Daily Archives: Sunday, October 14, 2012

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “This poetic piece is a response to the question, does a goal for reconciliation betray truth or truth reconciliation? It disassembles and dislocates the logical and regularized ways in which we have tried to forge a path towards a future after war. Poetry, I would argue, provides an inroad towards recognizing the chaotic reality of life after war and the near impossible task of finding solutions that will assuage the pain from the past and provide justice to the survivors. This attempt to locate the place between (or outside) truth and reconciliation is presented as an annotated poem, with the creative aspect introducing and debating the issues and the academic notations providing a bolster for the positions. The poem is divided into three discernible parts and has two points of view, one of which is italicized and from a first-person point of view.

    Part one sets the location in postconflict northern Uganda, where I come from. Having witnessed the effects of the war through the media and personal accounts of friends and relatives, the war between various rebels (notably the Lord’s Resistance Army) and the government of Uganda has become the most enduring metaphor for struggle in my own life as an Acholi woman living in the diaspora with a fleeting sense of home located in a warzone. I combine a number of stories to create a contemporary representation of the quotidian for a fictional ordinary citizen in Gulu, one who was likely abducted by rebels at some point during the war. I use this unnamed character to present arguments for or against truth and reconciliation as a requirement for moving forward. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Hirsi Jamaa and Others v Italy or the Strasbourg Court versus Extraterritorial Migration Control?

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article critically analyses the European Court of Human Rights’ case law on anti-Roma violence. Its reluctance to recognise Article 14 violations in almost all involved cases stands in stark contrast with the Court’s strong rhetoric against racial discrimination. After demonstrating how the Strasbourg judges maneuvered themselves into this position, the author shows how they could change their jurisprudence. Thus, they would finally stop contributing to presenting and legally constructing Europe as a place where racial discrimination exists only in the rarest cases. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Extreme speech forms pose acute questions for liberal democracies. Abstract, non-absolute constitutional commitments to freedom of speech/expression are required to be interpreted against countervailing values such as equality, privacy and social harmony. On this side of the Atlantic, the rich body of First Amendment analysis generated by the US jurists is frequently dismissed as an outlier among the group. The emphasis there upon individual freedom and distrust of state power is said to miss the collective dimension of human existence and the rightful role of the state in promoting caring, empathetic communities. In what follows, tensions between the United States and UK/European attitudes towards the limits of constitutional protection for speech are analysed through the lens of the US Supreme Court’s ruling in Snyder v Phelps. I argue that, despite the undoubted nastiness of the speaker’s words and intentions in that case, the more censorious European response to such abuse is underpinned by a troubling attempt to enforce a degree of homogeneity upon political discourse. The state’s aim in so coercing may appear benign. However we should not lose sight of the fact that, so empowered, temporary political majorities may impose a range of speech restrictions that ultimately diminish personal autonomy under the guise of advancing the common good. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The implementation of economic, social and cultural rights has received considerable attention in recent years. There are several controversies that are addressed in these debates, not least the issue of how to define and allocate resources for such implementation. This article argues that this debate may be one-dimensional in concentrating uniquely on the financial aspects of resources. While the author recognises that financial and budgetary allocations are necessary for the realisation of all human rights, it is argued that with a more diverse approach to the understanding of how resources are made available in society through the application of natural, human, educational and regulatory resources much can be achieved without necessarily increasing the financial commitments. This diverse approach would focus on the qualitative use of already available resources, rather than uniquely on an increase in financial means for the implementation of economic, social and cultural rights. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper examines the potential of rotating savings and credit associations (RoSCAs) as agents of pro-poor community development and well-being in rural northern Rwanda, the area most severely disrupted during and since the civil war and genocide in the 1990s. The economic gains of membership, effects on social capital, and the inclusiveness of RoSCAs are explored. RoSCAs facilitate mobilization of a variety of resources. Members pool finances that are utilized to support the fulfilment of basic needs at the household level, in addition to building up assets. Social capital is both inherent to and stimulated by membership of a RoSCA, through the building of trust, collective actions undertaken, and the values shared by the members. RoSCAs were found to be relatively inclusive, particularly when compared with more formal credit schemes, often including representatives of the most marginalized, and therefore most vulnerable, socio-economic categories. Membership generally involves relatively small payments while contributing to positive subjective perception as well, thus fostering further human well-being. RoSCAs therefore warrant appraisal beyond the immediate financial opportunities they generate, because of their production and reproduction of values such as democracy, reciprocity, and solidarity, and thus their significant contribution to community development and human well-being. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Discussing new or recently reformed citizenship tests in the USA, Australia, and Canada, this article asks whether they amount to a restrictive turn of new world citizenship, similar to recent developments in Europe. I argue that elements of a restrictive turn are noticeable in Australia and Canada, but only at the level of political rhetoric, not of law and policy, which remain liberal and inclusive. Much like in Europe, the restrictive turn is tantamount to Muslims and Islam moving to the center of the integration debate.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines the democratic status of irregular immigrants from the vantage point of different models of democratic inclusion. The argument developed is that irregular immigrants are in fact members of the democratic state by virtue of being subjected to the legally binding norms in the territory of the state. The extension of the vote and other political rights to irregular immigrants nevertheless remains problematic due to their ‘illegal’ status. Because this status follows from the restrictive border policies implemented by most contemporary states, it shows that the ideal of democratic inclusion is scarcely reconcilable with a policy of restrictive cross-border movement. The conclusion defended in the article is that the interest in keeping borders restricted reduces the prospects for democratic inclusion in contemporary states.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The article considers the issue of citizenship in light of the recent developments in biometric identification techniques. It aims to answer the question as to what kind of citizenship is the ‘biometric citizenship’. Drawing on several empirical examples including the Iris Recognition Immigration System scheme, identity cards and current citizenship reform plans in the UK, I argue that biometric citizenship is at once a ‘neoliberal citizenship’ and a ‘biological citizenship’. The neoliberal aspect of biometric citizenship is demonstrated through the rearrangement of the experience of border crossing in terms of the neoliberal ethos of choice, freedom, active entrepreneurialism and transnational expedited mobility. At the same time, these are enacted alongside the exclusionary and violent measures directed at those who are considered as risky categories illustrating the constitutive relationship between the ‘biometric citizen’ and its ‘other’. As regards its biological aspect, biometric citizenship is embedded within rationalities and practices that deploy the body not only as a means of identification but also as a way of sorting through different forms of life according to their degree of utility and legitimacy in relation to market economy. This aspect also carries a racial and national dimension exemplified in both the national identity card scheme and the very technical infrastructure of biometric technology. Overall, what these two features have in common is the reduction of the principle of citizenship to processes of identity management and technical procedures without, however, purging it altogether from its all too familiar national and race-based components.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Studies of post-nationalism have declined considerably among citizenship scholars in recent decades, and have been largely ignored by social movement scholars in favour of more trans-national approaches. Using a case analysis of a migrant rights movement in Canada as evidence of a ‘post-national ethics in practice’, in this article I argue for a re-consideration of the usefulness of post-nationalism within current scholarship on precarious immigration status. Taking into account both the limitations and opportunities afforded by a post-national ethical framework, I examine how the movement uses a human rights framing in distinct ways to mobilize constituents, garner mainstream media attention, and effect changes to policy at the national and local level. My findings suggest that the use of human rights frames for these movements offers both risks and rewards; however, the benefits may outweigh the risks in cases in which the quality of exposure within mainstream narratives is enough to disrupt, even if momentarily, the pervasiveness of normative nationalism, opening up new spaces for reconfiguring citizenship at the local level.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The proliferation of migrant and refugee camps for governing populations challenges the contemporary politics of citizenship. This article explores the camp as a question of citizenship. How do camp spaces enable the reproduction of certain spaces as the proper sites of politics and the constitution of some subjects and not others as the proper political subjects of citizenship? Can we think about camps as spaces of politics and citizenship-making? Situating the camp within the context of the historical emergence of extraterritoriality in relation to citizenship, I argue that camps reproduce orientalist mappings of the world that deem some people incapable or unworthy of citizenship. Rather than a space of exceptionality, outside of and separate from the space of the citizen, the article investigates the camp as both a political and politicized space, in which artists, activists and migrants use the camp as a site of building de-orientalizing cartographies to politicize migrant rights and political subjectivities.