Daily Archives: Sunday, November 4, 2012

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “This paper considers the claim that ideas and practices of international development, including community development, are embedded in Western notions of how to organize society. It elucidates some of the main precepts of the westernization thesis, and drawing on several studies of community development projects in Indonesia, it investigates what elements might be considered as ‘Western’ and whether the adoption of so-called Western ways is the result of the dominating power of international agencies or a pragmatic choice of active agents. The paper argues that the westernization thesis is problematic and does little to help us understand the complex interactions involving change at the community level. From a community development perspective, the question of whether the themes of westernization are appropriate is not a matter of the views of outside experts, but whether they are of use to the people at the grassroots in their collective endeavours. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 2009, after extremely severe bushfires in Victoria, Australia, social welfare agencies initiated recovery programmes. This paper examines the role played by three Catholic agencies over a three-year period as they sought to meet the needs of the bushfire-affected community in the recovery process. The recovery programmes began with the aim of using a community development approach to develop a sustainable response. The concept of community development was not defined at the commencement of the project so that there was flexibility in the way it was operationalized. The approach changed over time in response to changing conditions and the needs and responses of the community. After initially adopting the role of provider, the agencies increasingly adopted the roles of ally, facilitator and advocate. Not all projects received support from the community and others that were initially supported withered over time. The advocacy and capacity building work undertaken by the workers enabled community members to take a greater responsibility for existing and new projects. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “We study the probability of perceived racism/other forms of discrimination on immigrant and Spanish populations within different public spheres and show their effect on the health of immigrants using a cross-sectional design (ENS-06). Variables: perceived racism/other forms of discrimination (exposure), socio-demographic (explicative), health indicators (dependent). Frequencies, prevalences, and bivariate/multivariate analysis were conducted separately for men (M) and women (W). We estimated the health problems attributable to racism through the population attributable proportion (PAP). Immigrants perceived more racism than Spaniards in workplace (ORM = 48.1; 95 % CI 28.2–82.2), and receiving health care (ORW = 48.3; 95 % CI 24.7–94.4). Racism and other forms of discrimination were associated with poor mental health (ORM = 5.6; 95 % CI 3.9–8.2; ORW = 7.3; 95 % CI 4.1–13.0) and injury (ORW = 30.6; 95 % CI 13.6–68.7). It is attributed to perceived racism the 80.1 % of consumption of psychotropics (M), and to racism with other forms of discrimination the 52.3 % of cases of injury (W). Racism plays a role as a health determinant. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Background

    Optimal adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is required to promote viral suppression and to prevent disease progression and mortality. Forcibly displaced and conflict-affected populations may face challenges succeeding on HAART. We performed a systematic review of the literature on adherence to HAART and treatment outcomes in these groups, including refugees and internally-displaced persons (IDPs), assessed the quality of the evidence and suggest a future research program.
    Methods

    Medline, Embase, and Global Health databases for 1995–2011 were searched using the Ovid platform. A backward citation review of subsequent work that had cited the Ovid results was performed using the Web of Science database. ReliefWeb and Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) websites were searched for additional grey literature.
    Results and conclusion

    We screened 297 records and identified 17 reports covering 15 quantitative and two qualitative studies from 13 countries. Three-quarters (11/15) of the quantitative studies were retrospective studies based on chart review; five studies included <100 clients. Adherence or treatment outcomes were reported in resettled refugees, conflict-affected persons, internally-displaced persons (IDPs), and combinations of refugees, IDPs and other foreign-born persons. The reviewed reports showed promise for conflict-affected and forcibly-displaced populations; the range of optimal adherence prevalence reported was 87–99.5%. Treatment outcomes, measured using virological, immunological and mortality estimates, were good in relation to non-affected groups. Given the diversity of settings where forcibly-displaced and conflict-affected persons access ART, further studies on adherence and treatment outcomes are needed to support scale-up and provide evidence-based justifications for inclusion of these vulnerable groups in national treatment plans. Future studies and program evaluations should focus on systematic monitoring of adherence and treatment interruptions by using facility-based pharmacy records, understanding threats to optimal adherence and timely linkage to care throughout the displacement cycle, and testing interventions designed to support adherence and treatment outcomes in these settings. ”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article is concerned with the emotional dynamics of transnationalism and migration and the impact on education. This impact is discussed in terms of how the movement of people involves complex emotional processes that have important consequences for educational policy, practice and research. The purpose of the author is to theorise how emotions in the context of an increasingly globalised world are significant in pedagogic terms. It is argued that there is need for more explicit attention on examining what the entanglement of transnationalism, migration and emotions implies for educators, students, parents and their communities.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The conceptualization and models of migration, gendered labor, and care have been developed with the primacy of South to North migrations in mind and have only incorporated Southern countries’ experiences selectively. Using the examples of selected countries in the South, especially middle-income countries, this article aims to unsettle some of the assumptions that underlie this analysis and to lay out some questions that might need to be addressed to make questions of care reflect the diversity and dynamic of migratory systems, gender regimes, and welfare arrangements in the South. In particular, the middle-income countries, such as Argentina and South Africa, pose interesting questions as they are tied into global circuits of care in distinctive ways and have different kinds of care provisioning and histories of gendered migrations. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper presents the empirical interrogation and development of the concept of coping strategies through the findings of a piece of qualitative research which used this concept to understand and promote social well-being with young women in Mozambique during unintended pregnancy. Concepts and theories of ‘coping’ during adverse life events or periods of stress can be used to reinforce capabilities and strengths, facilitating rather than constraining people’s own mechanisms of resilience. However, the framework within which the concept is situated is frequently ill-defined, particularly in applied contexts. ‘Coping strategies’ are used in many models of social work practice (preventative, remedial, rehabilitative, strengths-based, recovery-ordinated, developmental), yet understandings of what it means to ‘cope’, whether it be about counter-balancing threat, ‘getting by’ or ‘getting on’, and how such coping is strategic, are crucial for determining how the concept is used by practitioners and policy makers. Research findings based on qualitative interviews with young women (fifteen to nineteen-year-olds) and key informants in Mozambique on the concept of coping strategies are used to develop a typology which will help academics, policy makers and practitioners unpick the underlying assumptions associated with the concept. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Transnational adoption requires adoptive parents to negotiate complexities concerning difference and belonging within the family. Transnational adoption is mediated through societal and governmental prescriptions of suitability that include willingness and competency to raise children to maintain connections to their birth heritages. Tensions in the formation of parental identities are located in different racial, ethnic, cultural and class-based backgrounds to the children they adopt. This contrasts against dominant models of family where constructions of belonging are based on biological ties. A qualitative study of thirty-five Australian adoptive parents explored reflections on adoption processes and how the complex task of performing suitability was negotiated. Theoretical understandings were developed using a grounded theory approach. Contemporary social theory with a focus on race, cosmopolitanism and families further developed emergent theoretical understandings during analysis. Tensions in identity formation are discussed. The paper concludes that issues of race in identity formation are marginalised. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Gender without Groups: Confession, Resistance and Selfhood in the Colonial Archive”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article focuses on the relationship between diverse migrant profiles, their position in the host society, and public attitudes toward them. The central thesis is that attitude toward immigrants in the host society is a socially constructed phenomenon that can be explicitly observed at different levels of tolerance depending on the social status of individuals in the majority of population as well as on that of the immigrants (in terms of socioeconomic status, education, race, ethnicity, country of origin, etc.). The analysis follows three approaches: (1) mapping the socioeconomic, institutional, political, and cultural national context and traditions of immigration in Bulgaria before and after 1989; (2) exploring the observed variations in public attitudes toward immigrants considering their socioeconomic status as well as individual characteristics such as income, education, age, and ethnicity as independent variables; and (3) comparing the attitudes toward immigrants in the European Union. We test the hypothesis that the feeling of insecurity during the postcommunist transformation could lead to intolerance toward immigrants. For the purpose of the analysis and international comparisons, an index of “Tolerance toward foreigners” is constructed, based on data from the European Social Survey. The index assesses two major aspects of the perception of foreigners: (a) willingness to accept immigrants, and (b) assessment of their contribution to the host society. Based on empirical evidence and theoretical analysis we outline some implications for migration and integration policies. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Over the last decade, a significant share of the labour force in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has been exposed to work spells abroad followed by return migration. Although there is a growing literature on CEE return migration, most previous studies are country-specific and no enquiry for the region as a whole has been undertaken so far. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap. We collate data from the European Union (EU) Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) for a cross-country analysis of return migration in CEE countries. The aim of the paper is threefold. We first review the available evidence and literature on the characteristics and labour market behaviour of return migrants in CEE countries. Second, we provide a descriptive analysis of recent returnees using EU-LFS data. Third, we specifically analyse the income premia for work experience abroad, the occupational choices and the selectivity patterns of recent returnees in CEE countries from a cross-country perspective. Consistent with previous results, we find that the average income premia for work abroad range between 10 per cent and 45 per cent. Migrants are less likely to actively participate in the labour market upon return. They are, however, more likely to choose self-employment rather than dependent employment upon return. Recent migrants are also more likely to experience spells of unemployment in the first year after their return. The latter two findings are reversed, however, when adjusting for the unobserved heterogeneity of return migrants and for regional effects.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “A cohort of young French adults of Maghrebi origin, aged 20 to 29, who grew up in the same banlieue neighbourhood was constructed and used to observe their labour market integration. The biographical survey reviewed the pathways of these young men and women through the prism of social mobility. On the one hand, their parents’ migration (from one of three Maghreb countries), low skills level and occupations are not conducive to upward social mobility; on the other hand, the expectation of integration, the aspiration to a better life and education in French society are potentially positive factors. After describing the fieldwork conditions, the article presents the results as a typology comprising five types of occupational integration. These are compared with the parents’ occupational status in order to define the form of social mobility. While some young adults have clearly experienced upward social mobility, others have not managed to find stable employment in the blue-collar category. This outcome can be attributed partly to the diversity of educational pathways. However, the analysis would not be complete without a discussion of the changes in the labour market, growing job insecurity and downclassing. These new trends, which affect the whole population, have a special resonance in a situation of urban segregation, generating new inequalities. The occupational statuses of these young adults highlight the deindustrialization that has taken place between their parents’ generation and their own, constraining opportunities for social mobility. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Research on sexuality among older immigrants is extremely inadequate. This paper presents the results and analysis based on a national survey using a random sample of 2,272 Chinese-Canadian seniors. Self-reported health is examined in relation to a range of demographic as well as sexuality variables. Logistic regression analysis shows that language (English) ability and income play an important role in the health of Chinese-Canadian seniors, along with the sexuality variables. Among men, both the frequency of sexual activity and satisfaction with sex life have a positive effect on health. Among women, only sexual satisfaction is found to be significant. Results from this study can inform future research, service delivery, and policymaking in health care and social service for seniors. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Multivariate analysis of 2008 data from the German Social Survey (ALLBUS) provides firm evidence on the basis of one important dimension of political integration—individuals’ trust in the political system—that Muslims are integrating well into German society. The results are significant despite controls for multiple indicators of respondents’ social capital, socioeconomic status, post-material views, ideological position, partisan support for parties in power, assessment of government performance, interest in politics, and amount of television viewing. Furthermore, Muslims’ level of religiosity does not influence their level of political trust. The findings raise new questions about integration in that the significantly lower levels of political trust found among non-Muslims may negatively affect their views of government and its efforts to respond to Germany’s Muslim population. Skepticism and distrust of government by non-Muslim ethnic Germans may undermine important programs designed to bridge the actual value and cultural differences which remain the source of the ignorance that fuels prejudice and discrimination. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Research on the socioeconomic attainment of immigrants has increased in recent decades. But there is a lot to be discovered in this area, especially the labor force participation and earnings of African immigrant women in the U.S.A. In this article, we use the 5% Integrated Public Use Microdata Samples (IPUMS) to examine changes in size and composition of the female African immigrant population in the U.S.A. and differences in the labor force participation and earnings between black and white African immigrant women during the period of 1980–2008. The results show that the female African immigrant population increased by an annual average growth rate of 23% between 1980 and 2008, with a much higher growth among black female Africans (81%) than whites (5%). The racial composition shifted from a white majority (68%) in 1980 to a black majority (72%) in 2008. Multivariate analysis of the labor force participation and personal earnings showed that the white advantage echoed in previous research had disappeared in 2008 when black African women became more likely to be in the labor force participation and to earn higher income than their white counterparts, net of the effects of socio-demographic variables. Such results challenge the labor queue theory, which assumes that white people have an absolute advantage in American job market. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper examines the patterns of ethnic intolerance in European societies based on data from the 1999/2000 wave of the European Values Survey. We analyze the differences in intolerance targeted toward Muslims, Jews, immigrants, Gypsies, and persons of different race, using modernisation theory and “competition for scarce resource” theories as our point of departure. Furthermore, we focus on the differences in the levels of intolerance in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and Turkey. The present paper builds on previous empirical research, especially findings of recent multilevel analyses. Our larger and more extensive data material enables us to introduce two important improvements in this line of research. Theoretically, we are able to test if there are differences in the patterns of intolerance targeted toward specific minority groups. Methodologically, the number of countries in our data material is much larger, allowing us to apply multilevel models in a more statistically appropriate setting. Our results show that Gypsies stand out as an ethnic group particularly exposed to intolerance. The level of intolerance is lowest in Western Europe and highest in Turkey. In addition, the level of intolerance against Jews is particularly high in Turkey. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper is a synthetic piece drawn from my writings from the past 14 years on Palestinian refugees’ problems. These writings were based on surveys among the Palestinians in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT) and in the diaspora, in-depth interviews, and participant observation, as well as secondary data. The aim is to discuss the interplay between three key factors which impact the construction of “Palestinian-ness” and will impact the process of return: geographical borders, social boundaries, and nation-state policies in the region. The interplay between them will be used to depict (1) the problematic relationship between the diaspora and the OPT in the current/eventual return movement of Palestinian refugees and the absence of the diaspora as a social space; (2) the flexibility of transnational strategies adopted by the Palestinians, whether citizens, refugees, current returnees, or transmigrants; and (3) the inflexibility of the policies of the nation-states in the region. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “As immigrant groups grow older, host societies are faced with new challenges of integration. In a labor market that is structured by ethnicity and gender, the demand for culturally competent care provides immigrant women with the opportunity to become entrepreneurs within the care sector. This article analyzes 20 in-depth interviews with immigrant women from 13 countries who are entrepreneurs in home-help services for elderly people. The article analyzes the complex motives behind the women’s entrepreneurship. Ethnic entrepreneurship has mainly been approached as a way for immigrants to survive in the labor market—the disadvantage theory—or as a means to create job opportunities for co-ethnics within ethnic economies. Opposed to this, three main motives appear in the analysis: first, the processes of ethnic and gender sorting in the care sector; second, ethnic strategies in the labor market; and third, the wish to gain independence and improve the quality of care. Only in a few cases is ethnic entrepreneurship practiced within ethnic economies; instead, it is mainly found within cross-cultural economies, consisting of employees and customers of mixed origin who are embedded in a majority society. The women construct their ethnic identities to compete in the segmented Swedish labor market by creating ethnic identities of care that are adjusted to meet the needs of their customers in a cross-cultural society. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper investigates whether there are different social integration patterns of intra-European adult migrants who moved between 1974 and 2003 from Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain to one of the other four countries. These patterns are derived by means of latent class analysis based on information on the ethnic origin of both partners and friends. The data were collected by telephone interviews in the “European Internal Movers’ Social Survey” in 2004. Approximately 250 interviews were conducted with migrants from each of the 20 combinations of country of origin and country of residence (N = 4.902). In addition to two patterns of nationalized integration, where partner and friends come predominantly either from the country of residence or the country of origin, two de-nationalized integration patterns were found which are characterized by mixed friendship networks (co-nationals, nationals of the country of residence, and third countries). As a country of residence, Britain provides the most fertile ground for a de-nationalization of friend and partnerships for incoming migrants; the opposite is true for Italy. German and British migrants tend to nationalize integration patterns, that is, they either socialize with their co-nationals or with nationals of their country of residence. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In France, HIV prevention within Maghrebi or French of Maghrebi origin has been seldom studied. The purpose of this study is to compare the recourse to HIV test according to nationality and origin. Data were from the 2010 SIRS cohort, which included 3,006 households representative of the Paris metropolitan area. Results of the study show comparatively low HIV testing rate among Maghrebi and French of Maghrebi origin compared to French with French parents. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper is a synthetic piece drawn from my writings from the past 14 years on Palestinian refugees’ problems. These writings were based on surveys among the Palestinians in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT) and in the diaspora, in-depth interviews, and participant observation, as well as secondary data. The aim is to discuss the interplay between three key factors which impact the construction of “Palestinian-ness” and will impact the process of return: geographical borders, social boundaries, and nation-state policies in the region. The interplay between them will be used to depict (1) the problematic relationship between the diaspora and the OPT in the current/eventual return movement of Palestinian refugees and the absence of the diaspora as a social space; (2) the flexibility of transnational strategies adopted by the Palestinians, whether citizens, refugees, current returnees, or transmigrants; and (3) the inflexibility of the policies of the nation-states in the region.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Numerous reviews of UK policy and practice have criticised the provision of support to children and young people seeking asylum. Recent research and policy analysis present a dual failure in the current response: that of the immigration system in recognising and responding to specific needs; and that of statutory services in applying key legislation relating to rights, entitlements and subsequent provision. In combination, this illustrates a system that is at all times in tension between ideas of control and protection of these vulnerable young people, and ultimately therefore fails to safeguard.

    ‘A system that is at all times in tension between ideas of control and protection’

    Recent changes to government policy, the legislative framework and practice guidance governing such provision suggest that such failings may have been recognised but much work remains to be done to implement these changes effectively. Furthermore, these changes are occurring in a period of significant instability in public service provision, resulting from the severe cuts to public funding outlined in the UK Government’s 2010 Comprehensive Spending Review (HM Treasury, 2010). It is therefore timely to review current policy and practice related to children and young people seeking asylum in the UK so as to address past failings and fully realise the stated commitment to ensure a young person’s ‘best interests’ are fully considered in any immigration decision. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Immigration labor in global cities is often framed in a dichotomy of skilled and nonskilled and explained from different perspective. Based on narratives of skilled immigrants from mainland China in postcolonial Hong Kong, this study shifts the focus of attention from generalized dissimilarities between migrant groups determined by the level of skills to commonalities of experience shaped by the broader social and cultural forces of their spatial, economic and political environments. It points to the importance of “border” in shaping the mode of incorporation of skilled migrants to localities in global city. It shows that skilled mainland immigrants in Hong Kong are deeply embedded in an overarching xin yimin (new immigrants) discourse according to which the Hong Kong–China border distinguishes all mainland immigrants from Hong Kong citizens regardless of the level of skills they possess. This discourse is associated with and defined by the cultural meaning of border between Hong Kong and China produced in the colonial past and reproduced in the postcolonial present. Despite being highly educated and skilled, mainland Chinese professionals experienced countless negotiation of sameness and difference in their everyday encountering localities and making place. The stories presented here ask us to rethink the assumptions informing the analytical distinctions between skilled and non-skilled and call for “unifying” skilled and non-skilled migration in global cities methodologically and theoretically.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Central to student learning and academic success, the school engagement of immigrant children also reflects their adaptation to a primary institution in their new country. Analysis of questionnaire responses of 276,165 fifteen-year-olds (50 % female) and their 10,789 school principals in 41 countries showed that school engagement has distinct, weakly-linked cognitive and emotional components. Native students had weaker attitudes toward school (cognitive engagement) but greater sense of belonging at school (emotional engagement) than immigrant students or students who spoke a foreign language at home. Students with better teacher-student relationships, teacher support or a classroom disciplinary climate often had a greater sense of belonging at school and had better attitudes toward school than other students. While immigrant students often have solid attitudes toward school, teachers can help them feel a greater sense of belonging at school.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Abstract Objective: The focus of this study is how skills acquired from everyday life in one’s native country can represent a resource in language training and work for immigrants and refugees. The specific aim is to explore what significance activity and participation in activity have on language training. Methods: This qualitative study is based on fieldwork carried out in relation to a group of illiterate immigrants at a centre for adult education. The sample consists of 11 adult immigrants and refugees, male and female, between the ages of 20 and 65. The interviews with all the participants were carried out with the help of an interpreter. Results: The main findings were that the individual immigrant’s history of activities received little attention during the language training. There was hardly any mention of previous experience from everyday life and work. By relying on different activities in the language training, the resources and background of the individual immigrant would have become more visible. Familiar activities from one’s own culture enable communication when language skills are limited.