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Call for Papers International Academic Conference on Holocaust Research University of Toronto October 6-7, 2013 NEW SCHOLARS/NEW RESEARCH ON THE HOLOCAUST Date: October 6-7, 2013 Location: University of Toronto Sponsors: Chancellor Rose and Ray Wolfe Chair of Holocaust Studies and the Centre for Jewish Studies of the University of Toronto, and the Government of Canada Context: Coinciding with the meeting of the Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research (ITF), an inter-governmental organization established in 1998 and meeting in Toronto under the chairmanship of the Government of Canada. Language: English Organized by the Chancellor Rose and Ray Wolfe Chair of Holocaust Studies and the Centre for Jewish Studies at the University of Toronto, and the Government of Canada, this international academic conference will showcase and consider new Holocaust-related research by new scholars in the field. By “new scholars” the organizers have in mind advanced doctoral candidates…

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New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “How do the social and material characteristics of residential contexts in the host country affect immigrant maternal and infant health? We examine this question through the lens of the ethnic density hypothesis, a hypothesis that posits beneficial effects on immigrant health of living in areas of high ethnic density; that is, among a socially and linguistically similar population. We analyze the association between infant low birth weight and ethnic density for Bangladeshi immigrant mothers in New York City during a period of rapid and sustained immigration (1990–2000). For Bangladeshi immigrant women, ethnic neighborhoods can provide an important source of social and material support during pregnancy. Geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis methods are used to create a fine-grained indicator of ethnic density. Results show that the relationship between ethnic density and infant low birth weight changed over time. The lack of association in the early years (1990 and 1993) might reflect the fact that the Bangladeshi population had not yet reached a sufficient size, or spatially clustered settlement pattern, to provide dense ethnic neighborhoods and concentrations of social and material resources. In 2000, we observe a U-shaped association between low birth weight and density: Women living in ethnically isolated settings and those living in high-density enclaves are more vulnerable to adverse infant health outcomes. The results suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of immigrant maternal and infant health and ethnic density that incorporates the dynamism of immigrant experiences and their associations with shifting spatially and socially defined residential environments.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Small towns throughout the rural upper Midwest have been experiencing dramatic economic restructuring and an unprecedented influx of new immigrants of color, triggering conflicts and tension between almost exclusively white residents and the new immigrants. Analyzing the roots and content of white residents’ responses to their encounters with new immigrants in a small town in rural Minnesota, the concept of spaces of encounters draws attention to the relational quality of identities and attitudes and the active role of emotions and spatiality in processes of Othering and racialization, as well as the potential of the encounter to disrupt preconceived boundaries and racial stereotypes. White residents racialize immigrants and space, although the specific form taken by processes of racialization is inflected by individuals’ social positionality and place identities and by longer term and broader scale racial stereotypes and dominant discourses about immigration, race, and nation in the United States. The racialization of immigrants defends white privilege and culture; recovers an imagined idealized place, past, and future; and establishes that belonging to the national and local community is conditional on immigrants conforming to white American values and norms—an assimilationist imaginary that runs up against the multicultural and multiracial reality of the town. Residents’ reflections on their own racial prejudice and different forms of racism, as well as intimate social relations they forge with individual migrants, hold promise for social relations that transcend differences across racial and cultural divides.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “We consider the increasingly common provision of home-based health care by migrant care workers. In particular, we explore the racial division of paid reproductive care and ideas about embodied work to show that although (im)migrants tend to fall to the bottom of the hierarchy of care work, the reasons are multifaceted and complex. We draw on interview data from a larger study of long-term home care in Ontario to explore the lived experience of care work by migrant workers, emphasizing their social agency. We organize our discussion around the themes of routes, responsibilities, and respect and emphasize the embodied and power-inflected care work relation. Through these themes we explore the different routes the migrants took into care work—how they found their jobs and what role those jobs play in their lives. Then we address the responsibilities of different home care jobs and the relational dynamic of how job responsibilities are actually practiced. Finally, the theme of respect examines how the workers try to treat their clients with dignity but sometimes the work relation is marked by racism and friction over what counts as “good” care. We show that care work is constructed and experienced through a complex interweaving of embodiment, labor market inequalities, and the province’s regulatory mechanisms of care provision.