refugee status by the UK Border Agency but has no papers establishing his nationality.  Without these he cannot be removed from the country.

The website will regularly updated with new stories about the lives of undocumented families and young people.

 

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “This article is based on the hypothesis that the relationship between politics and borders is being reshaped as a consequence of the movement of people between States. This process of redefining the concept of “border”, present in both the new approaches to managing migration and the public perception of immigration, is closely linked with the image of “border” projected by politics. For this reason, the ability to manage borders can create or modify a particular image of migration. Against this backdrop, this article seeks to explore the link between the concept of the “border” and policies aimed at managing human mobility from the perspective of political theory. Assuming that there is still no Political Theory of Borders in the strict sense, in this article I will argue that in order to establish its foundations, border must be considered as a concept and as an approach (section 3), as well as a political category (sections 4 and 5). Finally, I will review some arguments regarding human mobility and border control (section 6).”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Mobility and migration patterns of groups and individuals have long been a topic of interest to archaeologists, used for broad explanatory models of cultural change as well as illustrations of historical particularism. The 14th century AD was a tumultuous period of history in Britain, with severely erratic weather patterns, the Great Famine of 1315-1322, the Scottish Wars of Independence, and the Hundred Years’ War providing additional migration pressures to the ordinary economic issues drawing individuals to their capital under more stable conditions. East Smithfield Black Death Cemetery (Royal Mint) had a documented use period of only 2 years (AD 1348-1350), providing a precise historical context (∼50 years) for data. Adults (n = 30) from the East Smithfield site were sampled for strontium and oxygen stable isotope analyses of tooth enamel. Five individuals were demonstrated to be statistical outliers through the combined strontium and oxygen isotope data. Potential origins for migrants ranged from London’s surrounding hinterlands to distant portions of northern and western Britain. Historic food sourcing practices for London were found to be an important factor for consideration in a broader than expected (87) Sr/(86) Sr range reflected in a comparison of enamel samples from three London datasets. The pooled dataset demonstrated a high level of consistency between site data, divergent from the geologically predicted range. We argue that this supports the premise that isotope data in human populations must be approached as a complex interaction between behavior and environment and thus should be interpreted cautiously with the aid of alternate lines of evidence. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “To investigate variations in explanations given for disparities in health care use between migrant and non-migrant groups, by clients and care providers in Sweden. Qualitative evidence collected during in-depth interviews with five ‘migrant’ health service clients and five physicians. The interview data generated three categories which were perceived by respondents to produce ethnic differences in health service use: “Communication issues”, “Cultural differences in approaches to medical consultations” and “Effects of perceptions of inequalities in care quality and discrimination”. Explanations for disparities in health care use in Sweden can be categorized into those reflecting social/structural conditions and the presence/absence of power and those using cultural/behavioural explanations. The negative perceptions of ‘migrant’ clients held by some Swedish physicians place the onus for addressing their poor health with the clients themselves and risks perpetuating their health disadvantage. The power disparity between doctors and ‘migrant’ patients encourages a sense of powerlessness and mistreatment among patients.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article focuses on the representation of ‘non-places’ in European migrant cinema. Postcolonial subjects, migrants, refugees and asylum seekers are often depicted in non-places such as city outskirts, hotels, detention centres, on the open sea or in airports. Through the analysis of Pawel Pawlikowski’s Last Resort (UK, 2000), Stephen Frears’s Dirty Pretty Things (UK, 2002), and Mohsen Melliti’s Io, l’altro (I, the Other, Italy, 2007), migrants are seen in non-locations, characterised by their disposable bodies and are portrayed against a background of hostile media representations. The article argues that non-places allude to the visual and ideological instability of the notion of Europe, and also to the creation of an alternative space, a possible Third Space, a location of transformation and belonging to an alternative organic society, where new notions of hospitality and tolerance are conveyed.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “More than 63,000 Iraqi refugees were resettled in the United States from 1994 to 2010. We analyzed data for all US-bound Iraqi refugees screened in International Organization for Migration clinics in Jordan during June 2007–September 2009 (n = 18,990), to describe their health profile before arrival in the United States. Of 14,077 US-bound Iraqi refugees ≥15 years of age, one had active TB, 251 had latent TB infection, and 14 had syphilis. No HIV infections were reported. Chronic diseases comorbidities accounted for a large burden of disease in this population: 35% (n = 4,105) of screened Iraqi refugees had at least one of three chronic medical conditions; hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or obesity. State health departments and clinicians who screen refugees need to be aware of the high prevalence of chronic diseases among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States. These results will help public health specialists develop policies to reduce morbidity and mortality among US-bound Iraqi refugees.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The objective of this study was to compare the utilization of outpatient physician, emergency department and hospital services between refugees and the general population in Calgary, Alberta. Data was collected on 2,280 refugees from a refugee clinic in Calgary and matched with 9,120 non-refugees. Both groups were linked to Alberta Health and Wellness administrative data to assess health services utilization over 2 years. After adjusting for age, sex and medical conditions, refugees utilized general practitioners, emergency departments and hospitals more than non-refugees. A similar proportion in the two groups had seen a general practitioner within 1 week prior to their emergency department visit; however, refugees were more likely to have been triaged for urgent conditions and female refugees seen for pregnancy-related conditions than non-refugees. Refugees were more likely to have had infectious and parasitic diseases. Refugees utilized health services more than non-refugees with no evidence of underutilization.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Screening mammograms are important to detect breast cancer at earlier and more treatable stages. Immigrant and minority women report low participation rates due to barriers related to cultural beliefs and norms, privacy/modesty, and language. This review examines whether screening mammogram interventions in Canada and other countries with comparable health-care systems have addressed the needs of these women. Our systematic literature search identified studies that focused on increasing screening mammogram participation among immigrant and/or minority women. We used the Health Belief Model and the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to guide our critical synthesis of the reviewed interventions and the recommendations for the future. Eight studies met the search criteria. Overall, interventions showed some increase in mammogram participation rates. The barriers targeted were relatively similar across studies and there was a focus on increasing cues to screening. This review illustrates that it is essential to develop and implement programs to overcome the unique barriers to screening mammography if we are to increase participation among immigrants and minority women. We suggest other potentially effective health promotion strategies as a starting point for discussion and future research.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The UJAMBO Program was a series of one session group workshops with Congolese and Somali women in the United States built around a DVD using African immigrant women’s stories which provided basic information about mammography, pap smears and mental health services for trauma. The current study is an evaluation of the UJAMBO program addressing the impact on participants’knowledge of these health services and their intentions to use these services.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Research and practice increasingly suggests discrimination compromises health. Yet the unique experiences and effects facing immigrant and refugee populations remain poorly understood in Canada and abroad. We review current knowledge on discrimination against newcomers in Canada, emphasizing impacts upon health status and service access to identify gaps and research needs. Existing knowledge centers around experiences within health-care settings, differences in perception and coping, mental health impacts, and debates about “non-discriminatory” health-care. There is need for comparative analyses within and across ethno-cultural groups and newcomer classes to better understand factors shaping how discrimination and its health effects are differentially experienced. Women receive greater attention in the literature given their compounded vulnerability. While this must continue, little is known about the experiences of youth and men. Governance and policy discourse analyses would elucidate how norms, institutions and practices shape discriminatory attitudes and responses. Finally, “non-discriminatory health-care” interventions require critical evaluation to determine their effectiveness.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Issues related to immigration have long been present in U.S. television and print news cycles. In recent years, those issues have become more prevalent in U.S. popular culture, especially in television and popular music. In this essay, we analyze three representative and diverse examples from U.S. popular media to better understand the representation of immigrant narratives: ABC’s Ugly Betty, the Chicano band, Los Lobos’s 2006 album, The Town and the City, and CNN Presents “Immigrant Nation.” From our analysis, we advance three interconnected arguments: First, personalized narratives of the immigrant experience reify stereotypes through accumulation and repetition that contributes to the construction of border spectacle. Second, audiences interpret individualized accounts through ambivalent readings that function to entrench audience beliefs and attitudes about immigrants and immigration which create unmotivated sympathies. Finally, individual accounts humanize issues related to immigration, but they also individualize responsibility and absolve collective responsibilities by emphasizing immigrants’ hard work and pursuit of the U.S. American Dream.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In Germany, immigrants from Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries represent one of the largest immigrant groups. Some FSU countries face the highest HIV prevalence in the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. However, the HIV knowledge, attitude and behavioral intent have not been investigated in FSU immigrants compared to the native population yet. A cross-sectional anonymous survey among 1,205 FSU immigrants and 435 native Germans (aged 18-65 years) in Bavaria. Data analysis from the participating 435 (36 %) immigrants and 334 (76.8 %) natives showed that the immigrants were less knowledgeable (p < .001) about HIV transmission (median score 8 vs. 9, ranged from 0 to 10) and HIV prevention (4 vs. 5, ranged from 0 to 6) than the native Germans, especially with regard to HIV transmission during anal (67 vs. 79.1 %; OR = 1.86 [1.32-2.62]) and oral (49.7 vs. 61.8 %; OR = 1.63 [1.21-2.20]) intercourse and showed a high misconception rate. Age and education were associated with knowledge about sexual HIV transmission; male gender, age and education with HIV prevention by single-use of needles/syringes. In case of a suspected HIV contraction, fewer immigrants would request a test; in case of a confirmed HIV diagnosis fewer would use a condom or inform their sexual partner(s). This first comparative study indicates an urgent need for HIV/AIDS education among FSU immigrants.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Immigrants represent a substantial proportion of suicides in Canada. This study assesses the hypothesis that high immigrant density fosters personal sense of community belonging among immigrants, and in turn, protects against suicide risk. This multilevel cross-sectional study is based on individual-level data from the 2007 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 12,951 participants) merged with area-level data from the 2006 Canadian census (n = 57 health regions). Prevalence of suicidal ideation was 1.3 %. Among rural racial minority immigrants, each 10 % increase in immigrant density associated with 67 % lower odds of suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.33, 95 % CI: 0.14-0.77); sense of community belonging did not mediate this association, but was independently associated with suicidal ideation (AOR = 0.44, 95 % CI: 0.28-0.69). Immigrant density was not associated with suicidal ideation among white immigrants or urban settings. Immigrant density and sense of community belonging may correlate with suicidal ideation through distinct mechanisms of association.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “We sought to identify what services indigenous (Maori) and immigrant populations use pharmacies for, and how long pharmacy staff spend interacting with them, as longer interactions are associated with better quality care. We review literature on counseling in pharmacy, and interaction length as an indicator of counseling quality. 1,086 interactions were discretely observed in 36 pharmacies in 5 cities around New Zealand. Maori or Pacific people, along with men, were more likely to treat pharmacies as prescription ‘depots’, being less likely to buy over-the-counter or pharmacist only medicines (ORs: 0.25-0.72). However, the influence of demographic factors on interaction length was small (|B|s < 7.7 s). The weak effect of ethnicity on interaction length suggests that pharmacies are providing advice of relatively consistent quality to different population groups. Possible barriers to use of pharmacies for primary healthcare, including over-the-counter medicines in Maori and Pacific people are discussed.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In Italy, work-related injuries among immigrant workers are an emerging concern. In this study, we compared the occurrence of work-related injuries between legally residing immigrants from High Migration Pressure Countries and Italians and evaluated the associations with potential risk factors. Using data from the 2007 Labour Force Survey conducted by Italy’s National Institute of Statistics, we examined the relationship between the occurrence of work-related injuries in the previous 12 months and being an immigrant among a nationally representative sample. The occurrence of work-related injuries was significantly higher among immigrant males compared to Italian males (adjusted OR = 1.82; 95 % CI 1.53-2.16), particularly in the construction sector, for which the results showed a U-shaped trend of the odds ratios of injuries for immigrants compared to Italians with increasing number of years of work in the same job. No associations were found among women. The findings suggest that prevention programs need to be implemented to limit the burden of work-related injuries among immigrants.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Immigration law both screens migrants and regulates the behavior of migrants after they have arrived. Both activities are information-intensive because the migrant’s “type” and the migrant’s post-arrival activity are often forms of private information that are not immediately accessible to government agents. To overcome this information problem, the national government can delegate the screening and regulation functions. American immigration law, for example, delegates extensive authority to both private entities – paradigmatically, employers and families – and to the fifty states. From the government’s perspective, delegation carries with it benefits and costs. On the benefit side, agents frequently have easy access to information about the types and activities of migrants, and can cheaply monitor and control them. On the cost side, agents’ preferences are not always aligned with those of the national government. The national government can ameliorate these costs by giving agents incentives to act consistently with the government’s interests. Understanding these virtues and vices of delegation sheds light on longstanding debates about the roles that employers, families, and states play in American immigration law. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The tension between immigration and redistribution has attracted increased attention in recent years. Many authors argue, based on economic self-interest theory, that there is a negative relationship between support for redistribution and preferred levels of immigration. Notwithstanding the role of economic self-interest, there is in fact a multitude of motivations that moderate the relationship between preferences for redistribution and attitudes toward immigration. A model of preferences for immigration shows that self-interested and strongly reciprocal individuals experience a tension between immigration and redistribution, while egalitarians do not experience this tension. Humanitarians express a general willingness to help those who are worse off, immigrants included, but this motivation does not affect their preferences for redistribution. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper argues that immigration detention results in immigration detainees being treated as anomalies within the liberal, democratic state – not only within detention centres but also post-release. Given that most released detainees remain destitute and without entitlement or resolution of their immigration cases, many report feelings of being continuously ‘detained’ even after release. This paper addresses a gap in the literature on the ongoing experience of released detainees. The authors draw on qualitative interview data from former detainees as a first step towards a better understanding of the issues.