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Previous research illustrates the lack of services and provision for the needs of migrant children; assessments of needs in the early stage of their arrival into the UK have previously been advocated. This paper reports on a qualitative study with officials in agencies working with children at a UK port of entry. Along with a sense of isolation and fragmentation between those agencies involved in this work, there were clear tensions between the safeguarding agendas and practices of the agencies involved. Analysis of interviews with social workers and police officers suggests that there was a lack of confidence and trust between agencies and in multi-agency approaches to safeguarding children entering the UK. Assessment approaches tend to be risk orientated at the expense of being culturally attuned and children’s rights focused. These findings are discussed together with recommendations for further research. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper investigates whether there are different social integration patterns of intra-European adult migrants who moved between 1974 and 2003 from Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain to one of the other four countries. These patterns are derived by means of latent class analysis based on information on the ethnic origin of both partners and friends. The data were collected by telephone interviews in the “European Internal Movers’ Social Survey” in 2004. Approximately 250 interviews were conducted with migrants from each of the 20 combinations of country of origin and country of residence (N = 4.902). In addition to two patterns of nationalized integration, where partner and friends come predominantly either from the country of residence or the country of origin, two de-nationalized integration patterns were found which are characterized by mixed friendship networks (co-nationals, nationals of the country of residence, and third countries). As a country of residence, Britain provides the most fertile ground for a de-nationalization of friend and partnerships for incoming migrants; the opposite is true for Italy. German and British migrants tend to nationalize integration patterns, that is, they either socialize with their co-nationals or with nationals of their country of residence.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study concerned the mental health of Afghan unaccompanied asylum-seeking children in the United Kingdom (UK). Afghans are the largest group of children seeking asylum in the UK, yet evidence concerning their mental health is limited. This study presents an estimate of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within this group and describes its associations with the cumulative effect of premigration traumatic events, immigration/asylum status, and social care living arrangements. Male adolescents (N = 222) aged 13–18 years completed validated self-report screening measures for traumatic experiences and likely PTSD. One-third (34.3%) scored above a selected cutoff, suggesting that they are likely to have PTSD. A higher incidence of premigration traumatic events was associated with greater PTSD symptomatology. Children living in semi-independent care arrangements were more likely to report increased PTSD symptoms when compared to their peers in foster care. A substantial majority in this study did not score above the cutoff, raising the possibility of notable levels of resilience. Future research should consider approaching mental health issues from a resilience perspective to further the understanding of protective mechanisms for this at-risk population.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Survey research on refugee and migrant populations can provide invaluable information, but in order to generate this information it is necessary to confront a variety of methodological challenges. It has proved particularly difficult to generate representative samples of mobile populations in developing cities, where refugees and asylum seekers attempt to ‘hide’ from surveyors, and conventional sampling frames are confounded by intractable urban landscapes and a shortage of reliable baselines. This collection of papers addresses these problems by drawing on a decade of survey research in a city where these problems are especially acute: Johannesburg, South Africa. The contributors reflect on their field experiences, and associated successes and failures, in order to generate practical guidance and tips for researchers and practitioners working on similar issues elsewhere. In particular, the collection challenges the notion that representativity is an unachievable ideal in survey research on refugee populations, and thereby develops concepts and techniques to further refine sampling methods. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Conducting methodologically defensible, logistically feasible and affordable large-scale national surveys of migrants is a serious challenge. This paper outlines the pros and cons of working with and through NGOs which provide services to migrants, in order to conduct a national longitudinal survey on migrant access to basic public services. This access method clearly does not result in a sample which is representative of a total national population of migrants, but the paper argues that there are also benefits of such a methodology. Apart from making larger and more longitudinal surveys logistically and financially possible in the first place, such benefits include the formation of active and collaborative networks among organizations in the migrant rights sector; capacity building within this sector around research and the use and meaning of empirical data; and the direct integration of empirical data into local and national advocacy work. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This account reflects on potential challenges and benefits of designing and conducting a research project with ‘local’ practitioners. The collaboration with local practitioners provided a surprising mix of challenges and opportunities. It reveals that operational agencies often collaborate or conduct research or assessments for their own purposes and are often biased due to limited research capacity, untested presuppositions, or a strong (and understandable) desire to ensure that their results affirm a need which the relevant agency can help to address. That said, operational agencies often bring with them extensive knowledge about the geographical and human environments that can assist in designing a survey and negotiating access to difficult and potentially hostile communities. While somewhat compromised, the data produced by this sampling strategy and collaboration is powerful and useful in revealing—and challenging widely-held assumptions about—differences in socio-economic and safety vulnerabilities among groups and sub-places sampled. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Through the discussion of the methodological and ethical challenges experienced when designing and implementing a cross-sectional household survey exploring linkages between migration, HIV and urban livelihoods in Johannesburg, this paper argues that it is possible to generate data sufficiently representative of the complexities and differences present in an African urban environment. This is achieved through employing purposive and random sampling techniques across both urban formal (three suburbs in the inner city) and urban informal (an informal settlement on the edge of the city) areas. Urban informal settlements present particular challenges requiring extensive community engagement and mapping to develop a sufficiently representative sampling frame. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Adequate knowledge about the spatial distribution of immigrants, particularly those undocumented, can be a significant challenge while designing social science surveys that are aimed at generating statistically valid results using probability samples. Often the underlying expectation of documented information on a population’s physical distribution and orderly surveillance units needed for random sampling is frustrated by the lack of knowledge about immigrants’ settlement patterns. Addressing these challenges, this paper summarizes a strategy employed for surveying difficult-to-reach immigrant populations in the absence of a reliable sampling frame in inner-city Johannesburg. The survey applied a nationality stratified, three-stage cluster random sampling strategy involving an innovative use of spatial information from a geo-database of buildings within inner-city Johannesburg. An enumeration of the method and challenges faced in the data collection are discussed here to demonstrate the feasibility of probability sampling within non-homogeneously distributed population groups in the absence of pre-existing sampling frames. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Roma people have specific values, therefore their views and beliefs about illness, dying and death are important to be known for health care providers caring for members of this community. The aim of this qualitative study based on 48 semi-structured interviews with Roma patients and caregivers in communities in two regions of Romania was to examine their selfdescribed behaviors and practices, their experiences and perceptions of illness, dying and death. Five more important themes about the Roma people facing dying and death have been identified: (1) The perception of illness in the community as reason for shame and the isolation that results from this, as well as the tendency for Roma people to take this on in their self image; (2) The importance of the family as the major support for the ill/dying individual, including the social requirement that family gather when someone is ill/dying; (3) The belief that the patient should not be told his/her diagnosis for fear it will harm him/her and that the family should be informed of the diagnosis as the main decision maker regarding medical treatment; (4) The reluctance of the Roma to decide on stopping life prolonging treatment; (5) The view of death as ‘impure’. These results can be useful for health care providers working with members of the Roma community. By paying attention to and respecting the Roma patients’ values, spirituality, and relationship dynamics, the medical staff can provide the most suitable healthcare by respecting the patients’ wishes and expectations. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper studies the long-term consequences of the government-sponsored programs of European immigration to Southern Brazil before the Great War. We find that the municipalities closer to the original sites of nineteenth century government sponsored settlements (colônias) have higher per capita income, less poverty and dependence on Bolsa Família cash transfers, better health and education outcomes; and for the areas close to German colonies, also less inequality of income and educational outcomes than otherwise. Since that is a reduced form relationship, we then attempt to identify the relative importance of more egalitarian landholdings and higher initial human capital in determining those outcomes. Our findings are suggestive that more egalitarian land distribution played a more important role than higher initial human capital in achieving the good outcomes associated with closeness to a colônia.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • The experience of race in the United States is shaped by both self-identification and ascription. One aspect reflects personal history, ancestry, and socialization while the other draws largely on appearance. Yet, most data collection efforts treat the two aspects of race as interchangeable, assuming that the relationship between each and an individual’s life chances will be the same. This study demonstrates that incorporating racial self-identification and other-classification in analyses of inequality reveals more complex patterns of advantage and disadvantage than can be seen using standard methods. These findings have implications for how racial data should be collected and suggest new directions for studying racial inequality in the United States and around the world.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Data on race have been collected in South African censuses for a century. We examine the role played by the census in solidifying race as a social statistic and show that, in contrast to the majority of situations, operational and legislative factors rendered the census largely unimportant as a vehicle for doing this. Since 1994, race has been entirely self-reported and not subject to state reinterpretation. We examine the implications of this for future data collection exercises and caution against reifying race as a predictor of social outcomes in post-apartheid South Africa, and argue for its gradual phasing out.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The national census is often seen as a site of struggle for minorities seeking recognition and equality. Much less is known about the conditions under which ethnic majorities are galvanized to stake identity claims in the census. This article examines recent trends in New Zealand where an increasing number of people from the dominant New Zealand European group are redefining themselves as ethnic New Zealanders. Drawing from the literature on ethnic boundaries, we theorize the factors underlying the surge in New Zealander identification, and present census data to demonstrate its selective appeal. We also review patterns of national naming in North America and Australia to show that the New Zealander phenomenon reflects a broader shift by settler state majorities to reimagine their identities. The implications for ethnic counting in other contexts are briefly considered.