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article analyses a series of migrant mobilizations which took place in 2010 and 2011 throughout Italy: the unrest in Rosarno, the migrant general strikes on 1 March, the campaign and the strike against undeclared work in Nardò and the occupation of a construction crane in Brescia. Engin Isin’s principles of investigating acts of citizenship provide a theoretical background for understanding them as a coherent, new cycle of struggles in the crisis of neoliberalism. As proved by those mobilizations, migrants can significantly contribute to open the boundaries of neoliberal citizenship, when they construct themselves as activist citizens. Moreover, the contestation of an exclusionary, racialized and competitive model of society can become a goal shared by migrants and nationals alike, opening up an alternative social model based on equal entitlements to rights, solidarity and real democracy.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Archbishop of Canterbury’s speech on ‘Civil and Religious Law in England’, delivered in 2008, attracted considerable public and academic attention. In the resulting ‘Sharia debate’, traces of (legal) orientalism became especially visible in an essentialist portrayal of ‘Sharia’ as being in opposition to ‘the West’. What is missing in debates conducted at the abstract level of compatibility–incompatibility, East–West, law–religion is an analysis of the actual practices of family law of Muslims in contemporary Britain. People marry, divorce, bring up their children and deal with death by resorting to a variety of norms such as Sharia law, English family law and customary law. Drawing on legal pluralism scholarship and elements of Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of the field, this article challenges the exclusive focus on positivist state law as the sole legal framework within which Western conceptions of citizenship are being imagined. It analyses practices of British-Muslim family law as an incipient ‘legal field’ that is developing a corresponding market of Islamic legal services. The article concludes with a discussion of the connection between citizenship, law and orientalism. It shows British-Muslim family law as a set of new hybrid legal practices of citizenship that counter the effects of orientalism.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The threat that immigration poses to the so-called Western democratic values is increasingly the subject of public discourses, especially regarding Muslim migrants. We could label these discourses as neo-orientalist because of their willingness to refer to the (often Muslim) migrant as a savage, uncivilized, terrorist ‘other’; in the words of Sartori, as an ‘anti-citizen’. This article reflects how citizenship, following a contemporary logic of orientalism, has become a set of guidelines, discourses, practices and policies for the governance of migration. Indeed, these are the guidelines through which neoliberal globalization liberalizes the free movement of citizens and ‘westernized’ foreign persons while deploying technologies of citizenship and border control against different subjects, regarded as eternal outsiders, or even aliens, because of their supposed incivility, threat or un-integrability. The ultimate purpose of this article is to argue that if we are to arrive at a model of citizenship beyond orientalism, there is a need to abandon the current orientation which inspires border and citizenship regimes.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The history of the development of Palestinian nationalism is vast and recent scholarship continues to focus on the creation of national identities in the modern Middle East. However, the creation of internationally recognised citizenship of the Arab Middle East during the era of mandates has not been studied in-depth. In the case of Palestine, the creation of Palestinian citizenship by the British as a colonial power was a unique yet delicate process and one which was rejected by the Arabs. The British sought to create an apolitical citizenship, one without civil or political rights, in order to satisfy both the mandate terms and the Jewish national home policy. By the time the citizenship was conferred, the Arab population of Palestine had a detailed counter-discourse to the British notion of citizenship. The Palestinians viewed their civic identity as imbued with rights of citizenship, but they saw themselves in terms of having a primordial nationality by birth. In effect, the certificate of citizenship produced by the British came out of colonial processes despite the fact that the British were instead meant to be an international trustee in Palestine. This article presents that process, with reference to the Palestinian reaction to the legislation of Palestinian mandate citizenship.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article theorises the notion of environmental citizenship in the context of climate change and migration discourse. The central claim of the article is that postcolonial theory is inadequate for fully coming to terms with the way in which the figure of the climate change migrant works as an oppositional referent to the environmental citizen. This is because postcolonial theory tends to trace how the colonial past animates the present, whereas climate change and migration discourse is written almost exclusively in the future-conditional tense. The resulting analysis focuses on the consequences the future-conditionality of climate change and migration discourse has for conceptualising environmental citizenship in the context of climate change. One such consequence is that the category ‘race’ must be reconceptualised as a future potential of bodies rather than the effect of historical signification.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 2004, the first citizenship ceremony was conducted in the London Borough of Brent. These compulsory ceremonies for those who have been granted British citizenship had been proposed in the government white paper and then in the 2002 Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act. They were designed to celebrate the moment of achieving citizenships and were one response to a perceived ‘crisis of citizenship’ in Britain. This study examines the texts of the ‘local welcome’ which is given by a local dignitary at every ceremony as a moment of invention of tradition and of narrating citizenship and thereby narrating the nation-state. The study explores how and what the speeches tell us about understandings of citizenship and its relationship to diversity. It explores how history is also represented within the speeches. Finally, the study interrogates the texts’ telling of a multi-cultural story.