    We discuss wider questions of why the detention regime fails to prepare detainees for release as well as how this omission can undermine their capacity to lead productive and socially meaningful lives. This paper argues that the lack of concern for the well-being of former immigration detainees has considerable and far-reaching implications for the former detainees and their communities. Finally, we link the situation of former detainees and their liminal states of exception, to discourses of slavery and civil death. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Many migration policies in Western democracies can be categorised as what Matthew J. Gibney calls a ‘partialist’ approach to migration. Drawing from communitarian, conservative, and constitutionalist realist political theories, a partialist approach prioritises the interests and values of citizens and the community over the needs of non-citizens. Stepping outside the normative debate, this paper examines the political implications of a partialist approach to migration policies. The paper argues that it is possible for such policies to be inconsistent with liberal democratic processes of government. Specifically, there is a risk that partialist ideas can be used to justify policies that set aside legal and administrative checks and balances in favour of executive control over migration policies. This is evident in the Australian policy of deportation of long-term permanent residents on character grounds. The paper argues that partialist ideas have been used to justify a high level of executive control over deportations. Executive control is achieved in three ways: broad powers of ministerial discretion; a mechanical bureaucracy, and the use of immigration detention. The cumulative effect means that deportation policy is implemented without the checks and balances fundamental to ensuring limits to executive power. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Putting into context the sentiment expressed by Tibetans on both sides of the Himalayas that true Tibet is located elsewhere, this essay focuses on an under-commented-upon consequence of Tibetan trans-Himalayan mobilities since 1959: the creation of two incommensurable modes of nationalism. One of these is territorial, the other embodied in the form of the Dalai Lama himself. The result of this dual nationalism has not been mutual compatibility and an increase in potential modes of Tibetan belonging, but mutual interference and a broadened scope for unbelonging. As such, the dispersed spatiality of community it enacts is reminiscent not so much of the romantic, organic unity of Herderian modes of (methodological) nationalism as it is of Heine’s experiences of manifold unbelonging and contemporary German-Jewish articulations of a ‘portable homeland’. Ultimately, to reckon with such originary unbelonging, theories of diaspora and mobility must treat concepts of both home and mobility as mixtures of stability and instability, movement and stasis.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In the summer of 2009, the British government introduced a new policy for managing foreign nationals imprisoned in England and Wales. Dubbed hubs and spokes, that policy reorganises the penal estate, concentrating non-citizens in select prisons ‘embedded’ with full-time immigration staff. The policy also requires prison staff to identify foreign nationals to immigration authorities and obliges prisons to detain prisoners facing deportation beyond the length of their criminal sentences. This paper explores the effects of such an approach to foreign national prisoners. In particular, I examine how the effort to find the ‘foreigners’ in British penal institutions has affected the meaning of race behind bars. Drawing on a year of ethnographic fieldwork, I argue that the process of identifying foreign nationals is more piecemeal and political than it can seem from outside prison walls. In practice, the effort to find ‘foreigners’ depends on racialised assumptions about foreignness and British national belonging. These assumptions contrast with the fluid and highly personalised articulations of race and nation that circulate within the prison. I examine this contrast, asserting that the hubs and spokes policy remakes and racialises the concept of British citizenship. I also consider the new policy in the historical context of British colonialism. Ultimately, I assert that the government’s approach to foreign national prisoners perpetuates amnesia about the politics of imprisoning ‘foreigners’. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Malta remains the only country in the European Union that maintains an 18-month, mandatory detention policy for all irregular migrants upon arrival. This paper examines the role that detention has played in the Maltese government’s response to the flows of irregular immigration to the island in the 21st century. It argues that detention is symbolic of the crisis narrative that the Maltese government has constructed as a response to these immigration flows in order to gain more practical and financial support from the European Union. The detention policy also serves to reinforce this interpretation of irregular immigration. Such a portrayal, combined with the use of detention as a deterrent, produces detrimental consequences for the migrant population, as well as the wider Maltese society. The paper draws on over 50 interviews, conducted by the author, with government officials, non-governmental organisations, and migrants and refugees on the island. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Sedentariness has been disregarded in migration studies. Although recent scholarship pays greater heed to immobility, the latter is often narrowly conceptualised as the exact opposite of mobility. This article attempts to overcome such dichotomies by focusing on agrarian life and activities in one of the most migratory rural contexts in West Africa, namely the Soninke villages of the Upper Gambia River valley. It shows how young men—normally the most mobile group in Soninke society—are trained to embody an agrarian ethos in order for them to be able to pursue not only agricultural livelihoods but also migratory ones. Physical, social and moral virtues cultivated in farm fields are thought to make the young man fit and adaptable to life and work abroad. The article further suggests that this agrarian ethos is reproduced through migratory dynamics, such as the integration of West African migrants as unqualified labourers in the stratified labour market of Europe and North America. As a synthesis or symbiosis between mobile and immobile cultural practices, the Soninke agrarian ethos provides us with ways of rethinking the relation between migration and sedentariness, thus bridging the dichotomy between the two.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In Guinea, West Africa, the status attributed to the musicians who play the wooden, goat-skinned jembe drum has historically been very low. But, over the last 60 years, the jembe has progressively ‘gone global’, and today some master drummers earn a living by teaching jembe workshops to amateur aficionados everywhere. In Asia one week, Europe the next and North America the following, these masters build global social networks, opening and plying the trade routes for the commodification of their roots. In this paper, I describe how the modern fetish for African drumming has created an alternative economy of status for jembe musicians. I examine how, against significantly increasing barriers, young musicians in Guinea are leveraging this economy to follow their elders into global mobility, attempting to achieve a cosmopolitanism through which they, too, can inscribe themselves into West African imaginaries of heroism. And I show how their life paths in turn can allow us to reconsider the notion of cosmopolitan citizenship, in a very unequal world.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This ethnographic essay considers how international non-governmental organisations are able to make claims to authoritative knowledge about development work by offering the transnational mobilities of their staff members as evidence. I examine how one professional’s biography—his trajectory from Angola to Britain and back again—was differentially presented to external donors and internal staff members as befitting the institutional needs of an international good governance intervention in Angola. These presentations reflect a commoditisation of the cosmopolitanism of professionals’ histories in the service of development as a regime of mobility. I argue that, in this development regime, a global hierarchy prevents some individual professionals, particularly those from developing nations, from realising the same benefits of their cosmopolitan mobility as professionals from industrialised nations. While one of mobility studies’ many strengths is that it highlights global interconnectedness, social scientists should not read equality in these interconnections but examine how patterns of transnational mobility may produce and reproduce global structures of inequality.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article argues that both global and national power differences play a crucial role in shaping local imaginaries of international migration among youths in two Cameroonian cities—Bamenda and Yaoundé. While Yaoundé is the national capital, Bamenda is the headquarters of the Anglophone north-west, an area generally opposed to the ruling regime and claiming historical as well as contemporary political marginalisation. Physical mobility has long been associated with social mobility and viewed rather positively. In both areas more critical perspectives on international migration are emerging. This is reflected in differences in envisioned destinations as well as in terminologies and concepts. Thus, in Yaoundé ‘the dangers of illegal migration’ have become the topic of the day—a theme publicised by international organisations in collaboration with local NGOs. Conversely, youths in Bamenda consciously compare their conceptualisations of the advantages and disadvantages of life abroad on the basis of imparted experiences of migrant family members and friends. These discourses influence not only youths’ perception of different forms of migrancy but also their assessment of their future in Cameroon. International migration is thus viewed in a broad discursive spectrum from virtue to vice, and perceptions are shaped by regional, national and international political discourse.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article argues that, in order to overcome the national(ist) common sense that continues to haunt everyday political and scholarly interpretations of mobility, scholars need not diagnose nationalism with greater vigour, but should rather move beyond facile diagnoses of nationalism. The article calls for a meticulous tracing of relations and practices of emplacement and displacement that ubiquitous national(ist) interpretive frames both co-opt and exceed simultaneously. The argument is elaborated on the basis of an analysis of historical articulations of emplacement and displacement in Latvian understandings of ‘the good life’. The article pays particular attention to the ways in which the figure of the migrant has emerged historically as an aberration to Latvian understandings of the good life. It also considers how this ethical configuration is being unsettled through massive labour migration to Western Europe—or ‘the Great Departure’.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Mobility studies emerged from a postmodern moment in which global ‘flows’ of capital, people and objects were increasingly noted and celebrated. Within this new scholarship, categories of migrancy are all seen through the same analytical lens. This article and Regimes of Mobility: Imaginaries and Relationalities of Power, the special issue of JEMS it introduces, build on, as well as critique, past and present studies of mobility. In so doing, this issue challenges conceptual orientations built on binaries of difference that have impeded analyses of the interrelationship between mobility and stasis. These include methodological nationalism, which counterpoises concepts of internal and international movement and native and foreigner, and consequently normalises stasis. Instead, the issue offers a regimes of mobility framework that addresses the relationships between mobility and immobility, localisation and transnational connection, experiences and imaginaries of migration, and rootedness and cosmopolitan openness. The introduction highlights how, within this framework and its emphasis on social fields of differential power, the contributors to this collection ethnographically explore the disparities, inequalities, racialised representations and national mythscapes that facilitate and legitimate differential mobility and fixity. Although the authors examine nation-state building processes, their analysis is not confined by national boundaries.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In the 20 or so years since transitional justice first emerged as a field of practice, its objectives and the contexts in which it is applied have expanded greatly. However, its dual role of acknowledging the commission of past violence and human rights violations and seeking to prevent their recurrence remains central. Recent scholarship has begun to explore the impact of transitional justice in practice and also to critique its purported narrow focus on civil and political rights. Recommendations have emerged that transitional justice should address a broader range of violations, such as violations of economic, social and cultural rights, on the basis that this would more appropriately acknowledge the full ambit of past violence and also provide a stronger basis for preventing a return to the violence of the past. Through the case study of torture, this article suggests that before expanding, stock should be taken of transitional justice’s current contribution to prevention. It suggests that while transitional justice has generally prioritized certain types of torture, it has not taken a preventative approach by failing to identify and analyse the full extent of the practice and the way in which it supports institutional structures. The article assesses the extent to which transitional justice can overcome these deficiencies and proposes a possible framework for doing so. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Two generations after notions about a ‘caste-system’ in the later Roman Empire were overturned, scholarly views continue to diverge over the extent to which the age was marked by vertical social mobility.1 On one view, pioneered by Santo Mazzarino and recently restated by Jairus Banaji, the establishment of a gold coinage (the solidus) by the Emperor Constantine (306–37) had profound social consequences. Proving as it did more resistant to inflation than the concurrent coinage in silver and bronze, the solidus acted like a ‘hard currency’. This in turn allowed the amassing of wealth by parvenu imperial functionaries, better placed to exact fees and bribes in the new coin from landowners than were landowners from their tenants. The late empire thereby saw the social and economic displacement of the councillors (curiales) who formed the traditional governing order in each locality, by a distinct service class of imperial agents drawn primarily from ‘sub-curial’ origins.2