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “An unprecedented number of American citizens are facing the challenge of being in a non-heterosexual binational relationship. Although immigration laws are based on the principle of family unification, under current federal law lesbian, gay, and bisexual Americans cannot sponsor their same-sex foreign national partners for residency in the United States. Consequently, an estimated 36,000 couples face the threat of family separation because the narrow definition of “family” used by U.S. immigration services excludes same-sex binational couples and their children. Despite the fact that family research indicates that long periods of separation have harmful effects on the family, immigration law continues to deny binational families the basic right of family unity afforded many of their heterosexual counterparts. Bi-national couples must learn how to function in a social system while dealing with heterosexism, overt discrimination, violence, and the psychological symptoms that result from helplessness. This article will explore the ways in which nonheterosexual binational families must struggle to keep their families together as a result of the discriminatory ways in which laws are constructed in this country. We propose that discriminatory immigration policies have neglected contemporary family research that describes the family as a diverse array of intimate systems that provide mutual care.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article traces the relationship between women’s associations and the British government with regard to the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), from its establishment in 1946 to British ratification of the Convention on the Political Rights of Women (CPRW) in 1967. Whilst international women’s associations were instrumental in articulating the legitimacy of women’s rights as an international concern in the inter-war period, and in securing the establishment of the CSW, appointment to the Commission was controlled, not by these organizations, but by national governments. Whilst many countries selected their delegates from women’s associations, the British government rejected this approach and instead selected their delegates on the basis of party political affiliation. These delegates were consequently less interested in the promotion of the international women’s rights agenda than in the protection of British interests and reputation. A lobbying campaign by British women’s associations worked to secure more expert British representation and to ensure that the British position was more sympathetic to the goals of the Commission. This lobbying was not limited to the question of representation, but included support for the work of the Commission: women’s associations and their allies in government urged the UK to ratify the CPRW. This article argues that successful ratification of the CPRW reflected both the persistence of the women involved and also the changing context of both British domestic and colonial rule and the British position on United Nations-sponsored human rights. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this qualitative case study, we explore local adult educators’ preparation to teach refugees, along with their professional development needs. This analysis focuses on 10 tutors and instructors in a midsize Southeastern city. Data collection involved an open-ended questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, and observations; analysis involved open coding, theme generation, data matrices, and participant checking. Findings indicated that most participants had some level of preparation, although the amount and nature of this preparation varied widely; yet, even those with teaching certification felt un- or under-prepared to teach ESL and/or literacy to adult refugees. Participants needed relevant training, opportunities to connect with “people resources”, and other supports. We discuss implications for offering ongoing, targeted professional development for adult ESL educators.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article looks at the emotion discourses among 30 Greek-Cypriot children and youth interviewees when they describe their feelings about migrants in Cyprus. It looks at how migrant representations and narratives are highly emotional constructions that children and youth utilize to make sense of their views about how migrants are different or similar to themselves. In particular, the article focuses on the simultaneous contradictory positions and feelings of fear and empathy. Two important implications for intercultural education are discussed. First, it is suggested that it is valuable to acknowledge that the emotion work required from ‘host’ children and youth in their interactions with migrants should not be taken for granted. Second, rather than painting a ‘negative’ or ‘positive’ image of children and youth’s responses to migrants – which categorizes children and youth in simplistic ways – it might be more productive to examine how their emotions are linked to ambivalent discourses and inform actions in negotiating the presence of the other and one’s sense of belonging.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • In June 2012, Israel began implementing the amendment to the Anti-Infiltration Law according to which all asylum seekers who cross the Israel-Egypt border are automatically jailed or subjected to internment for a minimum period of three years without trial. [Note: Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial.]

