Daily Archives: Sunday, January 13, 2013

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “Migrant remittances, particularly when transferred through the banking system, may contribute to financial development in migrants’ home countries. We analyse the determinants of the choice of transfer channel (formal services versus informal operators or personal transfers) by Moldovan migrants in 2006. We estimate a multinomial logit model from household survey data. Our explanatory variables include socio-economic characteristics of the migrant and other household members, the pattern of migration (destination country, legal status, duration), and financial information (average amount and frequency of payments). Key reasons not to use a formal transfer channel are a migrant’s emphasis on low transfer cost (rather than speed, convenience or security), irregular legal status in the host country, and short migration spells. Our findings demonstrate that migrants’ transnational capacities and activities in their entirety bear upon the choice of transfer channel; any policy interventions to promote the use of formal channels should reflect this.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article reviews existing literature on the construction of cultural citizenship, and argues that cultural citizenship expands the concept of ‘citizenship’, promotes citizens’ consciousness and ensures the protection of minority rights. Since the 1990s, three cultural policies have arisen related to cultural citizenship in Taiwan: ‘Community Renaissance’, ‘Multicultural Policy’ and the ‘Announcement of Cultural Citizenship’. ‘Cultural citizenship’ has expanded the concept of citizenship in two ways. First, it has led to the consideration of the minority rights of Taiwanese indigenous peoples, the Hakkas, foreign brides and migrant workers in ‘citizenship’; and second, it has placed emphasis on ‘cultural rights’ in addition to civil rights, political rights and social rights. This article begins by exploring what approach to cultural citizenship is used in cultural policy, and what approach is suitable for practising cultural citizenship in Taiwan. I argue that minority groups practise their cultural rights with the public participation of Community Renaissance. Taiwan’s case bears out Stevenson’s view: a society of actively engaged citizens requires both the protection offered by rights and opportunities to participate. Finally, this article shows the challenges and contradictions of cultural citizenship in Taiwan: the loss of autonomy and the continuation of cultural inequality.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article aimed to investigate in what ways teachers’ developing understandings of citizenship education in a divided society reflect discourses around national citizenship and controversial issues. Based on thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 13 post-primary teachers in Northern Ireland undertaking an in-service programme in citizenship, findings indicate that the controversial nature of past conflict maintains its sensitivity in the educational context though other categories of potential exclusion, such as race and sexuality, compete for space in educational discourse and teaching. Few teachers used controversial issues identified as challenging hegemonic beliefs as an opportunity for role modelling citizenship. However, teachers rarely explored the complex interlinkages between traditional and alternative categories of exclusion. It is argued that this may render teachers’ understandings of citizenship and societal conflict disconnected, which in turn may hinder the potential for citizenship education to address societal divisions and to promote active peace in the long term.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Canadian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) on Indian residential schools allows us to rethink the scope and bounds of transitional justice. Once we expand our notions of injustice and transition, the Canadian case is not so far apart from paradigmatic cases, which too often overlook structural violence. The article argues for settler decolonization as a path of reconciliation and in so doing directly engages structural violence and instantiates theoretical arguments to more securely anchor the field of transitional justice to positive peace. The article analyzes the decolonizing potential of the TRC in its ability to invoke ‘social accountability’ through its approach to truth and in its grassroots potential. Although the TRC has some capacity to advance decolonization, its progress is hampered by the conservative political environment, its weak public profile and to some degree its own emphasis on survivor healing, which provides a ready focal for settlers to individualize Indian residential schools violence as something of the past. Yet, Indigenous healing is intrinsically connected to structural transformation and reconciliation depends upon remedying colonial violence in the present. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Immigration law was not designed with children in mind–they are its “biggest void.” 1 With few exceptions, the immigration legal framework in the United States and the visa programs it implements were designed for adult applicants, with children eligible solely as dependants to their parent’s application. 2 Under U.S. law, an “unaccompanied alien child” (referred to in this note as an “unaccompanied minor”) is a child who has no lawful immigration status in the United States; is under eighteen years old; and for whom there is no parent or legal guardian in the United States, or no parent or legal guardian in the United States available to provide care and physical custody. 3 Unaccompanied minors are thus left out of the immigration framework, because they have no parent who can petition on their behalf. 4 These children must confront procedures, standards, and requirements intended for adults, which places them at a severe disadvantage and leaves them unprotected. 5 Although significant progress was made with passage of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 (TVPRA), 6 the forms of relief available for unaccompanied minors are still grossly inadequate in light of their specific experiences. Continued neglect of this gap in immigration law leaves many of these already burdened children in legal limbo, making them vulnerable to exploitation, mistreatment, and coercion, and allows others to be returned to dire circumstances in their home countries, and sometimes, even leads to their death. 7″

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Heightened concern for security in North America after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks has led to the increasing use of immigration provisions that broadly define inadmissibility on security grounds. Part I reviews the security laws that render inadmissible to North America anyone who is believed to have been involved in, or provided material support to, organizations alleged to have engaged in acts of terrorism. In Canada and the United States, these security laws also bar all individuals believed to have been involved in the subversion of any government by force.

    Part II examines the unfair effects of these security provisions using the experience of members and supporters of the Eritrean Liberation Movement as an example. We review the history and political background of the Eritrean liberation struggle and discuss the application of the security bar to those who took part in it. Five individuals currently ensnared by the broad application of North America’s security provisions are discussed in the Appendix.