    In an influential variation, upward mobility has often been associated principally with the eastern provinces. A. H. M. Jones contrasted the noblest core of the western senatorial aristocracy with a rise of eastern arrivistes, sometimes from ‘peasant’ origins or the ‘proletariat’, to Parnassian heights of office and social prestige.3 This emphasis on low-born easterners has often been echoed.4 In the West, on such a view, ‘great magnates would not countenance the rise of a new elite of petits fonctionnaires — of the sort that took over in the East, newly rich and deeply invested in the empire’s success’.5 It has been suggested that a homogeneous, more aristocratic cast of mind distinguished western senators as a whole from their eastern counterparts; and that differences in the mechanisms of senatorial recruitment at Rome and Constantinople underpinned the existence of a peculiarly eastern aristocracy of … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Many historians have argued that settlement legislation was a cornerstone of poor relief administration in early modern and early industrial England and Wales. The Settlement Act of 1662 and later additions codified the criteria of local belonging inherent in the parochial system of poor relief established by the Elizabethan Poor Laws. By laying out a national scheme for parochial poor relief, financed by a compulsory tax on rateable value and administered by local overseers of the poor, the Poor Laws of 1598 and 1601 instilled a sense of communal responsibility towards the maintenance of the local poor. By defining criteria of belonging, settlement legislation in turn ensured that in principle every pauper belonged to a local community — that is, his or her settlement, which was responsible for his or her maintenance in times of need. In many cases this was the place of birth or one’s father’s place of settlement, but transfers of settlement could be provided for under certain conditions.1 Yet, as much as settlement legislation enforced relief entitlements for those considered part of a community’s ‘own poor’, it excluded those who did not legally belong there. Sojourners, that is, migrants residing in a place which was not their settlement, could be swiftly removed when they became chargeable, or — at least until 1795 — when they were merely ‘likely to become chargeable’. The history of settlement and poor relief is therefore one not only of assistance and entitlement, but also of exclusion and removal.