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Despite schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent tropical diseases in developing countries and and large flows of migrants come from countries where the disease is endemic, imported urinary schistosomiasis is still not easily recognized in non-endemic areas, especially if not subjected to specific investigations. Moreover schistosomiasis is currently not reportable in any European public health system. The data presented in this report were collected were collected between asylum seekers by a simple screening method based on a prior or actual history of a macroscopic hematauria. In case of a history of gross hematuria, the patient underwent to specific exams standardized for the diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis. Our data show that the prevalence of the disease has been largely underestimated by European Surveillance Systems; in fact in a small population of young asylum seekers coming from endemic areas for schistosomiasis, we found a significant number of individuals with symptomatic disease. Given that the disease typically has an insidious course, it is highly probable that a screening procedure is able to identify early asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic subjects and avoid the serious complications that are present in advanced stages of disease. Given the limits and the costs of a late diagnosis and that an effective treatment is available, subjects from endemic areas should be actively screened for urinary schistosomiasis. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In conversations between immigrants and officials, problems of understanding are often noticeable. About 280 recordings realised at the Argentine Aliens’ Department and at several public authorities in Germany show that knowledge divergences regarding linguistic, cultural and institutional knowledge result in (sometimes grave) difficulties of understanding – even if the interactants speak the same mother tongue. The German–Argentine comparison provides the possibility to examine the role of language in intercultural communication more accurately because – in contrast to the situation in Germany – the majority of immigrants in Argentina speak the same mother tongue as the receiving country but they still hail from very different cultural areas. This shows that cultural contact cannot – as is often done in western approaches – be equated with language contact. Further, as the first results show, understanding problems seem to be not only a matter of ‘knowledge’ but also of the interactional management of social roles and discourse strategies. The interactants apply strategies of negotiation: attempts to level the relation between the interactants, attempts to constitute a hierarchical relation and attempts to reverse the hierarchical relation – sometimes with conflictuous consequences.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The article examines the interaction patterns between the national government and immigrant groups in Germany. The German government has established two kinds of consultation procedures: one for issues of immigrant integration in a more general sense and a separate state–Islam dialogue. It is shown here that by means of these bodies governmental actors sought to gain regular access to immigrant minorities and – at the same time – established opportunity structures through which they could organise. The specific shape and characteristics of the consultation structures and process are found to be a result of the specific historical contexts and problem constellations, established patterns of state–society relations, and the characteristics of the political system.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article compares the perspectives of young migrants in the Netherlands with the dominant discourse on ‘migrants’ at present. The integration of young ‘migrants’ have been studied in the European research projects TRESEGY and PROFACITY with the help of a number of ethnographic studies and a questionnaire in the Netherlands. At present, the dominant discourse on ‘migrants’ in the Netherlands is called ‘new realism’; this discourse adopts particular positions and strategies, and historically speaking, has replaced former dominant genres of discourses on ‘migrants’. There are some limited areas of convergence between the discourse of new realism and the perspectives of ‘migrants’ themselves. This article discusses how the perspectives of young ‘migrants’ have taken over many points of former dominant discourses on ‘migrants’ in the Netherlands; however, at present, divergences between their perspectives and the actual dominant discourse are rather increasing.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Incorporating migrant remittances among other variables into a growth model, and employing panel data over the 1970–2008 period, this study investigates the impact of migrant remittances on economic growth in South Asia. Migrant remittances are found to have a significant positive effect on economic growth. A significant positive interactive effect of remittances on economic growth is detected through education and financial sector development.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “”While recent scholarship has paid critical attention to the changing
    relationship between territory and borders, there remains much to
    be said about the ways in which borders are being pushed outwards
    via immigration enforcement. In this paper, I argue that one must
    look outside the borders of the policymaking state to understand the
    geopolitical depth and breadth of immigration enforcement policies
    and practices. I examine ways in which US migrant detention
    and deportation reverberate in Ecuador. Research in Ecuador with
    detained migrants’ family members and deported migrants shows
    that the impacts of these policies are far from contained along
    with the migrant’s incarcerated and “removed” body; instead,
    they extend spatially and temporally beyond US borders, and into
    local, personal spaces and places in Ecuador. I demonstrate that
    scrutiny of the extra-border geographies of immigration enforcement
    policies allows us to identify the uneven, unpredictable, and
    sometimes violent ways in which these policies expand in practice.
    This research also suggests that detention and deportation
    do not meet US policymakers’ stated objective of deterring future
    migration.””