    Part III argues that principles of international law relating to self-determination should be used to ameliorate unjustified security inadmissibility findings. International law does not prohibit the use of armed struggle to achieve self-determination by people subject to alien domination. In the immigration context, applying this principle would ensure that those whose only “crime” was participation in legitimate struggles for self-determination are not rendered inadmissible to North America. An immigration system mediated by self-determination principles would preserve North American security interests while circumscribing inadmissibility determinations based solely …”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Given the reticence of states about cultural rights, this essay explores how the independent UN human rights monitoring bodies filled the gap. Cultural rights made the human rights system burst at the seams, and these bodies picked up the bold demand that culture poses for human rights. Through their practice, they crafted an understanding of the normative content of cultural rights and thus helped overcome the seemingly insurmountable political difficulties of states. Through an international law perspective, the essay unravels this practice and presents a critical analysis of the new developments in this area.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “What can geography as a discipline contribute towards a better understanding of human rights issues? Based on an analysis of three maps, selected from a larger set of thirty-two generated from data abstracted from 720 Amnesty International Freedom Writers Letters, this study finds that the number and frequency of human rights abuses over the past twenty years has remained stable at best. A set of ten confounding factors are indentified to explain this lack of progress towards improving worldwide human rights. This article concludes that geographers and human rights scholars could profit in their work by collaborating and consulting with one another’s research.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The article focuses on the interplay between donors and international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) with regards to monitoring of the gacaca courts in Rwanda. While both donors and INGOs agreed that monitoring had a positive outcome on information gathering and sharing, as well as on limiting human rights violations by the courts themselves, they disagreed on the extent to which donors should have supported INGOs’ recommendations for improvements to the process. As a result of their service delivery role, INGOs expected to be granted more space by the Rwandan authorities to help improve the gacaca process. When they realized this space would not be available, they relied on donors to support their efforts by pressuring the Rwandan government. Donors did not share the INGOs’ aims, however, and had a number of reasons for not intervening more strongly, thereby frustrating the INGOs’ efforts. The lessons learned from this dynamic may be useful in the design of future localized transitional justice processes, particularly as they highlight a need for better articulation of goals and expectations, as well as the necessity of coordinated strategies on monitoring and follow-through on the resulting recommendations to effecting the desired impacts. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Large numbers of migrants daily decide to undertake an often risky and protracted journey to leave their country, escaping from violence and poverty, in an effort to reach their ultimate goal: building a better life. Although extensive evidence shows how pre- and post-flight experiences can significantly threaten migrants’ wellbeing, little research investigates the impact of the flight itself and the way migrants cope with these flight experiences while ‘on the way’. The study took place in the waiting rooms of the police station near the Belgian port of Zeebrugge, where intercepted migrants stay for some time. Because of the constraints inherent in the study setting, we relied on the messages that migrants themselves chose to leave—in their mother tongues—on the police station’s walls and furniture. A discourse analysis of 179 inscriptions made by intercepted migrants revealed how these migrant communities show great solidarity, agency and resilience in dealing with their feelings and experiences in a political and social context that is marginalizing, depersonalizing or criminalizing them. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Canadian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) on Indian residential schools allows us to rethink the scope and bounds of transitional justice. Once we expand our notions of injustice and transition, the Canadian case is not so far apart from paradigmatic cases, which too often overlook structural violence. The article argues for settler decolonization as a path of reconciliation and in so doing directly engages structural violence and instantiates theoretical arguments to more securely anchor the field of transitional justice to positive peace. The article analyzes the decolonizing potential of the TRC in its ability to invoke ‘social accountability’ through its approach to truth and in its grassroots potential. Although the TRC has some capacity to advance decolonization, its progress is hampered by the conservative political environment, its weak public profile and to some degree its own emphasis on survivor healing, which provides a ready focal for settlers to individualize Indian residential schools violence as something of the past. Yet, Indigenous healing is intrinsically connected to structural transformation and reconciliation depends upon remedying colonial violence in the present. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The case HJ (Iran) and HT (Cameroon) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] UKSC 31 was celebrated as a ‘fundamental shift in asylum law’. In this decision, the UK Supreme Court rejects the ‘reasonably tolerable test’ that had been applied in the case of the gay men HJ, a 40-year-old Iranian, and HT, a 36-year-old citizen of Cameroon. On the basis that the claimants could be reasonably expected to tolerate being discreet about their sexual identity in order to avoid persecution, their applications had been unsuccessful. This ‘reasonably tolerable test’, which was fairly well established in case law, was much contested and its rejection was overdue. Yet in their decision, the Justices not only reject this old test, they go a step further and formulate a new approach to be followed by tribunals in asylum claims on grounds of sexual orientation.

    This article argues that this new approach fails to discard ‘discretion’ as a concept in asylum cases as a whole, contrary to the submissions of the intervening parties in the case, namely, UNHCR and the Equality and Human Rights Commission. The new test continues to be constructed on ‘discretion logic’ – which is not tenable for a series of reasons. First, the test creates two distinguishable categories, openly demonstrated sexuality and concealed sexuality. Secondly, it assumes that this distinction and the underlying choice are relevant for assessing whether the applicant is at risk of persecution. Finally, the case relied heavily on the subjective element of assessing the ‘fear’ of persecution, which leads to a stricter test than necessary. The assessment of the existence of a well-founded fear of persecution in LGBT cases should instead be made without reference to whether or not the applicants would conceal their sexual orientation. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The European Union is currently in the process of revising the central directives that make up European Union refugee law, a project that will touch on almost every aspect of seeking asylum in Europe. This article will focus on the implementation of one doctrine, the internal protection or internal flight alternative, under the recently recast Qualification Directive. The article will first examine the application of the internal protection alternative, based on the text of the 1951 Convention, and UNHCR and academic commentary. Following this examination, the article will critique the recast Qualification Directive, concluding that, by effectively providing two alternative standards for IPA, it is unlikely to result in greater harmonization in Europe, and that both standards are problematic from the perspective of international law. Despite these shortcomings, recent European Court of Justice jurisprudence has clarified and improved previous interpretations of EU asylum law. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “After the fall of communism, many Eastern Europeans sought work abroad, leaving their children with relatives. Eastern European migrants represent a target group with unstudied immigration patterns. The goal of this study was to examine how parental migration and economic pressure impact children outcomes in the Republic of Moldova. I examined a model of the impact of parental migration on children (13–15 years old), using a survey with 388 children who have migrant and non-migrant parents. The conceptual model of migration, economic pressure, family relations and child outcomes integrated within the family stress perspective allows these pathways to be incorporated within a broader Moldovan context. I conducted quantitative data analysis using structural equation modelling. The results indicated that higher economic pressure was associated with children’s lower psychological functioning, academic achievement and satisfaction with life. Parenting behaviours, especially parental support and monitoring, mediated the impact of satisfaction with migration and economic pressure on children’s outcomes. I underline the importance of using a family perspective in the migration policymaking process, and provide specific recommendations for migration policies and programmes.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The main aim of this paper is to analyse the motives affecting the migration decisions of young people, particularly university students. Two scales were developed for measuring the perception of the importance of these motives. The data used in the research were collected via a survey of the opinions and attitudes of university students in Osijek, in June 2010. The paper also analyses psychometric properties of the scales – their dimensionality and reliability.