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “During the same time period, the United States, Great Britain and Canada all moved towards ‘counting’ mixed-race on their national censuses. In the United States, this move is largely attributed to the existence of a mixed-race social movement that pushed Congress for the change – but similar developments in Canada and Britain occurred without the presence of a politically active civil society devoted to making the change. Why the convergence? This article argues that demographic trends, increasingly unsettled perceptions about discrete racial categories, and a transnational norm surrounding the primacy of racial self-identification in census-taking culminated in a normative shift towards multiracial multiculturalism. Therein, mixed-race identities are acknowledged as part of – rather than problematic within – diverse societies. These elements enabled mixed-race to be promoted, at times strategically, as a corollary of multiculturalism in these three countries.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Despite increasing demand from policymakers and academics alike, effective policies on ethnic data collection for social inclusion purposes are still absent in most of Europe. This paper proposes to explain the failure to produce these policies by the coexistence of and tensions among contradictory frames on ethnic counting. An in-depth analysis of Hungarian policies reveals that three mutually inconsistent policy frames connect ethnic counting to ethnic diversity in many different ways. These frames are group self-determination, individual rights, and social inclusion. This paper illustrates the tensions among the three through a discussion of two core but divisive aspects of collecting ethnic statistics: defining ethnic classifications for counting and defining membership in ethnic groups for policy purposes. Tensions among the three result in inconsistent and inefficient policies of ethnic counting.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Statistics on ethnicity, if not on ‘race’, are common in a large number of countries around the world, but not in the western part of Europe. This divergence can be explained by legal prohibitions attached to data protection provisions and by a political reluctance to recognize and emphasize ethnic diversity in official statistics. Following different traditions of political framing, northern, central and eastern European countries have implemented different ways of collecting ‘ethnic statistics’. This article provides a review of the heterogeneity of methodologies used for converting ethnicity into statistics and discusses their limitations for any potential standardization. As part of the enforcement of anti-discrimination policies, European human rights institutions are urging a reconsideration of the choice of ‘colour-blind’ statistics. Counting or not counting by ethnicity raises epistemological and methodological dilemmas which this article attempts to identify.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • This paper analyzes the gender wage differentials among rural–urban migrants in China using a nationally representative data set. On average, male migrants earn 30.2% more hourly wages than female migrants. The gender wage gap is not uniform across migrants’ wage distribution, and wage differentials are found to be much higher at the top end than at the bottom and the middle of the wage distribution. Using newly developed methods, we decompose the distributional gender wage differentials among rural migrants into endowment effects, explained by differences in productivity characteristics, and discrimination effects attributable to unequal returns to covariates. We find that discrimination effects contribute more to the wage gap than endowment effects throughout the wage distribution. Although the raw gender wage differential is the largest at the higher end of migrants’ wage distribution, our decomposition results show that the relative gender wage discrimination problem is most serious among low income migrants.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In the United States, unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are a diverse and extremely vulnerable group served by social workers about whom there is little research. URMs enter the United States from many lands without parents or kin, often having experienced war and other traumatic events. Using a risk and resilience framework, we summarize the research on URMs, illustrating the challenges and issues with a case study of a resilient Lost Boy from Sudan who became a social worker. We discuss strengths, coping strategies, and resilience, exploring the ways in which many URMs are able to effectively meet the challenge of adapting to a new country and culture, thriving despite the extreme adversity they have experienced, as well as sources of resilience within URMs that have allowed them to adapt and even thrive in a vastly different cultural environment despite exposure to multiple risks. These sources of resilience include positive outlook, use of healthy coping mechanisms and religiosity, and connectedness to prosocial organizations. We conclude with recommendations for social work research to better understand the nature of risk and resilience among URMs.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Abstract. In the relatively rare instances when the spatialities of temporary migrant work, workers’ journeys, and labour-market negotiations have been the subject of scholarly attention, there has been little work that integrates time into the analysis. Building on a case study of low-paid and insecure migrant manual workers in the context of rapid economic growth in India, we examine both material and subjective dimensions of these workers’ spatiotemporal experiences. What does it mean to live life stretched out, multiply-attached to places across national space? What kinds of place attachments emerge for people temporarily sojourning in, rather than moving to, new places to reside and work? Our analysis of the spatiotemporalities of migrant workers’ experiences in India suggests that, over time, this group of workers use their own agency to seek to avoid the experience of humiliation and indignity in employment relations. Like David Harvey, we argue that money needs to be integrated into such analysis, along with space and time. The paper sheds light on processes of exclusion, inequality and differentiation, unequal power geometries, and social topographies that contrast with neoliberalist narratives of ‘Indian shining’.
    Keywords: space–time, Harvey, temporary migration, migrant workers, India”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Asylum seekers, refugees who are resettled in third countries or those who are forced into refugee camps, present new challenges to social work practitioners. In an attempt to advance theory and develop specialised practice in the area of refugee studies within social work as an international profession, we argue that whatever the flight context, the country of asylum or of resettlement, there is a process underlying what Malkki referred to as refugeeness. This article focuses on the situation of Iraqi refugees in Jordan as an example of the challenges that confront today’s refugees. We show that salient issues raised in a local community centre’s needs assessment mirror those elements that are central to integration processes that have been discussed in much of the refugee studies literature across the world. We show how these concerns are closely linked to processes that resettled refugees and asylum seekers face, regardless of the country of resettlement. We introduce a framework for analysing an individual refugee’s situation and show how an international phenomenon is linked to local practice.