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper highlights how states attempt to control migrant mobilities through refugee claims. We examine the representations and practices of refugees in the refugee claimant process over time and in very different cases with distinct geopolitical influences and inflections in Canada. Our paper is based on case studies of Sri Lankan Tamil migrants in Toronto and refugee claimants from Fujian province, China, that landed in British Columbia in 1999. We analyse the ways that geopolitics influence every phase of the refugee claimant process, from the representations of claimants, to the decisions made about refugee claims, and the tenor of mundane encounters with state authorities. Our findings indicate that the geopolitics of migrant mobilities are produced through everyday state practices as well as by migrant strategies to move and resettle.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The fencing of the India–Bangladesh border suggests finality in the territorial partitioning of South Asia. This article examines the converging and competing narratives surrounding the fence at the national level in India and in the borderland itself, focussing on the federal state of Meghalaya. From this comparison two main arguments are made. First, at the national level, narratives around migration, national security, counterinsurgency and trade underpin a powerful logic that is difficult to contest. By contrast, in Meghalaya the narratives are less cohesive and the logic of the fence is far more contingent on local politics. Second, not only is there a difference between the ways the fence is viewed at the national level and in the borderland, but there is differentiation within the borderland itself. These narratives provide insights into the different ways borders, citizenship and insecurity are viewed and politicised in contemporary Asia and beyond.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “It is essential to explore the role of gender while analysing internal migration in Albania to account for the differing experiences of men and women. Quantitative studies suggest that Albanian internal migration is pioneered by men, with women merely acceding to their wishes. This article addresses the undervalued role of women in the academic discourse concerning migration in Albania. Utilizing ethnographic research techniques, it explores the role of women migrating from rural to urban areas as part of a larger household and examines the coping and negotiating strategies used for survival in the city. Our findings reveal that women actively participate in the rural-to-urban migration process, including the initial decision to migrate and the choice of destination. Women’s narratives provide evidence of specific emancipation strategies through which they express themselves and their new ways of living. Women adjust to and challenge their new urban environment through gaining paid employment and expanding their social networks, as well as experience emancipation through daughters and by changing their appearance, achieving varying degrees of personal and social prosperity.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article uses participatory photography to explore contradictory processes of inclusion and exclusion in contemporary Sweden. Our aim is to analyse the social relations that shape the kinds of places recently arrived migrant women experience as ‘safe’, as well as their everyday experiences of inclusion and exclusion. The use of photography – wherein the women choose how, when and where to shoot photos – helps us highlight what otherwise would not be immediately evident with regard to the experience of such places. We argue that there are inclusive places in segregated spaces, and that issues of ethnic inclusion and exclusion are linked to ethnic hegemony and other relationships of power. Drawing on theories of relational space in general, and transgressive space in particular, we demonstrate that our informants’ daily existence is simultaneously integrated and segregated, included and excluded, and that emancipatory processes that are already under way must be allowed to proceed if the social landscape of integration is to be an open and equal one.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Objectives. To study how traumatized refugees, their therapists, and their interpreters perceive both curative and hindering factors in psychological therapy, thereby highlighting the mediators of change in a transcultural clinical setting.

    Design. Four experienced clinical psychologists affiliated to two centres for the rehabilitation of traumatized refugees, were asked to select their two ‘most successful’ and two ‘least successful’ cases by going back to all the cases that they had concluded within the last 2 years, a pool of approximately 200 patients. The selected 16 patients, their therapists, and their interpreters were invited to semi-structured, in-depth, individual interviews with the aim of acquiring more knowledge on what had been helpful and what not helpful in the psychological treatment.

    Method. The senior author who conducted the interviews was not aware of whether the patient belonged to the ‘successful’ or ‘unsuccessful group’ prior to the interview. All interviews were audio taped. A qualitative phenomenological approach was used in the analysis of the data. The data were analysed (1) triad by triad for the 16 triads consisting of a patient, his/her therapist, and his/her interpreter, and (2) separately for each of the three groups of respondents. The analysis involved going through each protocol sentence by sentence and developing key-concepts for the therapeutic interventions and for the interpersonal relations. When the generation of key-concepts was finalized, the material was analysed for a second time, in order to place the relevant data under the key-concepts/categories. The categories and illustrative verbatim quotations from the interviews are presented in separate tables for the three groups.

    Results. The relationship between the therapist, patient, and interpreter, and the development of trust and a good working alliance was seen by all as the most important curative factor. Psychoeducative methods, cognitive interventions, as well as the provision of practical help and advice were also regarded as curative and facilitating factors.