    The results of a confirmatory factor analysis undoubtedly indicate that both scales are multidimensional constructs. A combination of the results of t-tests for an independent sample, factor analysis (exploratory and confirmatory) and reliability analysis suggest that emigration and stay motives are two sides of the same migration decision, and that they can be classified into several factors: the economic situation, social networks, insider advantages (that can be divided into inherited amenities and public-safety conditions) and the wealth of opportunities. Depending on the power of the initial and target destination, the factors can function as ‘push’ or ‘pull’ factors. The results of the study show social networks as being the only ‘pull’ factor for the city of Osijek, whereas the other factors, especially the economic ones, proved to demonstrate the ‘push’ effect. However, the effects of all factors were very mild.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this paper, I analyse the changes that mothers and children experience in their relationship due to the physical separations and reunions entailed by the international migration process. I argue that the different geographical configurations that migrant families take over time are the outcome of a negotiation of care responsibility and desired geographies of family life, and are accompanied by changing meanings and practices in intimate relationships: the location of care relationships is influenced by the relatives’ capacity both to take part in family negotiations as well as to overcome the constraints imposed by policies. Time is relevant because it leads to shifting meanings and practices of transnational family life, as well as to the changing role of children in the family.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “A remittance is part of an employee’s wages or salary that is sent back home. Remittances not only help the workers’ family members, but also help the home countries to strengthen their balance of payments. Remittances are remuneration to employees from the economy in which they work, and thus they contribute to both the gross domestic product (GDP) and the gross national income (GNI) of that economy. Because of their stability and dependability, remittances have become a permanent fixture of governments’ financial revenues. The primary objective of this research is to determine whether foreign nationals make a significant contribution to the level of remittances and what some of the determinants are. We utilize three models to test whether the categories of foreign nationals – immigrants admitted; persons naturalized; and non-immigrants admitted as temporary workers, exchange visitors and intra-company transferees – send significant amounts of remittances. In this work, we look at the flow of remittances during the 1982–2001 period from the United States to the Caribbean region, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. The results indicate that the number of “immigrants admitted”, “persons naturalized” and “non-immigrants admitted as temporary workers, exchange visitors and intra-company transferees”, together with the “exchange rate”, the “Hispanic unemployment rate” and the “median income of Hispanic families”, are significant determinants in the size of remittances. When the results are extrapolated, the number of “immigrants admitted” produces the maximum remittance flow to Jamaica. The number of persons naturalized is important to the total remittances for the overall Caribbean region. The non-immigrant temporary worker group is the largest single source of remittances. This group may potentially send US$15 billion to Trinidad and Tobago.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper evaluates comparative patterns of fertility in new Hispanic destinations and established gateways using pooled cross-sectional data from the 2005–2009 microdata files of the American Community Survey. Changing Hispanic fertility provides a useful indicator of cultural incorporation. Analyses show that high fertility among Hispanics has been driven in part by the Mexican origin and other new immigrant populations (e.g., non-citizens, those with poor English language skills, etc.). However, high fertility rates among Hispanics cannot be explained entirely by sociodemographical characteristics that place them at higher risk of fertility. For 2005–2009, Hispanic fertility rates were 48 percent higher than fertility among whites; they were roughly 25 percent higher after accounting for differences in key social characteristics, such as age, nativity, country of origin, and education. Contrary to most previous findings of spatial assimilation among in-migrants, fertility rates among Hispanics in new destinations exceeded fertility in established gateways by 18 percent. In the multivariate analyses, Hispanics in new destinations were roughly 10 percent more likely to have had a child in the past year than those living in established gateways. Results are consistent with subcultural explanations of Hispanic fertility and raise new questions about the spatial patterning of assimilation and the formation of ethnic enclaves outside traditional settlement areas.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Research on the evolution of immigrant fertility patterns has focused on the expected reduction in fertility among immigrants from high fertility, less developed countries who arrive in relatively low-fertility developed societies. The current research considers a different context in which immigrants from the low-fertility Former Soviet Union arrive in a relatively high-fertility setting in Israel. This research context allows us to test various theories of immigrant fertility, which cannot normally be distinguished empirically. Results from Cox multivariate regressions of parity-specific progression do not support assimilation theory, which would predict an increase in fertility following migration, in this context. We interpret the very low fertility rates of the FSU immigrants in Israel, relative to all relevant comparison groups, in terms of the economic uncertainty and hardship experienced during a difficult transition period by immigrants who have high aspirations for social mobility in their destination society.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 2006, around 1.2 million documented Afghans remained in Iran, of whom half were second generation. This paper is based on the results of a qualitative study conducted in three settings: Tehran, Mashhad and Isfahan, and draws on data collected via 80 in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions with second generation Afghans in Iran. The aim of the paper is to explore the adaptation of second-generation Afghans in Iran, particularly in relation to marriage and family formation. The results show that educational achievements and occupational skills of the second-generation Afghans in Iran facilitated their adaptation to the host society, and inspired different marriage and family behaviors and aspirations in comparison with the first generation.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Spouses form the largest single category of migrant settlement in the UK, but research and policy making on marriage-related migration to Britain provides incomplete coverage of the phenomenon, having been dominated by a focus on the South Asian populations that are among the largest groups of such migrants. By bringing together immigration statistics with information from academic and third-sector sources, this article attempts to provide a more balanced and nuanced portrayal of patterns and practices of marriage-related migration to the UK. In doing so, it reveals important nationality and gender differences in migration flows and considers how varying marriage practices, social and political contexts, and policies of both receiving and sending countries may work to influence marriage-related migration streams. It also exposes the limitations and lacunae in existing research on this diverse form of migration, highlighting the danger that immigration policy made on the basis of partial evidence will produce unexpected consequences.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article investigates the impact of immigrant generation on students performance in college calculus courses and examines the extent to which the observed patterns corroborate or contradict various assimilation theories. It goes beyond past studies of the relationship between immigrant generation and mathematics achievement that focused primarily on middle and high school students and typically excluded foreign students. Our principal finding is that foreign students and the 1.25 generation earned the highest grades, on average, even after controlling for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Our findings provide partial support for the immigrant advantage theory.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The aim of this study is to determine whether immigrants and their children use a compensation strategy that involves achieving higher than expected education, given their parents’ level of education and income. The study uses data for all individuals in Sweden who finished elementary school from 1990 to 1992. Parents’ level of education and income is in general positively associated with higher odds of having university education. However, some immigrant groups show the reverse pattern of the impact of parents’ income. The results support a compensation strategy developed in groups and families with low level of integration in the labor market.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article asks how social engagement influences individuals’ immigration concerns. Rates of volunteering, churchgoing, socializing, and helping others are used to predict anti-immigration sentiments. Panel survey data from Germany makes a dynamic “conditional change” modeling strategy possible; lagged immigration views are included in models to reveal the predictors of over time developments. The most robust findings signal that frequent church attendance reduces immigration concerns; routinely helping others enhances them. And in both instances, these relationships are conditioned by the presence of immigrants in the residential area. Overall, the results position social participation in certain activities as important factors that shape people’s views on immigration.