    La situation des demandeurs d’asile, des réfugiés réinstallés dans un pays tiers et de ceux qui sont contraints à vivre dans des camps de réfugiés présente de nouveaux défis aux praticiens en travail social. Afin d’enrichir nos référents théoriques et pour le développement de stratégies d’interventions spécialisées dans le domaine des études sur les réfugiés en travail social, nous arguons qu’un processus sous-jacent, appelé par Malkki réfugitude (refugeeness) est ici en cause indépendamment du contexte de fuite, du pays d’asile ou de rétablissement. Cet article est basé sur la situation des réfugiés Iraquiens en Jordanie et illustre les défis auxquels sont confrontés les réfugiés d’aujourd’hui. Nous démontrons que des problèmes saillants soulevés par les besoins évalués par un centre communautaire reflètent les éléments essentiels du processus d’intégration déjà discuté dans les travaux de recherche sur les réfugiés à travers le monde. Nous démontrons que ces préoccupations sont étroitement liées aux processus auxquels les demandeurs d’asile et les réfugiés rétablis font face, quel que soit le pays de rétablissement. Nous y introduisons un cadre théorique permettant l’analyse d’une situation individuelle vécue par un réfugié et démontrons comment un phénomène international peut être relié à une pratique locale.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “By describing the everyday lives of African migrant mothers and their children in Morocco, this paper highlights how migration and ‘immobility’ in so-called ‘transit countries’ are gendering and gendered experiences. Relying on migrants’ narratives, the paper demonstrates how migrants’ transitions to motherhood create both specific and gendered spaces for agency and particular and gendered constraints upon agency that shape women migrants’ mobility dynamics in space and time.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Objectives: This article examines how aspects of a specific locality, history and set of practices interact to produce an obesogenic environment. The Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework and a biocultural approach are used to examine one obesogenic environment – that experienced by British Bangladeshi adolescents (ages 11-14 years old) in Tower Hamlets, East London. Interdisciplinary literature and methods explore how physical, economic, cultural, and political pressures in school, street, and home micro-environments influence eating patterns and practices. Design: This ethnographic research included living on a council estate and working as an assistant physical education teacher in two secondary schools in Tower Hamlets. Anthropometric and socioeconomic characteristics were collected from the young people whose physical education classes I assisted (n=447). Then interviews and questionnaires were completed with a subsample of participants (n=165) drawn from the first phase of research to understand the factors that influence eating patterns. Results: Among this group of adolescents, interwoven cultural and structural pressures encourage frequent consumption of energy-dense foods in their schools, streets, and homes. They were exposed to factors that have led to the widespread increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity such as the increased availability and affordability of energy-dense foods. In addition, they faced cultural and structural pressures associated with being the adolescent children of immigrants from Bangladesh and living in an economically depressed neighborhood. Conclusion: To develop a comprehensive understanding of the factors that may lead to weight gain in different ethnic, geographic and socioeconomic contexts it is important to examine the pressures specific to that context that might influence the variety and frequency of food consumption. This type of research may lead to the identification of points of intervention that are specific to the pressures and sensitivities of particular environments.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In IZA Discussion Paper no. No. 6104 (November 2011), the authors investigate the relationship between remittances and migrants’ education both theoretically and empirically, using original bilateral remittance data.

    At a theoretical level the authors lay out a model of remittances interacting migrants’ human capital with two dimensions of
    immigration policy: restrictiveness, and selectivity. The model predicts that the relationship between remittances and migrants’ education is ambiguous and depends on the immigration policy conducted at destination. The effect of education is more likely to be positive when the immigration policy is more restrictive and less skill-selective.

    These predictions are then tested empirically using bilateral remittance and migration data and proxy measures for the
    restrictiveness and selectivity of immigration policies at destination. The results strongly support the theoretical analysis, suggesting that immigration policies determine the sign and magnitude of the relationship between remittances and migrants’ education.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Summary: The initial occupational placements of male immigrants in the United States labor market vary significantly by country of origin even when education and other individual factors are taken into account. Does the heterogeneity persist over time? Using data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 Censuses, this paper finds that the performance of migrants from countries with lower initial occupational placement levels improves at a higher rate compared with that of migrants originating from countries with higher initial performance levels. Nevertheless, the magnitude of convergence suggests that full catch-up is unlikely. The impact of country specific attributes on the immigrants’ occupational placement occurs mainly through their effect on initial performance and they lose significance when initial occupational levels are controlled for in the estimation.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • The economic literature provides much evidence of the positive impact of social capital on migrants’ economic outcomes, in particular through assistance upon arrival and insurance in times of hardship. Yet, although much less documented, migrant networks may well have a great influence on remittances to their home country and particularly to their origin households. Given all the services provided by the network, the fear of being ostracized by network members and being left with no support could provide incentives for migrants to commit to prevailing redistribution norms. In this perspective, remittances may be a fee that migrants pay to get access to network services. In this paper, we thus analyze to what extent migrant networks in the destination country influence the degree to which migrants meet the claims of those left behind. We first review existing models of remitting behavior and investigate how the potential role of networks could affect their main predictions. We then provide a simple illustrative theoretical framework to account for the double impact networks may have on remitting behavior, through the provision of services to migrants and the spread of information flows between home and host countries. We finally use an original dataset of 602 Senegalese migrants residing in France and Italy to explore the main predictions of our model.

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.