    Hindering factors fell into the following five categories: factors related to the patient, to the therapist, to the interpreter, to the therapeutic method itself, and to factors external to the therapy. Therapists and interpreters considered severe psychopathology and substance abuse in addition to PTSD; chronic pain and physical illness; lack of motivation for treatment; and overwhelming social and/or economic problems as obstructive factors for the establishment of a working alliance and more generally for a successful outcome. As to the patients who did not benefit from the treatment, the unsuitability of a psychological treatment for their symptoms, and social and economic problems were seen as the main hindering factors.

    Conclusion. The therapeutic or working alliance is a common element of all types of psychological treatments, and is generally considered as a ‘non-specific’ factor. There are grounds to modify this view in working with traumatized and tortured patients from different cultural backgrounds. In cases where patients have experienced humiliation and evil, and now live in exile, the establishment of a relation of trust in fellow human beings is the first aim of the treatment. The article argues that the professional’s compassion constitutes a primary factor in the therapeutic process in such cases. The risks of overinvolvement in the treatment of heavily traumatized patients are well described in the literature, and have also appeared in this study. In psychotherapy research, strong personal commitment is seldom mentioned by therapists for fear of its being considered unprofessional or unethical. However, a strong commitment can be of value, not only for the patients, but also for the therapists and interpreters themselves. The results of this study suggest that deep compassion on the part of the professionals is widespread in the treatment of traumatized patients, and that it is considered as a healing factor by most patients, interpreters, and therapists.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article draws data from an innovative research project tracing former refugee teachers who received teacher training from the International Rescue Committee (IRC) over a 17-year-long education programme in refugee camps in Guinea (1991-2008). The research traced repatriated refugee teachers who had returned to their homes in Sierra Leone and Liberia in an effort to determine the effects of the training they received – particularly whether they were still working as teachers in their post-repatriation lives, or whether they had made use of their training in other ways. Although the research in question focused on all of the former IRC teachers who the research team could trace, the present paper is about the female teachers and their specific situations. Focusing on the women’s responses yields the gender-specific conclusions about structural barriers to institutional and societal changes in conflict and post-conflict settings.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article considers the emotional geographies of a highly vulnerable demographic: refugee women. As a marginalised and ontologically fragile group, refugees have developed rich and perceptive insight on space and place, by developing a critical vigilance that reflects forward and back on their life journeys, real and metaphorical. Through participation in a psycho-educational course designed by the author, nine women produced their own images of resilience, in creative exercises that provided ‘landmarks’ of recognition for other participants. Via participation in this temporary ‘community of practice’, therefore, another journey was taken; this article will also consider the epistemology of that itinerary using interdisciplinary insights from geography, cultural studies, cognitive behavioural therapy and gender studies.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Abstract The following is a population-based survey of the Central African Republic (CAR) female refugee population displaced to rural Djohong District of Eastern Cameroon and associated female Cameroonian host population to characterise the prevalence and circumstances of sexual violence. A population-based, multistage, random cluster survey of 600 female heads of household was conducted during March 2010. Women heads of household were asked about demographics, household economy and assets, level of education and sexual violence experienced by the respondent only. The respondents were asked to describe the circumstances of their recent assault. The lifetime prevalence of sexual violence among Djohong district female heads of household is 35.2% (95% CI 28.7-42.2). Among heads of household who reported a lifetime incident of sexual violence, 64.0% (95% CI 54.3-72.5) suffered sexual violence perpetrated by their husband or partner. Among the host population, 3.9% (95% CI 1.4-10.5) reported sexual violence by armed groups compared to 39.0% (95% CI 25.6-54.2) of female refugee heads of household. Women who knew how to add and subtract were less likely to report sexual violence during their lifetime (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.08-0.34). Sexual violence is common among refugees and host population in Eastern Cameroon. Most often, perpetrators are partners/husbands or armed groups.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper analyses narratives about immigration and immigration policies as geopolitical discourses. It focuses on the diverse geopolitical imaginations and representations of the immigrant “invasion” in Western Europe. It builds upon insights from critical geopolitics, especially Ó Tuathail’s grammar of geopolitics (2002), and adapts this framework for analysing geopolitical reasoning about specific flows of people. It distinguishes three main storylines of the “invasion” at three scales: Invaded Neighbourhood, Nation at Risk, Western Europe under Siege. Although each shares the “invasion” storyline, these complementary and at times competing discourses of fear target different groups of immigrants and call for different type of policies.