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This research aims at broadening the applicability and scope of network-based explanations of international migration to include explanations of aggregated immigration dynamics for multiple immigrant collectives. Using a unique dataset that contains data on approximately 4.5 million international immigration events from 180 different origin countries in Spain between 1999 and 2009, my analysis shows conclusively that information about changes in the supply of immigrant social capital between past and potential immigrants explains the variation in local immigration rates in the destination society. It also show that incorporating information about such social network influences is very informative when the goal is to explain (1) temporal variation in intra-collective international immigration flows across different locations in the destination, (2) temporal variation in inter-collective international immigration flows within a specific location in the destination, (3) intra-collective differences in international immigration across locations in the destination, and finally (4) inter-collective differences in local international immigration within the same geographical location in the destination.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The five million workers employed in science and engineering (S&E) occupations, and the 20 million with S&E degrees, are considered keys to U.S. competitiveness in the 21st century. Most of those earning PhDs in engineering at U.S. universities are foreigners, as are many of those earning PhDs in science. Many U.S. employers assert that the U.S. Government impairs economic competitiveness with policies that force some foreigners who earn advanced degrees from U.S. Universities to leave and restrict admissions of H-1B temporary foreign workers and that employers want to hire.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “At first glance, Burundi represents a successful negotiated transition to peaceful governance through power sharing, and a justification for regional and international peacebuilders’ involvement. It is undeniable that Burundi is safer than it was a decade or two ago. Most notably, while Burundi was once known for its ethnic divisions and antagonism, today ethnicity is no longer the most salient feature around which conflict is generated. Nevertheless, this article argues that the Burundian experience illuminates international peacebuilding contradictions. Peacebuilding in Burundi highlights the complex interplay between outside ideas and interests, and multiple Burundian ideas and interests. This is illustrated by the negotiation and implementation of governance institutions and practices in Burundi. Outsiders promoted governance ideas that were in line with their favoured conception of peacebuilding, and Burundian politicians renegotiated and reinterpreted these institutions and practices. Even as international rhetoric about peacebuilding emphasized liberal governance and inclusive participation, narrower conceptions of peacebuilding as stabilization and control became dominant. Thus, encounters between international, regional, and local actors have produced governance arrangements that are at odds with their liberal and inclusionary rhetorics. Paradoxically, the activities of international peacebuilders have contributed to an ‘order’ in Burundi where violence, coercion, and militarism remain central. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 1978, when economic reform began in China, it was the party-state-controlled people’s organizations that were most deeply involved in people’s work and social life. For example, the official trade union, the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU), was the one and only legal organization representing workers. Although people who worked for state-owned enterprises were mostly unionized under the umbrella of the ACFTU, the new migrant workers in private enterprises were basically unorganized. Since the mid-1990s, labour activists, some of whom are supported by the international civil society, have tried to establish an alternative form of organization, specifically labour non-governmental organizations (NGOs), for migrant workers. The labour NGOs are concentrated in the Pearl River Delta of South China and provide services in migrant workers’ settlement communities. This paper evaluates the degree to which the labour NGOs have maintained a relatively autonomous civil society space for the vulnerable migrant workers and nurtured a democratic form of labour organization. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel, as an update to the 2 previous publications that reviewed studies published in the professional literature (mainly in Hebrew) and referred to earlier periods (from the early 1990s until 2006 and from 2007 through June 2009). This article reviews studies published primarily in Hebrew from mid-2009 throughout December 2011 and describes alcohol use patterns and treatment among FSU immigrants. As the third in the sequence of reviews aimed at English readers, it confirms the findings of the previous 2 reviews. Alcohol use among FSU immigrants continues to be more prevalent than among Israeli-born residents, and FSU immigrants continue to be overrepresented in treatment programs. Moreover, the review describes a severe worsening in alcohol use among FSU detached youth and no differences in alcohol use among early and recent immigrants between the ages of 18 and 40 years.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The focus of this article is on the use of found poetry as a tool in qualitative research to examine the experience of precarious housing and homelessness among immigrant women in Montreal. Immigrant and refugee women exhibit greater risk for homelessness than women in general or male newcomers due to higher rates of poverty. Yet little is known about migrant women’s experiences of homelessness and less is available from their own perspective, specifically. The article provides a context for understanding female, newcomer homelessness and summarizes the history of the found poem in a variety of disciplines with an emphasis on “social work and the arts” context. This article also details the study methodology and illustrates the process of the found poem technique with two found poems used as data representation. The found poems we present in this article reveal two of the study’s key findings related to causes of homelessness: unexpected crises (tipping points) and exploitation.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The European Neighbourhood Policy’s (ENP) overarching goal of strengthening mutual prosperity, stability and security could be translated into two distinct policy areas in the operational sphere: development and security. Drawing on the example of the Republic of Moldova, the focus of this article is on policy implementation of the ENP. Moldova, a former Republic of the Soviet Union, politically ‘sandwiched’ between the European Union (EU) and Russia, is home of an unsolved, frozen conflict with the breakaway region of Transnistria. In addition, it is characterized by low levels of economic development, high emigration rates and an imperfect democracy – problems that are also found in other ENP partner countries. Within the EU–Moldovan relationship particular attention appears to be given to initiatives regulating the cross-border movement of people. This analysis asks whether and why security interests lie at the core of the ENP, with migration being pivotal.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “South Asians comprise one of the fastest growing immigrant groups in North America. Evidence indicates that South Asian (SA) immigrant women are vulnerable to low rates of breast cancer screening. Yet, there is a dearth of knowledge pertaining to socioculturally tailored strategies to guide the uptake of screening mammography in the SA community. In 2010, the authors conducted semi-structured focus groups (FG) to elicit perspectives of health and social service professionals on possible solutions to barriers identified by SA immigrant women in a recent study conducted in the Greater Toronto Area. Thirty-five health and social services staff members participated in five FG. The discussions were audio taped and detailed field notes were taken. All collected data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted using techniques of constant comparison within and across the group discussions. Three dominant themes were identified: (i) ‘Target and Tailor’ focused on awareness raising through multiple direct and indirect modes or approaches with underlying shared processes of involving men and the whole family, use of first language and learning from peers; (ii) ‘Enhancing Access to Services’ included a focus on ‘adding ancillary services’ and ‘reinforcement of existing services’ including expansion to a one-stop model; and (iii) ‘Meta-Characteristics’ centred on providing ‘multi-pronged’ approaches to reach the community, and ‘sustainability’ of initiatives by addressing structural barriers of adequate funding, healthcare provider mix, inter-sectoral collaboration and community voice. The findings simultaneously shed light on the grassroot practical strategies and the system level changes to develop efficient programmes for the uptake of mammography among SA immigrant women. The parallel focus on the ‘Target and Tailor’ and ‘Enhancing Access to Services’ calls for co-ordination at the policy level so that multiple sectors work jointly to streamline resources, or meta-characteristics.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In recent years, tens of thousands of young Africans have left the shores of Senegal and other West African countries in small boats headed for Spain’s Canary Islands. Most have spent a week or more at sea, and unknown numbers have died in the attempt. Given the danger of the journey, we ask how it could become a large-scale social phenomenon. The analysis focuses on how prospective migrants assess and relate to the risks of migration. We show that risk taking is shaped by context-specific interaction of disparate factors. These include economic obstacles to reaching social adulthood, notions of masculinity, pride and honor, and religion, in the form of sufi Islam.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Between 1977 and 1982, the Australian Government resettled over 54,000 Vietnamese refugees. It also admitted 2,059 Vietnamese asylum seekers who arrived by boat without state authorisation. Although the number of Vietnamese asylum seekers was significantly smaller than the number of Vietnamese refugees processed offshore in refugee camps, the unexpected arrival of these boat people stimulated debate in Parliament and in the press about an appropriate response. This article examines the language politicians used to describe Vietnamese asylum seekers and the arguments used to justify their inclusion or exclusion. The evidence demonstrates that the political rhetoric used in this period in Australia’s immigration history cannot be solely categorised as inclusive or humane. Rather, the overall impression is one of resistance and pragmatism.