    This ambiguity explains why historians have differed widely in their appraisals of the advantages and disadvantages of the settlement system over time. Initially condemned both by laissez-faire economists and by labour historians as a barrier to labour mobility and an instrument of popular repression,2 the settlement-based relief system has had … ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The mass mobilization of revolutionary nationalism across Europe during and after the First World War led to communal divisions, revolutionary violence and, for a number of ethnic minorities, defeat and emigration from a host of emerging nation states. The southern Irish Protestant minority1 were not exceptional in these respects, experiencing a population fall from 327,179 in 1911 to 220,723 in 1926: the equivalent of almost 33 per cent of the 1911 minority population, compared with a Catholic contraction of just 2 per cent (see Table 1). While the scale of this shock to the minority population is generally recognized by historians, the causes remain somewhat unclear. The longer than usual gap between the census years in question and the major historical events that took place in the intervening years further complicate the picture. The issue that was and remains most contentious in the historiography is the extent to which this exodus was ‘forced’. From the outset, the provisional government was circumspect about the departure of Protestants and loyalists, acknowledging in 1922 that some had been forced to leave, but generally insisting that the numbers involved were quite small and that many were claiming without justification that they were coerced. The loyalist press in Northern Ireland, in contrast, went to great lengths to highlight murders, ejections and the flight of the southern minority. The question of compensation further politicized and polarized the issue.2”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 1978, when economic reform began in China, it was the party-state-controlled people’s organizations that were most deeply involved in people’s work and social life. For example, the official trade union, the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU), was the one and only legal organization representing workers. Although people who worked for state-owned enterprises were mostly unionized under the umbrella of the ACFTU, the new migrant workers in private enterprises were basically unorganized. Since the mid-1990s, labour activists, some of whom are supported by the international civil society, have tried to establish an alternative form of organization, specifically labour non-governmental organizations (NGOs), for migrant workers. The labour NGOs are concentrated in the Pearl River Delta of South China and provide services in migrant workers’ settlement communities. This paper evaluates the degree to which the labour NGOs have maintained a relatively autonomous civil society space for the vulnerable migrant workers and nurtured a democratic form of labour organization. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Abstract
    PURPOSE:

    We aimed to study the association between the Ecuadorians’ ethnic density (EED) of the areas of residence (AR) with the mental health of Ecuadorians in Spain.
    METHODS:

    Multilevel study of 568 Ecuadorian adults in 33 AR randomly selected from civil registries and interviewed at home. Possible psychiatric case (PPC) was measured by scoring ≥5 in General Health Questionnaire-28. Ecuadorians’ ethnic density was dichotomized in high and low EED (<6 %). Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI).
    RESULTS:

    Prevalence of PPC, 24 % (95 %CI 20-28 %), varied by area of residence. Ecuadorians’ ethnic density varied by area of residence ranging from 0.9 to 19.5 %. PPC prevalence in High Ecuadorians’ ethnic density AR was 29.5 and 20.4 % in low EED AR (p 0.013). Ecuadorians from High EED AR had higher odds of PPC than those from Low EED AR (OR 1.65 95 %CI 1.01-2.72). Adjusting for individual confounders (largely self-perceived discrimination), OR decreased to 1.48 (95 %CI 0.87-2.55). The final model, adjusted by area of residence and educational level, yielded an OR 1.37 (95 %CI 0.78-2.40).
    CONCLUSIONS:

    No protective association between the Ecuadorians’ ethnic density of the Area of residence and Ecuado”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper presents a model to explain the stylized fact that many countries have a low ratio of migrants in their population while some countries have a high ratio of migrants. Immigration improves the income of the domestic residents, but migrants also increase the congestion of public services. If migrants are unskilled and therefore pay low taxes, and the government does not limit access to these services, then the welfare of the domestic residents decreases with the number of migrants. Visa auctions can lower the cost of immigration control and substitute legal migrants for illegal migrants. If the government decides to limit the access of migrants to public services, immigration control becomes unnecessary and the optimal number of migrants can be very large.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The article presents a cross-sectional study on the effects of US citizenship on wages of Asian immigrant women. The findings show that US citizenship positively moderated the relationship between sample characteristics and wages. Higher education (university and graduate school) significantly boosts the wage level of Asian immigrant women who have US citizenship. However, such positive influence does not exist for Asian immigrant women without US citizenship. This finding suggests that Asian immigrant women without US citizenship still face a glass ceiling.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “As traditional categories of collective identity are in decline and brought into question, the process of defining shared perceptions of ‘us’ and ‘them’ by new markers and new mechanisms seems more important than ever. In the article, I summarize basic aspects of collective identity formation in the ongoing processes of globalization and transnationalization and discuss the basic challenges of collective identity in the twenty-first century. I present different ideal types of border-crossing collective identities in terms of the patterns of their spatial reach. Two of these types of collective identity –‘global humanism’ and ‘transnational collective identities’– are discussed in more detail, especially concerning their ambiguities of universal and/or particularistic character. I conclude that the global collective identity of ‘humanism’ is not as global as it appears at first glance, and that transnational collective identities usually refer to the authority of a stated global collective identity. Given these genuine interrelations between global humanism and transnational (and other spatial patterns of) collective identities, the future seems destined to be shaped by an intertwined ‘as-well-as’ relation rather than an ‘either–or’ relation between the different types of collective identities.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This essay traces the effects of human development on political change, focusing on the events of the Arab Spring. Over the past generation, the Arab world experienced rapid progress in human development outcomes, including declining child mortality, extended schooling, and increasing status of women. These development gains penetrated most Arab states and subpopulations. The pathway from human development to political mobilization rests on three interlinked propositions. First, basic human development led to a significant increase in population needs and expectations, creating new policy challenges and reducing public dependency on regimes. Second, human development and new information technologies created new opportunities for political protest. Finally, the collective realization of human development gains resulted in new values conducive to regime change. Each proposition builds on theories of human capital accumulation over the life course that isolate the human dimension of national development. I provide provisional support for these pathways through cross-regional comparison and evidence from specific populations and sub-populations. I highlight the need for new study designs and datasets that further test this model.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Ethnic minority farmers in the infamous Golden Triangle were first incorporated into the nation states of China, Laos and Thailand, and later into the economic region called the Golden Economic Quadrangle. This article traces policies in each country for minorities, development and the environment, followed by an analysis of agrarian transitions under economic regionalization. Using the framework of powers of exclusion and racialization, our findings show the changes for ethnic minorities who, with the exception of those in the lowlands, face environmental enclosures that dispossess them from lands on which livelihoods are based. Ideological legacies from the Golden Triangle, including ‘backward’ minorities, the fight against drugs, and threats to national security, continue to inform policies and development projects. While some farmers have become entrepreneurs planting cash crops, most face increasing marginalization under deepening regional capitalism.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explores how people in conflict zones adapt their livelihoods after they migrate to urban areas. Drawing on case studies in two towns in the Darfur region of Sudan, the authors find that livelihood systems are in transition and have undergone fundamental changes resulting from displacement and the effects of conflict on dysfunctional and failing institutions. Urban migrants’ livelihood strategies evolve in a context of insecurity, distorted markets, lack of regulation and punitive rent-seeking regimes such as protection payments. Maladaptive livelihood strategies emerge in response to the need for food and income in the short term. New strategies also can increase societal inequities and marginalization, and over-exploit limited natural resources. Thus the ‘new’ livelihoods cannot be considered sustainable or equitable, or even able to provide food security in the short term. Locally appropriate and innovative approaches to support livelihoods are badly needed, but it is important to monitor and evaluate their impacts on livelihood groups, local economic recovery, environment and conflict.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “It is increasingly recognised that informal actors, including chiefs, are dominant providers of services and need to be factored into overwhelmingly state-focused programmes. This article looks at the ability of the UK’s Department for International Development to engage with the chieftaincy system in Sierra Leone through its security sector reform programme – a relationship which poses important political challenges.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • ” decision-making;
    disaster;
    Katrina;
    Louisiana;
    Rita

    This paper proposes an inductive analysis of the decision as to whether to return or to relocate by persons in the State of Louisiana, United States, who evacuated after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in August and September 2005, respectively. Drawing on interviews with evacuees in these events and extensive fieldwork in the impacted area, the paper seeks to identify the folk dimensions of the decision-making process, assess their arrangements, and situate the process in the larger context of risk and resilience in an advanced society. It suggests that, despite the material and emotional upheaval experienced by affected persons, the decision-making process is a rational endeavour combining a definite set of tightly interconnected factors, involving material dimensions and substantive values that can act in concert or in conflict. In addition, it indicates that there are significant variations by geographic areas, homeownership, and kind of decision. Some theoretical implications, practical measures, and suggestions for future research are examined.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Keywords:

    acceptance;
    humanitarian action;
    insecurity;
    NGOs (non-governmental organisations);
    security management;
    violence

    This paper documents current understanding of acceptance as a security management approach and explores issues and challenges non-governmental organisations (NGOs) confront when implementing an acceptance approach to security management. It argues that the failure of organisations to systematise and clearly articulate acceptance as a distinct security management approach and a lack of organisational policies and procedures concerning acceptance hinder its efficacy as a security management approach. The paper identifies key and cross-cutting components of acceptance that are critical to its effective implementation in order to advance a comprehensive and systematic concept of acceptance. The key components of acceptance illustrate how organisational and staff functions affect positively or negatively an organisation’s acceptance, and include: an organisation’s principles and mission, communications, negotiation, programming, relationships and networks, stakeholder and context analysis, staffing, and image. The paper contends that acceptance is linked not only to good programming, but also to overall organisational management and structures.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Keywords:

    antipolitics;
    Band Aid;
    celebrity humanitarianism;
    Ethiopia;
    famine