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The determinants of undocumented immigration flows from Mexican states to US states utilizing data recently released by the Mexican Consulate are analysed. The results generally support that immigrants tend towards states with higher Mexican immigrant populations, shorter distances, higher wages and smaller populations.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Using Duran Gonzales as an example, this Comment discusses how courts determine when and if conflicting rules of law should be applied retroactively to aliens. Specifically, it argues that the holding in Nunez-Reyes and its use of the Chevron Oil test should be applied broadly to limit the retroactive application of law in certain immigration cases. Part II of this Comment gives a brief overview of Supreme Court retroactivity jurisprudence, the discretionary application of adjudicative retroactivity as described in Chevron Oil, and the Court’s recent shift toward a more conservative approach. Part III discusses how administrative law affects that framework and how courts apply it after the Supreme Court, in Chevron USA and Brand X, adopted a policy of extreme agency deference. Part IV discusses the Ninth Circuit’s Nunez-Reyes decision. Part V traces the complex procedural and factual history of Duran Gonzales as well as the Ninth Circuit and BIA cases surrounding it. Part VI discusses the Ninth Circuit’s recent decision of Duran Gonzales III and explains why it failed to apply Nunez-Reyes appropriately. Finally, Part VII offers a brief conclusion.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In light of Supreme Court jurisprudence regarding the fugitive disentitlement doctrine, the circuit courts of appeal have readily expanded the doctrine’s use to civil matters, as well as immigration. But the Supreme Court’s nuanced treatment of the rationales underlying this doctrine, specifically in Ortega-Rodriguez v. United States and Degen v. United States, has led to inconsistent application across the circuits. Specifically, a split has arisen among the Second, Fifth, Seventh, and Ninth Circuits as to whether these rationales support invocation of the fugitive disentitlement doctrine to find fugitivity and dismiss an alien’s petition for review when an alien fails to report as ordered to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) but his or her whereabouts are known to court, counsel, and federal authorities. Part II of this Comment will outline how the fugitive disentitlement doctrine has evolved since its birth in criminal appeals. Part II will also highlight how the Supreme Court’s treatment of the doctrine has set the stage for the current circuit split on its application to immigration. Part III will explore the current circuit split in immigration, focusing on the rationale used by each circuit in support of its decision to find, or not find, fugitivity when an alien failed to appear before the DHS but is otherwise locatable by court, counsel, and federal authorities. This Part will establish that, while the facts vary from case to case, the circuit courts struggle not with the facts but with the application of the doctrinal rationales in the context of immigration. Part IV will discuss potential judicial intervention but, in the end, conclude that the unique realm of immigration justifies action by Congress. This Part will thus advocate for Congress to enact a disentitlement provision, consistent with prior similar legislation in a civil context but unique to the concerns of immigration, including policies on national security and foreign relations. Part V will provide a brief conclusion.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This essay takes a case-study approach to examine how culture may be transferred from immigrant cultures to a so-called host culture. Considering the work of three visual artists who came to the UK as refugees but who are now considered ‘British artists’, it examines the effect this curatorial definition may have on gallery viewers. The author proposes that looking at work that previously might have been viewed as ‘exotic’ or ‘foreign’ but that is now classed as British forces viewers to reassess and renegotiate their understanding of the nature of ‘Britishness’ and indeed of place-Britain. Drawing on the ideas of Edouard Glissant and also of contemporary geographers about the nature of place, the study proposes that place-Britain, like all places, is in a constant and never ending state of production. The work of artists from refugee populations, shown now as ‘British art’, becomes a dynamic part of this process and a means by which new elements are transferred and added to an ever-changing British cultural fabric”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The mental health of children seeking asylum and their families is a somewhat neglected area of research. Research on refugee children and children living with adversities suggests that environmental factors are crucial in preventing mental health problems. In this study, we aim to identify central environmental conditions that affect the mental health of children living with their families at governmental asylum processing centres in northern Norway. This study has a qualitative design, and is based on 11 focus group interviews with the staff at asylum processing centres. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed focusing on important risk and protective factors for mental health problems presented by the informants. The results highlighted time spent at asylum centres and the parent’s mental health as the most important risk factors. Schooling, activities, general living conditions and poor economy were also seen as crucial. The findings suggest that these children are indeed vulnerable, and at high risk of developing mental health problems. Their rights are, however, open to local interpretations, and they fall between two stools; their right to proper health care, and national and international immigration policies.