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Refugees in Africa are forced to flee their homelands because of ongoing conflicts, persecution and humanitarian crises in their countries. Refugees constitute one of Africa’s most complex challenges, and in many regions protracted refugee situations (PRSs) have developed. This means that refugees have lived in host countries for more than five years with no immediate prospect of finding a sustainable solution to their situation. The case study of Krisan Refugee Camp explores the perceptions of local Ghanaians, refugees and camp officials in finding sustainable solutions for protracted refugee situations. The study explores why the three traditional approaches to solving protracted refugee situations, namely voluntary repatriation, local integration and third-country settlement, have not been successful in Africa. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explains the impact of substate nationalism on the political dynamic surrounding ethnic kin migration through a case study of Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in the southern Indian State of Tamil Nadu. Examples drawn from the migration studies literature identify ethnic kinship between refugees and host as an indicator of favorable reception and assistance. While this expectation is borne out to an extent in the Tamil Nadu case, it is tempered by a period of hostility following the 1991 assassination of former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi by an LTTE suicide bomber, when the refugees were figured as a disruptive and dangerous presence by Tamil Nadu’s political elites. A version of the “triadic nexus“ model of kin state relations, reconfigured to accommodate the larger political unit within which the substate nationalism is incorporated, is proposed as a framework of analysis for these events. This can better account for Tamil Nadu’s substate ethnonationalist elite’s movement between expressions of coethnic solidarity with the refugees and the more hostile, security-focused response post-assassination. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article offers a critical exploration of exclusionary practices enacted in Italy towards migrant prostitute women. It identifies the double construction of migrant prostitute women as victims of sex trafficking and as illegal/criminal migrants as a dominant paradigm that informs policy approaches aimed at addressing their presence in the country. It explores how this paradigm has emerged in the specific context of contemporary Italy, how it has been sustained, by whom and with what consequences. By drawing on the exploration of a specific incident, the article shows how gendered and racialised constructions of dangerous migrant sexualities can inform decisions over what determines the slippery and unstable demarcation between those who are identified as victims and those who are identified as criminals. Finally, the article suggests that, caught within the restrictive victim/criminal paradigm, migrant prostitutes fail to be recognised and treated as subjects.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this paper, the author proposes an analysis of the apparently contradictory attitudes towards transactional sexual exchanges, as they have emerged in public debate and informed legislation and policies in Italy over the past few years. The ambiguity towards commercial sex is linked to a specific dynamic of power, which denies sexual labour the status of work and makes it the object of repressive and criminalising policies, whilst at the same time habitually demanding sexual services in exchange for money, gifts or favours. The article shows how criminalisation functions as a prominent form for the control of subjects, related to the workings of sovereignty. In particular, the author considers the ways in which the criminalisation of prostitution and of undocumented migration, which compound in the figure of the migrant prostitute, represents a means for the exertion of sovereignty and relates to the centrality of desire, transgression and their disciplining in the contemporary context. However, closer examination of the subjective experiences of those who are supposedly excluded and criminalised, such as undocumented migrant sex workers in detention centres, reveals the incompleteness of disciplinary mechanisms.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In September 1973 a group of Palestinian guerillas attacked a train carrying Jewish refugees from the Soviet Union to Austria for relocation to Israel. The ensuing international crisis exposed the intricate web of political relations behind this flow of refugees and drew worldwide attention to the conflict between the human rights of Jewish refugees immigrating to Israel and those of Palestinian refugees who wished to return to their homeland. Ultimately, the Schönau incident would illuminate the contested nature of humanitarian concerns in the 1970s and the wider Cold War era.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study investigated the prevalence of emotional and behavioral symptoms in unaccompanied refugee adolescents living in Italy; an area which remains under-researched despite the relatively high number of asylum seekers registered in Italy compared to other industrialized countries. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 6–18 year-olds was completed by a social worker or parent for each of the 120 participating adolescents; sixty male unaccompanied refugee adolescents and sixty male native Italian adolescents. The paper presents findings that illustrate high levels of emotional and behavioral problems in unaccompanied refugee youth living in Italy. On all components of the CBCL, unaccompanied refugee adolescents were found to present with significantly more problems, as reported by social workers, compared to the Italian group of adolescents. In the light of these results, the importance of interventions and culturally sensitive therapeutic programs for refugee youth is discussed.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Arizona Senate Bill 1070 requires law-enforcement officers to verify the citizenship of individuals they stop when they have a “reasonable suspicion” that someone may be unlawfully present in the United States. Critics of the law fear it will encourage racial profiling. Defenders of the law point out that the statute explicitly forbids most forms of racial profiling. By drawing on the lessons learned in the domain of antidiscrimination law, we discuss how social psychological research can inform this debate and illuminate challenges associated with fair enforcement of the statute. We conclude that the Arizona law, paired with a lack of comprehensive training and ineffective testing procedures for detecting discrimination, will likely result in many Latinos being illegally targeted on the basis of their race. While certain actions, such as effective training and oversight, may help mitigate discrimination, these safeguards are not likely to completely eliminate biased outcomes.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Although significant research has been completed that examines the effectiveness of process drama as a pedagogical approach for developing additional languages and further work has focused on the affordances of digital technologies within drama work, scant attention has been paid to the possibilities which a combination of these approaches might offer. Within this paper we identify these possibilities within a drama-based research project aimed at developing the resilience of newly arrived refugee children. In this series of lessons, the work focused specifically on the role of language as a key aspect of resilience. Based upon a playful, fantasy-based narrative involving a robot who arrives in an English-speaking community but is unable to communicate effectively, the drama and language work intentionally avoided the kinds of responses to resettlement and resilience that apply a deficit model or focus on the challenges of such experiences. Analysis of the data collected across the project reveals that the technology served seven key functions within the process drama. These functions related to language development, information provision, narrative development, identification and the creation of mood. The use of technology also generated opportunities for the children to have agency over their own learning and to create shared experiences with classmates and teachers.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This book draws on 10 years of empirical research to assess for the first time the politics of compassion and belonging associated with immigration policy and its impact on the education system in the UK. The authors expose major tensions between restrictive asylum policies and responses by schools and local government to the presence of asylum seeking and refugee children. They reveal a compassionate professionalism amongst teachers and an emergent ‘new politics’ which challenges the forcible removal by government of children to detention centres and the deportation of families.

    Major findings of their innovative research include the forms of exclusion which ‘non-citizen’ children experience within inclusive schools and the ways in which the empathy of ‘citizen’ students towards those seeking asylum is at risk of being overridden by defensive national identities.

    This book is essential reading for courses on children’s rights, equality and migration studies and for teachers and other professionals in the field of refugee education, immigration and community and social work.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Based on a survey of 1,124 social workers in the United States, this article examines how practitioners’ attitudes towards immigrants and their general knowledge of immigration varied according to the content of their social work education. Although the majority of practitioners reported receiving coursework on practice with immigrants, this showed no effect on their attitudes or knowledge. In contrast, coursework on immigration policy predicted more favorable attitudes towards immigrants. Considering the mounting anti-immigrant sentiment and retrenchment of immigrants’ rights in the United States, the results suggest the need to further explore what course work content is needed to prepare social workers for the current needs of the field. We argue that social work education must expand upon existing cultural competence models of practice with immigrants, to better prepare social workers to address the deepening social exclusion of undocumented immigrants in the United States.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Overview

    The, issues which are discussed in the 29 chapters of this volume address core matters with respect to modem diverse societies. The most important relate to the following: the societal needs of migrant populations and the educational needs of their children; the exclusivist policies which usually, impact upon migrant groups; the need to enrich school texts and curricula with new intercultural, and citizenship dimensions; the importance of integrating the notion of Paideia within the …