    In many ways the Ethiopian famine of 1983–85 has served as a watershed with respect to humanitarian action. One of its lasting legacies has been the emergence of Band Aid and the subsequent increase in celebrity humanitarianism. A revisiting of the events of 1983–85 occurred in 2010 during a dispute in which it was alleged that a portion of the donations of Band Aid were spent on arms purchases. This paper takes this controversy as its starting point. It goes on to use the theoretical reflections of Giorgio Agamben to consider the dynamics that unfolded during the Ethiopian famine of 1983–85 and to analyse the underlying conceptualisation behind the emergence of Band Aid-type celebrity humanitarianism. The paper concludes with some wider thoughts on how the in essence antipolitical agenda of celebrity humanitarian action is transported into the everyday understanding of ‘African disaster’, resulting ultimately in the perpetuation of hegemonic control by the global North.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Freedom of expression is essential to the good working of the entire human rights system. It is inevitable that so fundamental a human right as freedom of expression is also among the most violated of rights. Responding to the array of assaults, abuses, concerns and gaps requires multi-faceted action from many actors. Crucial to the effectiveness of all such responses will be the existence of a strong normative framework in the form of international human rights law in support of freedom of expression. One should thus enquire as to whether the existing standards are adequate to their function. The present article frames a response to that question around the principal global expression of the right in Article 19 (paragraphs 2 and 3) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The article opines that the Human Rights Committee has interpreted Article 19 in a manner that favours a wide enjoyment of free expression and that it has applied the restriction clauses narrowly. The jurisprudence, inevitably, only addresses a small range of issues and, notwithstanding the many additional indications to be found in the Committee’s Concluding Observations, there remain areas of uncertainty regarding the scope and application of the Article. Thus was set the context, in 2009, for the Committee’s decision to develop a new General Comment on Article 19. The present author served as the Committee’s rapporteur for the development of what became General Comment No 34. The article concludes with an analytical review of the drafting process and of the adopted text and assesses the first phases of the reception of the General Comment by States and others. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In spite of the implementation of Protocol No 14 to the European Convention on Human Rights on 1 June 2010, the European Court of Human Rights continues to face a case overload crisis with no definitive solution in sight. In this article we reconsider the role ‘constitutionalisation’ might play in providing a more secure future. Having distinguished the three dominant analytical frameworks—‘individual justice’, ‘constitutional justice’ and ‘pluralism’—in the ‘official’ and ‘academic/judicial’ streams of the debate, we conclude that a fourth, ‘constitutional pluralism’, now offers a particularly attractive alternative. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The answer to the question of what it means to say that a right is absolute is often taken for granted, yet still sparks doubt and scepticism. This article investigates absoluteness further, bringing rights theory and the judicial approach on an absolute right together. A theoretical framework is set up that addresses two distinct but potentially related parameters of investigation: the first is what I have labelled the ‘applicability’ criterion, which looks at whether and when the applicability of the standard referred to as absolute can be displaced, in other words whether other considerations can justify its infringement; the second parameter, which I have labelled the ‘specification’ criterion, explores the degree to which and bases on which the content of the standard characterised as absolute is specified. This theoretical framework is then used to assess key principles and issues that arise in the Strasbourg Court’s approach to Article 3. It is suggested that this analysis allows us to explore both the distinction and the interplay between the two parameters in the judicial interpretation of the right and that appreciating the significance of this is fundamental to the understanding of and discourse on the concept of an absolute right. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In the 20 or so years since transitional justice first emerged as a field of practice, its objectives and the contexts in which it is applied have expanded greatly. However, its dual role of acknowledging the commission of past violence and human rights violations and seeking to prevent their recurrence remains central. Recent scholarship has begun to explore the impact of transitional justice in practice and also to critique its purported narrow focus on civil and political rights. Recommendations have emerged that transitional justice should address a broader range of violations, such as violations of economic, social and cultural rights, on the basis that this would more appropriately acknowledge the full ambit of past violence and also provide a stronger basis for preventing a return to the violence of the past. Through the case study of torture, this article suggests that before expanding, stock should be taken of transitional justice’s current contribution to prevention. It suggests that while transitional justice has generally prioritized certain types of torture, it has not taken a preventative approach by failing to identify and analyse the full extent of the practice and the way in which it supports institutional structures. The article assesses the extent to which transitional justice can overcome these deficiencies and proposes a possible framework for doing so. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article considers the case of Timor-Leste, occupied by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999, to elucidate the conditions that bedevil transitional justice processes in the aftermath of massive and long-running political violence, when a perpetrator state enjoys impunity because its wartime strategies facilitated denial of its responsibility, political violence was organized through the militarization of local society and individuals operated between the state and the resistance. The continuing social memory and knowledge of such conflict coupled with its judicial invisibility have significant consequences for rebuilding everyday lives. International agencies and processes have not only failed to attend to these dynamics in Timor-Leste but also replicated and perpetuated them, making the restoration of trust on which social reconstruction depends even more difficult. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This qualitative study examines the lived experiences of Latina immigrants who settled in an area that enacted one of the United State’s most draconian anti-immigrant initiatives—a law that would be a precursor for Arizona’s SB 1070. Though this investigation was prompted by the law’s adoption in 2007, interviews and 18 months of ethnographic observation with Latina immigrants (n = 16) found that it was only one in a patchwork of forces constricting work opportunity and threatening access to housing and food. Using critical phenomenology, I examine women’s experiences of poverty both prior to immigration, and in the U.S. economy.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article focuses on physical activities and body projects of female migrants from Turkey living in Copenhagen. Drawing on Bourdieu’s concept of sports participation as a relationship between the supply of sport and the dispositions of individuals, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with five women. Their narratives about physical exercise, fitness and health were embedded in their life stories, which tell about their migration, their struggles in a foreign country, their isolation and their confrontation with discrimination. However, all of them found meaning in their lives in Denmark, through work and/or children and/or religion. Their biographies prove the agency of these women and their influence on social processes but also the heterogeneity of their experiences. Physical activities and sports are not at the centre of the lives of these women; they are not main assets in the struggle for integration but they are experienced as additional benefits and/or as duties in the pursuit of health and slimness.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “At the beginning of the twentieth century, the emergence of mass immigration to the United States turned the question of how to integrate newcomers to American society into a major national concern. Different societal groups suggested various models of integration, such as assimilation, the ‘melting-pot,’ or pluralism. Particular significance was ascribed to immigrant children, who were assumed to play the crucial role of linguistic and cultural mediators between their Old-World homes and the supposedly distinct ‘American way of life.’ As various groups in American society struggled to promote their response to mass immigration as well as their views on immigrant children, the diverse positions were also reflected in the photography of the period. Indeed, the contrary ways in which photographers as different as Augustus F. Sherman and Lewis W. Hine ‘captured’ immigrant children is not only an expression of their respective political stances but also of their notions of photography as a medium and as an art form. The motif of immigrant children on the Ellis Island roof playground as pictured by Sherman and Hine shall serve as a case study to support this claim. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Drawing on interviews and participatory observation, this article weaves stories of translating healthcare told from the perspectives of refugees, health care providers, and friends. The research finds that while literal translations of documents and information are important to the health care process for refugees of New Americans, cultural translations of concepts like health care and preventive care are perhaps even more important. That translation, however, is not simple or literal either; refugees and New Americans may resist, or remain suspicious of, these concepts even once understood. Friends of refugees can provide an important role in helping with cultural and institutional translations, and their role should be consider as part of a culturally-centered approach to healthcare, as outlined by Dutta (2008). Note: all participant and researcher names have been changed in order to protect human subjects.

    “The introduction of the voice of the subaltern participant in the discursive space elucidates the interaction between structure and agency” (Dutta, 2008 p. 248).