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article presents findings from a research project on Colombian transnational migration to a secondary and peripheral region of Spain. The transnational character of our object of study means that our methodology is mainly of an anthropological nature. But our analysis is also guided by demographic data and theories, so it can be considered a sample of work in the new field of anthropological demography. The article’s main purpose is to explore migration network effects on inflows, given the weakness of other pull factors. We believe that local or regional levels of analysis might reveal other aspects about migration determinants that get lost at the national level. Moreover, the links between migrant networks and the size of immigration flows should be more evident at the regional level of analysis. Both statistical data analysis and ethnographic evidence point to the same conclusion: network dynamics do not sufficiently explain inflows behaviour, nor migration strategies and Colombians migrants’ interaction in destination. Instead, we can infer the importance of powerful push factors, and of migration history and social change in the country of origin. A transnational mother profile plays a relevant role in the analysis of this case and of cumulative causation theory. Gathered testimonies and observed evolution of Colombian migration to Spain and Galicia suggest the activation of feminised networks and the inhibition of family reunification.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “We used a multi-method approach to investigate aspects of the mental health of asylum seekers who had recently arrived in the UK. We used the Post-Migration Living Difficulties Scale, the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale, the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview, the Clinical Outcomes Routine Evaluation and in-depth interviews. A total of 29 asylum seekers, 26 of whom were male, representing 13 countries, agreed to take part. This paper presents reflections on some of the challenges that arose during our investigation, and offers recommendations that may be of help to other researchers embarking on research in this field.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Abstract
    Differences in health care utilization of immigrants 50 years of age and older relative to the native-born populations in eleven European countries are investigated. Negative binomial and zero-inflated Poisson regression are used to examine differences between immigrants and native-borns in number of doctor visits, visits to general practitioners, and hospital stays using the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe database. In the pooled European sample and in some individual countries, older immigrants use from 13 to 20% more health services than native-borns after demographic characteristics are controlled. After controlling for the need for health care, differences between immigrants and native-borns in the use of physicians, but not hospitals, are reduced by about half. These are not changed much with the incorporation of indicators of socioeconomic status and extra insurance coverage. Higher country-level relative expenditures on health, paying physicians a fee-for-service, and physician density are associated with higher usage of physician services among immigrants.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Following large-scale labour migration from Poland to the Norwegian construction sector since 2004, new ethnic divisions of labour have been established between the usually native core workforces of construction firms, and Polish migrant workers hired through temporary subcontracting and staffing agencies. Survey data suggest that there is very little mobility between these segments of the labour market. The establishment and reproduction of this ethnic division of labour is analysed through qualitative interviews with Norwegian employers and Polish migrant workers. Polish migrants and their particular ‘work culture’ are perceived by Norwegian employers as well-suited for work in the firms’ temporary external workforces but unfit for permanent positions unless they assimilate to a ‘Norwegian work culture’. These stereotyped employment practices are reinforced by the migrants’ own tactical use of the cultural capital available to them when negotiating the conflicting expectations in different job segments.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article draws on Agamben’s concept of homo sacer (bare-life) and his examination of the Muselmänner – the most de-humanised inhabitants of the Nazi concentration camp – to illuminate the ways that the policy and system of immigration detention in Australia signifies a continuation of the biopolitical paradigm that both created and supported the atrocity of Auschwitz. The article argues that the notion of race occupies a paradoxical position in the concept and body of the refugee in Australia today because while racism brings about and justifies the refugee’s incarceration in the camp, the biopolitical processes of the camp create a subject within whom race becomes inevitably subsumed within and transcended by the ontology of bare-life. In this scheme, the question of human rights becomes ever more relevant but even less applicable. The article concludes with a critique of Agamben’s key ideas as well as my application of them in light of Foucauldian and other interpretations of his work.