    See more details below”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper explores cultural inclusion – the extent to which schools accommodate the needs and experiences of minority cultural groups to make the schools equally welcoming – and optimal learning places for all children, specifically through the curricular and pedagogical practices which contributed to the secondary school experiences of Ethiopian‐Australian students in Melbourne, Australia. The study utilised a qualitative methodology, using interviews as a major data collection tool, and employed secondary school students, their teachers and parents as informants for the study. A total of 59 participants were interviewed. After the transcription and coding of the interview data, thematic analysis was used. Findings within the Australian context were compared with Ethiopian educational histories and practices to explain how students, parents and teachers felt the Ethio‐Australian students were being culturally acknowledged and included within school practices where cultural acknowledgement referred to understanding and appreciating cultural diversity. The findings indicated that on a general policy level, schools were acknowledging students’ cultural backgrounds; however, at the classroom level, it was very much dependent upon the individual teacher. Participants believed that the curriculum failed to consider the students’ home culture at all levels. Mismatches between Ethiopian students’ expectations and excepted pedagogical practices within their new learning contexts were also evident. Most students were found to be more comfortable copying lessons down from the board, reading comprehension questions, working independently, in pair or in small groups, and wanted to get comments as a correction response for their work. However, the majority of the students were not comfortable with large group and whole‐class discussions, conversation and speaking in front of class. The findings indicated a need for greater curriculum and pedagogical consideration for immigrant students such as these at the classroom level.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Since the mid-1970s the territory of Greece has turned from an emigration to an immigration space. A considerable number among the thousands of immigrants that arrive every year in the country are of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin and of Muslim faith. Their Muslim background plays a significant role in the organisation of their communities. Islam is a strong factor when it comes to the development of their social life and in this sense it influences the process of immigrants’ acculturation within the host society. The informal worship place (informal mosque) is the space where the faithful fulfil their religious duties, meet each other and spend much of their free time discussing and exchanging views on mundane and more serious matters. However, the majority of the informal mosques are related to various Islamic associations which hold their own views on religion, society and life. The Pakistani and the Bangladeshi Islamic associations in Greece fall into two broad categories: the missionary movements and groups and the organisations with a ‘political dimension’. An examination of the Islamic associations’ discourse, activities and aims shows that the organisations of the first category promote a very conservative stance for their constituencies towards the host society, whereas those of the second category encourage the immigrants to integrate, while preserving, however, their ‘Islamic values’. Meanwhile, the efforts of the Greek state and society to integrate the Muslim immigrants with a long presence in the country lack in determination and effectiveness.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article illuminates the use of developmental action research (DAR) to create midline theory guiding intervention into homelessness among older African-American women. The authors identify the usefulness of DAR in designing, developing, and refining interventions to help participants get and stay out of homelessness. A multimodal intervention project, the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project (LHIRP), demonstrates how DAR and midline theory were used to frame an understanding of how homelessness occurs among older African-American women. LHIRP is offered as an example of how social work practitioners, researchers, and participants can collaborate to address homelessness through team-based action. It also demonstrates how a number of promising interventions can be best undertaken to address this problem. The authors then illustrate how LHIRP formulates theory to guide the design and development of subsequent intervention models and procedures.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article gives an overview of the factors that lead to the militarisation of Myanmarese refugee camps in Bangladesh and Thailand, using insights from the ethnic composition of the refugees in each country, the role of international organisations and non-governmental organisations, as well as the capacity and desire of each country to control militarisation. The evidence is largely gathered from interviews of aid officials, reporters and refugees in both refugee-hosting countries.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper draws on Wobst’s concerns ideas of material culture, style and the implications of contemporary archaeology. In a socially engaged “archaeology of now”, I examine the spatiality and material culture of asylum seekers in Irish society as the Irish State governs and thus engineers their social and physical space. Housed in State-operated accommodation centers around the country, the spatial governance of asylum seekers in Ireland creates a structured, exclusionary transnational landscape of difference. The State thereby controls the movement, social borders, place, identity and social relations of asylum seekers in a newly global Ireland.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “When we refer to the ‘management of religions’, we are primarily referring to the ways in which modern liberal states have responded to ‘public religions’ and in particular to the revival of Islam. The specific issues surrounding Muslim minorities in non-Muslim secular states can be seen as simply one instance of the more general problem of state and religion in modern societies. In this context, there is an increasing awareness of the limitations of the Westphalian constitutional solution, the Hobbesian social contract and Lockean liberalism as political strategies to manage conflicting religious traditions (Spinner-Halevy 2005). Unfortunately, Richard Hooker’s ecclesiastical polity (1594–1597) and his plea that we should concentrate on those doctrines that unite rather than divide us has little relevance in societies that are deeply divided by cultural difference. This situation typically confronts the state because religion is often inseparable from ethnic identity, so that debates about secularization and liberalism cannot be separated from the question of citizenship in multicultural societies. These debates are significant because in societies that are divided along ethno-cultural lines, citizenship and religion are the main contenders to provide the social solidarity necessary to offset those divisions.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Every state manages religion in one way or another, and religious violence often justifies state intervention to control how a religion should be presented, preached and, most importantly, limited. This paper examines the state management of religion in Indonesia with focus on state regulations promulgated during the New Order period. The Indonesian state has managed religion by making religious practices less focused on spirituality but more a matter of state administration. Four regulations in particular exemplify the state’s attitude toward religion, namely the Presidential Decree in 1965 on the state-recognised religions, the Joint Ministerial Decree on Houses of Worship in 1969 and 2006, the National Marriage Law in 1974 and the Ministerial Decrees on mission activities in 1978.In brief, this state management of religion has been enabling Indonesia, which has the world’s largest Muslim population, to be governed as neither an Islamic state like Saudi Arabia nor an outright secular state like Turkey among the Muslim countries.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In Israel, the Jewish religion, which is unique among world religions in the primacy it accords to filiation rather than belief as a criterion of belonging, operates as a formal criterion of citizenship, but in substance different ways of being Jewish are expressed in different political forces which in turn struggle for control of the state’s religious orientation. This political struggle leads the state to favour ultra-Orthodox observance and criteria of belonging, even though that is a minority strand in the country itself and even more so outside. Religious interests and ideologies have found substantial niches in the legal system, in education, in the army and in the West Bank settlements, by exploiting the state’s corporatist character, leading to a type of multiculturalism in which the once-secular centre has been seriously eroded.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper looks at the paradoxical creation of a Muslim minority by the Pakistani state to cast a light on the processes of secularism, citizenship and minoritization. The paper argues that contrary to the concerns articulated in academic debates about citizenship and minorities, it is in fact the majority that is managed most assiduously. Critically, these debates assume readymade groupings; this paper discusses how the creation of both a minority and a majority is an ongoing, fractured process. The creation of a minority group, the Ahmadiyya, from within the putative Muslim majority by the state in Pakistan, is thus a useful prism through which to understand the ways in which a specific kind of citizen has been created in Pakistan, one who is increasingly impatient with the idea of doctrinal difference even as she is confronted by a proliferation of different Islams in everyday life.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper reviews the variety of (sometimes contradictory) processes affecting religion in Argentina today. It questions the idea that a true Catholic monopoly existed in the past, and suggests that the current advancement of religious diversity in the country does not necessarily entail increasing pluralism (since, following James Beckford, this would mean the positive appreciation of this diversity) but can, on the contrary, cause increased social resistance to new religious practices and ideas. A realistic appraisal of religious pluralism should take into account the degree of social as well as governmental regulation of religion. Therefore, this paper emphasizes the expanding role of different secular agents in the control of religious ideas and practices.