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • We estimate a long-run trend of Brazilian human capital that extends back to the very beginning of the eighteenth century. With new data on selective immigration during the era of mass migrations at the end of the nineteenth century, we show that human capital endowment of international migrants can induce effects on economic development that persist until today. According to our estimations, the effect of selective immigration on real GDP per capita in the year 2000 is significant and equals around US$75 overall. As a reference, this value equals the amount poor Brazilians get to supplement their subsistence in the “Fome Zero” (Zero Hunger) program. We argue that human capital formation is a highly path-dependent and persistent process.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Vickers provides an important and timely analysis of state policies to control and contain refugees and asylum seekers in Britain today. At a time of economic crisis and wholesale attacks on the working class, its value is in a re-engagement with Marxism as a tool to understand both the global causes of the mass displacement of millions and the methods used by the British state to manage the relatively small number who find their way here.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • This paper outlines a study which investigated the experience of six male adolescent refugees during their transfer and adaptation to a secondary school in the UK. The research used a qualitative design. The approach adopted was Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The data generated three superordinate themes which reflected the participants’ sense of being in need of help during the early stages of their transfer, their process of adapting to school and developing a sense of belonging in this context, and their overriding need for safety. These themes are explored in relation to existing research and implications for practice are offered.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • The paper deals with the abolition of the Ottoman university and the reopening of Istanbul University in 1933, and the dismissal of many scientists in Nazi Germany. This allowed the Turkish government to invite a large group of these scholars to the benefit of the academic endeavours of the young Turkish Republic. The article gives an overview on the refugees from Nazism who came as experts and advisers to the Turkish government. It then focuses on the scientific contributions and activities of the small but significant group of economists and concludes with an assessment of their impact.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Refugee young people entering foster care face transitions as they settle into life in a new country and household. Drawing on findings from a study on foster care for refugee young people in England, this paper examines encounters and negotiations with the public worlds of the asylum system and foster care delivery within the intimate setting of the household and everyday domestic practices in foster care. The paper considers Derrida’s neologism ‘hostipitality’ to explore challenges in hospitality in this context. The framework of ‘family practices’ is then applied to explore how foster carers and young people ‘did’ family in foster care. It was found that family practices were inhibited by tensions and challenges in the notion of ‘hospitality’, but family practices also offered opportunities to respond and promote young people’s sense of belonging in the family in this environment. It concludes that hospitality at the threshold is necessary, but that the most successful foster care relationships were able to move through and beyond hospitality to relationships of family-like intimacy.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • There is little awareness that from the perspective of distributive justice, a transnational market society exercises a justice-disabling effect. No longer is society perceived to be a system of co-operation, the net product of which is to be distributed among all participants fairly, but rather viewed as a composite of uncoordinated templates for the individual pursuit of opportunities. A society of this type does no longer regard a centralised political effort at redistribution as its essential objective; rather, its most fundamental principle concerns equal access to opportunities without regard to nationality or local preference. Such a concern with inclusion appears to be at odds with the received vision of distributive justice whose realisation presupposes bounded solidarity and, hence, closure.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Glancing at the Jewish spaces in contemporary Germany, an occasional observer would probably be startled. Since the Russian Jewish migration of the 1990s, Germany’s Jewish community has come to be the third-largest in Europe. Synagogues, Jewish community centres, and Jewish cultural events have burgeoned. There is even talk about a “Jewish renaissance“ in Germany. However, many immigrants claim that the resurrection of Jewish life in Germany is “only a myth,“ “an illusion.“ This paper is part of a project exploring the processes of the reconstruction of Jewish identities and Jewish communal life by Russian Jewish immigrants in Germany. The focus of this paper is on the stereotypes of Jews and Jewishness evident in immigrants’ perceptions and imaginings of their physical gathering spaces – the Jewish community centres (Gemeinden). Focusing on the images that haunt a particular place, I seek to shed light upon the difficulties of re/creating Jewish identity and life among the Russian Jewish immigrants in contemporary Germany.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “There have been few studies of people’s experiences of receiving care from migrant workers. This is despite the growing move to employ migrants to provide care and support for older and disabled people in the developed world. This article reports empirical findings from a study of migrants working in social care in England conducted between 2007 and 2009. It focuses on the reported interactions between service users and carers with migrant workers. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 adults receiving social care services and family carers in home and residential settings who had a variety of needs for care and with support. Analysis highlighted the range of their experiences. An emerging theme arising from the interviews was that of communication and the difficulties experienced by people using care services, or family carers speaking on their behalf, of understanding and being understood by care workers whose spoken English was not easy for them to comprehend. Social workers will need to be alert to alert to the risks facing service users, carers and migrant care workers in such contexts. We conclude that the marginal position of both social care users and migrant workers is reflected in these micro encounters.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article considers the case of Timor-Leste, occupied by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999, to elucidate the conditions that bedevil transitional justice processes in the aftermath of massive and long-running political violence, when a perpetrator state enjoys impunity because its wartime strategies facilitated denial of its responsibility, political violence was organized through the militarization of local society and individuals operated between the state and the resistance. The continuing social memory and knowledge of such conflict coupled with its judicial invisibility have significant consequences for rebuilding everyday lives. International agencies and processes have not only failed to attend to these dynamics in Timor-Leste but also replicated and perpetuated them, making the restoration of trust on which social reconstruction depends even more difficult.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Migration policy is a product and producer of identities and values. This article argues that discourses and policies on family reunification participate in the politics of belonging, and that gender and family norms play a crucial role in this production of collective identities, i.e. in defining who ‘we’ are and what distinguishes ‘us’ from ‘the others’. Tracing the development of political debates and policy-making about ‘fraudulent’ and ‘forced’ marriages in the Netherlands since the 1970s, the authors examine how categories of gender and ethnicity interact with ‘other’ transnational marriages and the women who engage in them. These practices of ‘othering’ legitimize restrictive reforms of marriage migration policies. Also, and no less importantly, they serve the symbolic function of defining Dutch identity, and show that the government protects this identity.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This special set of articles promotes new studies and conceptualizations of migrants’ social positioning in the contexts that they form by living in new locations, and/or by being simultaneously connected to several locations. In different ways, the contributors explain the migrants’ social positioning as consisting of the intersections of the migrants’ various forms of capital, the characteristics of the different locations and of the social actors in these locations that control access to resources, and the migrants’ different aspirations about accessing various resources. The migrants’ social positioning is presented as an important indicator of their experiences of inequalities. The articles are highly relevant for conceptualizations and studies of capital conversions in multi-place contexts, migrants’ social integration and non-integration, the intersections of characteristics explaining migrants’ inequalities in place-specific and transnational locations, and for conceptualizations of cultural hybridity.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article puts forward the concept of ‘transnational positions’ as an important part of a new analytical framework to deconstruct and explain the inequalities that 22 Chinese transnational migrants – who had links to Singapore and who lived in New York – perceived they experienced when attempting to access resources in the transnational spaces they formed by living in several societies. Emphasis is on analyzing their experiences in New York and in Singapore. Transnational positions are the migrants’ subjective and retrospective accounts of their relations with people and institutions controlling access to desired resources in the different countries and places in which they lived. This new framework uses Bourdieu’s ideas of capital conversions to deconstruct and analyze the Chinese migrants’ transnational positions. The article shows that these positions express and reflect the migrants’ perceptions of their inequalities when they attempted to access resources in their transnational spaces, and that these inequalities are the intersections of cultural, social, economic, and political characteristics, with roots in different places, which the Chinese migrants saw as the opportunities and constraints with accessing resources in their transnational spaces. The relevance of this new analytical framework, and the data analysis, to explain cultural hybridity and cosmopolitanism are discussed.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article presents an in-depth study of how Polish entrepreneurs in Munich, Germany, make use of their economic, social and cultural capital acquired in Poland and in Germany to position themselves transnationally. The article studies these migrants’ life courses and draws attention to cross-border intersections between their cultural, social and economic capital with roots in different places. The article also throws light on the subjective evaluation of economic capital of migrants in a transnational frame. Three types of transnational social positioning of the migrants are discerned (single space, bi-local and overlapping), which suggest a new reading of Bourdieu’s work that is better adapted to the theoretical challenges faced by researchers who study people in transnational spaces.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • This article adapts Robert Merton’s theory of coping with social strain to revisit the main paradigms in the literature of migrant adaptation. Intersecting this literature with Merton’s theory of coping with social strain and the ideas of emergence and resistance, the authors develop five new ideal types of migrant adaptation: (1) migrant conformity through straight-line assimilation; (2) migrant ritualism through multidirectional assimilation; (3) migrant retreatism through segmented assimilation; (4) migrant innovation through transnationalism; and (5) migrant rebellion through cosmopolitanism. The authors’ typology makes the point that migrant adaptation is a plural and ambiguous process, which needs to be understood and explained to identify the causes and effects of long-term migrant adaptation, integration or non-integration. The results show that these ideal types provide an explanation of how and why many of the paradigms on which the literature on migrant adaptation is based also lead to different forms of migrant non-adaptation.