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Abstract: This article draws from an empirical study conducted among asylum seekers/refugees residing in Scotland, the UK, to demonstrate that the participatory web (or Web 2.0) provides spaces for migrants’ mediated and transnational citizenships. It considers how these citizenship formations are realised through online deliberation, political mobilisation, networking and claims making for social, cultural and political recognition and human rights. Therefore, the article has four subtexts that offer insights into the role played by the participatory web in migrants’ mediated and transnational citizenship formations in the West. First, the participatory web offers possibilities for facilitating asylum seekers/refugees’ mediated politics and inclusion into some democratic processes of the host country. Second, by using the web for networking, political mobilisation and cultural production, asylum seekers/refugees demonstrate a belonging to and identification with their homelands. Third, this kind of mediated politics, multiple belongings and identities contests the cultural homogeneity and territorial construction of the state. Fourth, the mediated processes demonstrate the intersection between mediated citizenship and transnational citizenship. The article is an attempt to provide an empirically grounded cultural approach in understanding the role of new media technology in non-citizens’ mediated citizenship in multicultural democracies.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The goal of this research was to explore thoroughly the perceptions of dispersed immigrant professionals and their bilingual and bicultural children regarding the place of new media technology in their lives. Open-ended interviewing and autoethnography were used to explore families’ perceptions of the role of media technology in their children’s development and maintenance of heritage language (HL) skills, relationships with relatives in the heritage country, and cultural identity. The voices represented are those of two Hungarian immigrant professionals and their families. The families found media technology beneficial in all three areas explored: the development and maintenance of HL, relationships with relatives, and heritage culture. Adult family members also repeatedly pointed out the significance of their own active involvement in the process, and their responsibility in selecting appropriate resources and in being available to support children in their optimal use of media technology. The study provides important insights for immigrant families and practitioners for nurturing children’s heritage language and culture.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article investigates how women who have come to the United States as brides of South Asian professionals use threading, a hair removal method, as a home business to negotiate new challenges they face as newly immigrant women. Based on participant observation and in-depth interviews, the article focuses on how these young women combine their expected roles as wives and mothers in a new country with their own aspirations to win the respect of spouses, in-laws and children via threading. The article demonstrates how these women find meaning and identity through threading and evidences how they negotiate respectability by stressing their connections to home and domestic roles even as they dissociate themselves from beauticians who work at salons. Although they disrupt extant notions of ‘good wives and mothers’, these women nevertheless articulate this disruption within existing models and, more often than not, desire to be the bahu that their mothers-in-law admire.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “New research on the history of nineteenth-century Flemish migration into the North of France shows ample evidence of a complex pattern of transfer procedures taking place between the source and target cultures, both via institutions such as newspapers, magazines and associations and via practices such as popular theatre, almanacs and songs. The strong local embedding of migrant communities within a specific urban setting, i.e. industrial cities (Roubaix, Tourcoing, Lille), as well as the strong integration policy of the target culture, explain how and why Flemish cultural items are transferred and undergo a process of formal and functional hybridisation with the available institutional, linguistic and discursive models of the target culture. The following paper examines one type of transferred items, i.e. Flemish language elements, that are given particular emphasis in popular songs constructed by Flemish second-generation migrants. The analysis of these songs aims to show how procedures such as codeswitching and codemixing are used by migrant singers in order to construct a new hybrid language that may escape both uniform rejection and assimilation by the target culture.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In this article I consider “style” as a linguistic and cultural concept that can demonstrate how identities performed through language use are linked to topics of central concern in studies of immigrant youth, including racial and ethnic formation, generational cohorts, acculturation, assimilation, and gender. I draw on anthropological and sociolinguistic approaches to style not generally considered in migration studies and present ethnographic data of two cliques of Desi (South Asian American) teens in a Northern California high school. I argue that analyses of youth style can substantially complicate assimilation frameworks by highlighting the ways in which young peoples’ linguistic practices may not fit neatly into commonly used analytical categories of “immigrant” and “American.” Focusing on how political economy and local histories inform power and difference that shape migration experiences for youth, the article moves beyond routinely examined areas of heritage language retention and loss to analyze the significance of youth performances of heritage languages as well as English.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

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