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper is about the unsettling prospect of the millennium. In post-colonial Africa and in other locales, nationalists sought to organize culture as heritage, a set of behaviors and projects inherited, in a lineal fashion, from ancient forefathers. By codifying and consolidating religion, and by reforming citizens’ conduct, nationalists created a sovereign culture that could serve as a foundation for an independent state. However, there were other, more imminent frames in which citizens could act. This paper focuses on the Rwenzururu Kingdom in Western Uganda, where in 1970 a prophet named Timosewo Bawalana announced that the Christian eschaton had at last arrived. Rwenzururu’s founders were historians: they recognized the organizing power of linear time. With evidence of their distinct language and culture at hand, Rwenzururu’s architects used the techniques of modern governance – census, map, bureaucracy – to make their independent polity visible, credible, and worthy of support. Whereas Rwenzururu separatists organized time as a forward march, Timosewo Bawalana was following a difference cadence. By breaking with the past, Bawalana interrupted the heritage lessons that Rwenzururu’s founders conducted, opening up an experimental form of community. His radical politics lets us see that the definition of citizenship involved an argument over the passage of time.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines the dissonance between Indian secularism in theory and secularism in practice for India’s largest religious minority of Muslims. Marginalised and discriminated against in everyday life, India’s Muslims are frequently constructed simply as victims without recourse to agency. This article challenges this narrative by documenting how Muslims living in Varanasi in North India actively sought to realise their citizenship and a sense of meaningful participation in society. The empirical insights illustrate that despite the failure of state secularism to protect the Muslim minority from discrimination and facilitate their realisation of equal citizenship, these Muslims did not reject the principle of secularism nor seek an alternative. To the contrary, the rhetoric of secularism offered spaces of opportunity through which Muslims could become political, challenge normative narratives and articulate themselves as citizens. The article develops an understanding of multiple and plural Muslim citizenship strategies that are enacted simultaneously across different spaces and scales within the state and society, where notions of the self and citizenship are always in the process of becoming.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “There are many reasons why political parties can take the racial and ethnic minority voters for granted in Britain. They vote overwhelmingly and loyally for the left-wing parties, have fewer resources than white voters and they mostly live in geographical clusters giving them electoral leverage in a limited number of seats. Yet, minorities participate as much as the white population and seem to do more so in areas of ethnic concentration. Using the British Election Study, Ethnic Minorities British Election Study, British campaign spending data and the electoral agent’s survey from 2010 election, we explore the relationship between party campaigning, individual mobilisation and ethnic population density. We find that although minorities perceive less contact, parties campaign just as hard (or harder) in areas of minority concentration and they target minority voters in these areas, However, minority voters living outside of local concentrations of population may experience less contact from parties. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Political representation in the UK continues to be dominated by white, middle-aged, middle-class men, but several equalities groups now have an established presence in national political institutions. This article draws on research with stakeholder organisations, lobby groups for under-represented groups within political parties, former, current and unsuccessful candidates and sitting and former elected politicians conducted prior to the 2010 General Election. It finds that where aspiring candidates from under-represented groups have been selected, it was because they were ‘acceptably different’ conforming to aspects of the ‘archetypal candidate’. We argue that increasingly dominant professionalised ‘pathways’ into national politics have allowed greater diversity, but remain narrow and exclusionary. Progress is less a reflection of a more open political system, instead representing accommodation of still under-represented groups to, and by, the existing system. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Differences between white and Black, Asian and other minority ethnic (BAME) local election candidates in Britain are examined using survey data. BAME candidates are more likely to be younger and better educated but fewer women are recruited from among this group. Such candidates are electorally inexperienced, have stronger ties with community-related organisations and are more likely to make their own decision to stand for election rather than being approached by a fellow party member. Community ties are also evident when respondents are asked about their support network upon becoming a candidate with almost two-thirds of BAME candidates experiencing positive support from this quarter. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Black, Asian and minority-ethnic (BAME) citizens are under-represented in the House of Commons. Nevertheless, the Chamber’s ethnic composition has become more reflective of the general population as a result of the 2005 and 2010 parliamentary elections. The article seeks to map and explain variations in the extent to which BAME Members of Parliament (MPs) use the Chamber to articulate issues relevant to minority constituents. We compare the content of all parliamentary questions for written answer asked by BAME MPs between May 2005 and December 2011 to the questions asked by a matching sample of non-minority legislators. We find that BAME MPs ask more questions relating to the problems and rights of ethnic minorities in, and immigration to, the UK. However, we also find that all British MPs are responsive to the interests of minority constituents where these are geographically concentrated. Building on theoretical predictions derived from (1) models focusing on MPs’ political socialisation and (2) on the electoral incentives they are facing, we discover that the MPs in our sample respond systematically to electoral incentives, especially in the politically salient area of immigration policy. While these findings are in line with an ‘electoral-incentives model’, a ‘socialisation model’ is better suited to explain the larger number of questions on the interests of ethnic minorities asked by Labour MPs. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Western democracies, with their increasingly diverse racial and ethnic populations, are seeing more political candidates who are non-white. How do these non-white candidates fare at the ballot box? Does their non-white status mean they gain or lose votes? Do their challengers gain or lose votes? In recent work on the US case, it appears that candidate Obama lost votes in 2008 because of his non-white status. The research question we address here is whether, in the context of the 2010 UK parliamentary elections, the race or ethnicity of the candidates played a role in the vote totals. What we find is that, while in some ways race does not matter, in other ways it does. In particular, it appears that the local incumbent party in a constituency typically gained at least two percentage points in vote share (of the major-three-party vote), when they had a Black, Asian or Minority Ethnic (BAME) challenger. Of course, this does not mean that BAME candidates cannot win. It has been amply demonstrated that they can win. But what it does mean is that, other things being equal, the local party (which won the seat last time) is likely to benefit from their presence in the contest. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines whether sex matters with respect to a type of legislator behaviour that has thus far been neglected in the literature analysing the distinctive nature of female and male legislators: parliamentarians’ outside interests. Using data for 614 German Members of Parliament (MPs), our analysis confirms that female MPs on average hold fewer outside jobs than men—especially in private-sector functions. We also find that individual characteristics such as political experience, having (young) children and age reflect sources of this divergence. These findings and their implications are discussed in the light of extensive research on sex and gender effects in other political and labour market settings. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines the extent to which the Freedom of Information Act (FOI) is used by members of the UK Parliament to hold the government to account, compared with the experience in New Zealand, Australia, Canada and Ireland. As with other accountability mechanisms, FOI can be used for a range of issues. It is primarily a tool of opposition and can be a versatile weapon, useful in the right time and place. However, it does not significantly enhance accountability and remains a minority pursuit. This is because FOI takes time, members are creatures of habit and it is useful only in particular ways. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Obama’s 2008 presidential victory in the USA triggered a debate in Europe and the UK as to whether someone from an ethnic minority could achieve similar success in national politics. The 2010 General Election saw a small increase in ethnic minority candidates, but a near doubling of the number of black and Asian members of parliament (MPs) in the House of Commons. During 2010 and 2011, the University of Manchester organised a seminar series on ethnic minorities’ political representation in Britain. This symposium features some of the highlights of that series. In this article we summarise some of the key arguments. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “On the morning of 11 September 2001, Lord Carlile of Berriew Q.C. was appointed as the UK government’s first independent reviewer of terrorism legislation under the Terrorism Act 2000. There is a growing body of literature on the role of the courts and parliament in scrutinising anti-terrorism legislation. There has, however, been no sustained attempt to evaluate either the office of the independent reviewer in general or Lord Carlile’s performance within it. Lord Carlile’s tenure in office was defined by the first post-9/11 decade. He recently resigned and a new independent reviewer appointed. Now is therefore the opportune moment to begin a debate on the efficacy of Lord Carlile’s tenure as the independent reviewer and of the office more generally. This article starts that debate. It examines the independent reviewer’s influence on government policy in the area of pre-charge detention in contrast to other review mechanisms. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 1978, when economic reform began in China, it was the party-state-controlled people’s organizations that were most deeply involved in people’s work and social life. For example, the official trade union, the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU), was the one and only legal organization representing workers. Although people who worked for state-owned enterprises were mostly unionized under the umbrella of the ACFTU, the new migrant workers in private enterprises were basically unorganized. Since the mid-1990s, labour activists, some of whom are supported by the international civil society, have tried to establish an alternative form of organization, specifically labour non-governmental organizations (NGOs), for migrant workers. The labour NGOs are concentrated in the Pearl River Delta of South China and provide services in migrant workers’ settlement communities. This paper evaluates the degree to which the labour NGOs have maintained a relatively autonomous civil society space for the vulnerable migrant workers and nurtured a democratic form of labour organization. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this paper, we focus on the southern cross-border area between Spain and Portugal, which includes eighteen different municipalities on both sides of the border. We gathered information using a number of different techniques from a wide range of informants, including politicians, experts on cross-border cooperation, a broad range of civil society organizations and common citizens. Our objectives were to make a broad diagnosis of social reality in this area, to understand the dynamics of territorial development, including the possibilities and limitations of community development, and to obtain clear insight into the characteristics of the social networks that Portuguese and Spanish citizens are currently building. Our results contrast with existing assumptions on these issues, particularly regarding the relationships built by Spanish and Portuguese citizens, the social network arrangements they establish, the relative importance of the spaces of places and the spaces of flows and the sense of community on both sides of the border. We also question more general notions regarding the importance of cross-border cooperation, especially insofar as this concept usually emphasizes institutional relationships while overlooking non-formal and informal relationships between people. These latter relationships, we argue, may have greater potential to influence the sustainable development of the cross-border area between southern Portugal and Spain. We highlight the role of bottom-up activities that would promote closer relationships between Spanish and Portuguese citizens and communities and would change the typical social networks they establish. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The case HJ (Iran) and HT (Cameroon) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] UKSC 31 was celebrated as a ‘fundamental shift in asylum law’. In this decision, the UK Supreme Court rejects the ‘reasonably tolerable test’ that had been applied in the case of the gay men HJ, a 40-year-old Iranian, and HT, a 36-year-old citizen of Cameroon. On the basis that the claimants could be reasonably expected to tolerate being discreet about their sexual identity in order to avoid persecution, their applications had been unsuccessful. This ‘reasonably tolerable test’, which was fairly well established in case law, was much contested and its rejection was overdue. Yet in their decision, the Justices not only reject this old test, they go a step further and formulate a new approach to be followed by tribunals in asylum claims on grounds of sexual orientation.

    This article argues that this new approach fails to discard ‘discretion’ as a concept in asylum cases as a whole, contrary to the submissions of the intervening parties in the case, namely, UNHCR and the Equality and Human Rights Commission. The new test continues to be constructed on ‘discretion logic’ – which is not tenable for a series of reasons. First, the test creates two distinguishable categories, openly demonstrated sexuality and concealed sexuality. Secondly, it assumes that this distinction and the underlying choice are relevant for assessing whether the applicant is at risk of persecution. Finally, the case relied heavily on the subjective element of assessing the ‘fear’ of persecution, which leads to a stricter test than necessary. The assessment of the existence of a well-founded fear of persecution in LGBT cases should instead be made without reference to whether or not the applicants would conceal their sexual orientation. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “At first glance, Burundi represents a successful negotiated transition to peaceful governance through power sharing, and a justification for regional and international peacebuilders’ involvement. It is undeniable that Burundi is safer than it was a decade or two ago. Most notably, while Burundi was once known for its ethnic divisions and antagonism, today ethnicity is no longer the most salient feature around which conflict is generated. Nevertheless, this article argues that the Burundian experience illuminates international peacebuilding contradictions. Peacebuilding in Burundi highlights the complex interplay between outside ideas and interests, and multiple Burundian ideas and interests. This is illustrated by the negotiation and implementation of governance institutions and practices in Burundi. Outsiders promoted governance ideas that were in line with their favoured conception of peacebuilding, and Burundian politicians renegotiated and reinterpreted these institutions and practices. Even as international rhetoric about peacebuilding emphasized liberal governance and inclusive participation, narrower conceptions of peacebuilding as stabilization and control became dominant. Thus, encounters between international, regional, and local actors have produced governance arrangements that are at odds with their liberal and inclusionary rhetorics. Paradoxically, the activities of international peacebuilders have contributed to an ‘order’ in Burundi where violence, coercion, and militarism remain central. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The descendants of immigrants comprise nearly a third of the West German population under the age of 25 years and will soon become a substantial proportion of the native born labor force. Owing to the young age of this group, and a lack of governmental data on parental place of birth, there is currently little research that compares the labor market outcomes of the second generation of different origins. Exploiting the first data set to allow the disaggregation of all immigrant groups in Germany, this article draws on the concepts of context of reception and boundary crossing to explain variation in the labor market performance of different immigrant origin groups. Positively received ethnic Germans consistently perform better than negatively received guest worker origin groups. Labor market inequality is greatest among men and in obtaining employment. Ethnic differences are more compressed among women and for occupational attainment among the employed. The boundary crossing mechanisms of naturalization and intermarriage have modest association with labor market success. Findings suggest that successful integration in Germany is influenced by labor market institutions, which encourage inequality in unemployment while diminishing inequality amongst the employed. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Freedom of expression is essential to the good working of the entire human rights system. It is inevitable that so fundamental a human right as freedom of expression is also among the most violated of rights. Responding to the array of assaults, abuses, concerns and gaps requires multi-faceted action from many actors. Crucial to the effectiveness of all such responses will be the existence of a strong normative framework in the form of international human rights law in support of freedom of expression. One should thus enquire as to whether the existing standards are adequate to their function. The present article frames a response to that question around the principal global expression of the right in Article 19 (paragraphs 2 and 3) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The article opines that the Human Rights Committee has interpreted Article 19 in a manner that favours a wide enjoyment of free expression and that it has applied the restriction clauses narrowly. The jurisprudence, inevitably, only addresses a small range of issues and, notwithstanding the many additional indications to be found in the Committee’s Concluding Observations, there remain areas of uncertainty regarding the scope and application of the Article. Thus was set the context, in 2009, for the Committee’s decision to develop a new General Comment on Article 19. The present author served as the Committee’s rapporteur for the development of what became General Comment No 34. The article concludes with an analytical review of the drafting process and of the adopted text and assesses the first phases of the reception of the General Comment by States and others. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This qualitative, empirical study explores and describes the variation in how evidence-based practice (EBP) is understood in social work. A phenomenographic approach to design and analysis was applied. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with politicians, managers and executive staff in three social welfare offices in Sweden. The main findings suggest that there are qualitatively different ways in which EBP is understood, described in five categories: (i) fragmented; (ii) discursive; (iii) instrumental; (iv) multifaceted; and (v) critical. The outcome space is hierarchically structured with a logical relationship between the categories. However, the informants found it difficult to account for EBP, depending on what was expressed as deficient knowledge of EBP in the organisation, as well as ability to provide a seemly context for EBP. The results highlight the importance of acknowledging these differences in the organisation to compose a supportive atmosphere for EBP to thrive rather than merely assume the case of evidence-based social work. The categories can be utilised as stimuli for reflection in social work practice, and thereby provide the possibility to promote knowledge use and learning in the evolving evidence-based social work. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.