    tags: newjournalarticles

    • This article adapts Robert Merton’s theory of coping with social strain to revisit the main paradigms in the literature of  migrant adaptation. Intersecting this literature with Merton’s theory of coping with social strain and the ideas of emergence  and resistance, the authors develop five new ideal types of migrant adaptation: (1) migrant conformity through straight-line  assimilation; (2) migrant ritualism through multidirectional assimilation; (3) migrant retreatism through segmented assimilation;  (4) migrant innovation through transnationalism; and (5) migrant rebellion through cosmopolitanism. The authors’ typology  makes the point that migrant adaptation is a plural and ambiguous process, which needs to be understood and explained to identify  the causes and effects of long-term migrant adaptation, integration or non-integration. The results show that these ideal  types provide an explanation of how and why many of the paradigms on which the literature on migrant adaptation is based also  lead to different forms of migrant non-adaptation.

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

Exhibition – Hidden Lives: The Untold Story of Urban Refugees, London, 6-31 January 2013

Hidden Lives: The Untold Story of Urban Refugees, London, 6-31 January 2013

About the project

Over half the world’s refugees now live in large towns and cities where they are confronted by a unique set of challenges. The traditional image of life in tented, sprawling camps no longer tells the full refugee story. As urbanisation reshapes much of the world, refugees too are increasingly moving to large towns and cities.
In addition, urban areas are rapidly expanding, making them increasingly vulnerable to man-made and natural disasters. With this explosive growth come new types of risks, vulnerabilities and potential humanitarian crises.

The classic picture of a refugee in a camp is changing. Refugees and displaced people move to the city in the hope of finding a sense of community, safety and economic independence. However, in reality, what many actually find are harsh living conditions, lack of security and poverty.

Working with the International Rescue Committee and the European Commission’s humanitarian aid and civil protection department ECHO, Panos Pictures photographer Andrew McConnell has spent many months documenting this new reality in eight cities across four continents. Through images, refugee testimonies, and video, the resulting body of work presents a unique insight into the lives of urban refugees today and challenges the commonly held stereotypes. From Somali refugees in Nairobi to Syrian refugees in north Jordan, and from Burmese refugees in Kuala Lumpur to Afghan refugees in New York, the story of where people flee when all is lost is changing…

Further information can be found at:

http://www.hidden-lives.org.uk/index.asp

How Much Further? Documentary

From the European Council on Refugees and Exiles, (ECRE) website:

How Much Further?

Filmed in Athens between October 2011 and February 2012, in the midst of social, political and economic turmoil, the documentary raises the voices of those who have fled Afghanistan, Somalia or Sudan hoping to find refuge in Europe. After months or even years on the road, they arrive in Greece, a country whose population is facing the full brunt of the economic crisis and where the asylum and reception systems are completely dysfunctional. Most people see no option but to take to the road again in the hope of reaching a country that can receive them and consider their claim for asylum. But, once they have entered Greece, it is extremely difficult if not impossible to leave the country given the European policies that legally bind them to Greece.

This documentary is the fruit of the cooperation between ECRE, the Greek Forum of Refugees and the film maker Matthias Wiessler, and supported by the European Programme for Integration and Migration (EPIM).

Link to Documentary on Vimeo

How much further? premiered simultaneously in Brussels and Athens on World Refugee Day 2012 (20 June)

Contact
Ana López Fontal

Senior Press & Public Information Officer
afontal@ecre.org
+32 2 212 08 12

New Publications on Europe and Syria

Details of these new publications were originally circulated by Elisa Mason on the incredibly useful: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog.  Further details can be found on the website at:  http://fm-cab.blogspot.co.uk/

Publications on Europe

Comparative Study on the Best Practices for the Integration of Resettled Refugees in the EU Member States  (European Parliament, Jan. 2013) [text]

Consultative Forum’s 2nd Meeting: What Do We Think?  (EASO Monitor, Dec. 2012) [text]

Georgia and Russia: The Humanitarian Situation in the Conflict- and War-affected Areas (PACE, Dec. 2012) [text]

Justice at Risk: Quality and Value for Money in Asylum Legal Aid (Runnymede, Nov. 2012) [text]

“A Lost Generation: Alessandro Penso’s Award-winning Work – in Pictures,” The Guardian, 22 Jan. 2013 [access]
– Focus is on young immigrants and refugees in Greece; for more images, visit the photographer’s web site.

Migration and Asylum: Mounting Tensions in the Eastern Mediterranean (PACE, Jan. 2013) [text]

Refugees in Scotland after the Referendum (Scottish Refugee Council, Jan. 2013) [text]

Turned Away: Summary Returns of Unaccompanied Migrant Children and Adult Asylum Seekers from Italy to Greece (Human Rights Watch, Jan. 2013) [text]

Undocumented Lives [access]
– Focus is on irregular migrants in Europe.

Publications on Syria

Breaking Down ‘One Billion’ (Refugees International Blog, Jan. 2013) [text]

La crise syrienne et ses répercussions: les réfugiés à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur, MPC Rapport de recherche, no. 2013/02 (Migration Policy Centre, 2013) [text]

Egypt: Don’t Force Palestinians Back to Syria (Human Rights Watch, Jan. 2013) [text]

Refugees from Syria Face Further Suffering if Jordan Closes Border (Amnesty International, Jan. 2013) [text]

Sanctions Hit Humanitarian Aid to Syria (IRIN, Jan. 2013) [text]

Syria Refugee Crisis: EU Should Do More (AI, CCME, ECRE & ICMC, Jan. 2013) [text]

*Syria’s Escalating Humanitarian Crisis (Brookings-LSE Project on Internal Displacement, Jan. 2013) [access]
– Podcast.

“Syrians Struggle in an Uneasy Lebanon,” New York Times, 23 Jan. 2013) [text via ICMC]