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Does sustained and increasingly transnational immigration weaken the national character of citizenship regimes? This paper addresses this issue by examining French responses to immigration over a 40-year period. In spite of the changing character of immigration and changing state strategies, all governments throughout this period have sought to maintain the national character by making full access to rights contingent on one’s conformity to national values and moralities. As the government made accessing rights dependent on conformity to national norms, the legitimacy of immigrant activists seeking to expand their rights has depended on their abilities to conform to the rules of the national political game. Resisting marginalization therefore requires the assimilation of the immigrants into nationally specific political cultures, which contributes to reinforcing the national character of citizenship regimes. By examining the particular case of France, the paper aims to show how top-down and bottom-up processes by states and activists work in different ways to keep the nation at the center of citizenship regimes in spite of the ongoing and very real challenges presented by transnationalism and globalization.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article explores how displaced Tibetans demarcate and characterize the Tibetan demos in the process of building a democratic community and a government-in-exile. In this democracy-in-exile, defining the demos is not only a means of representing a people, but also a means of regaining a lost homeland. Two specific instances of the construction of a transnational exile demos are investigated: citizenship and political representation. The Tibetan Government-in-Exile’s formalized idea of citizenship builds upon ideals of equal and loyal members who form a single unit bounded by a common cause. This also constitutes the foundation for Tibetan citizens’ political representation in the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile. The parliament’s definition of the demos enhances regional and religious adherence as essentials for determining who the Tibetan people are. The article refers to problems regarding how this construct, which defines who is included into the demos, inevitably means that some are excluded as well.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In May 2008, Berlusconi’s newly elected coalition introduced new measures to facilitate the expulsion and repatriation of European community citizens, simultaneously declaring a ‘State of Emergency with regards to the Settlement of Nomadic Communities in Lazio, Campania and Lombardy Regions’. Through an analysis of these laws and their material effects, this article will show how they constituted Romanian Roma as abject European citizens. In the process, it will argue that this process of abjection was dependent on earlier processes that first categorised the Roma as ‘nomads’ and relegated them to the abject space of the ‘nomad camp’. The article will conclude by arguing that the constitution of the Roma as abject citizens does not only occur through the act of expulsion, but through the condition of deportability induced by the threat of expulsion.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Toward a politics of representation beyond hegemonic neoliberalism: the European Romani movement revisited”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Devolutionary trends in immigration and social welfare policy have enabled different levels of government to define membership and confer rights to people residing within the political boundary of a province or municipality in ways that may contradict federal legal status. Drawing upon theories of postnational and deterritorialized citizenship, we examined the legal construction of social rights within federal, provincial, and municipal law in Toronto, Ontario. The study of these different policy arenas focuses on rights related to education, access to safety and police protection, and income assistance. Our analysis suggests that the interplay of intra-governmental laws produces an uneven terrain of social rights for people with precarious status. We argue that while provincial and municipal governments may rhetorically seek to advance the social rights of all people living within their territorial boundaries, program and funding guidelines ensure that national practices of market citizenship and the policing of non-citizen subjects are reproduced at local levels.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article investigates how colonial attitudes towards race operate alongside official multiculturalism in Canada to justify the legally exceptional exclusion of migrant farm workers from Canada’s socio-political framework. The Canadian Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program is presented in this article as a relic of Canada’s racist and colonial past, one that continues uninterrupted in the present age of statist multiculturalism. The legal continuation and growth in the use of non-citizens to conduct labour distasteful to Canadian nationals has provided an effective means for the Canadian state to regulate the ongoing flow of non-preferred races on the margins while promoting a pluralist and ethnically diverse political image at home and abroad. In the face of a labour shortage constructed as a political crisis of considerable urgency, the Canadian state has continued to admit non-immigrants into the country to perform labour deemed unattractive yet necessary for the well-being of Canadian citizens while simultaneously suspending the citizenship and individual rights of those same individual migrant workers. By legislating the restriction of rights and freedoms to a permanently revolving door of temporary non-citizens through the mechanism of a guest worker programme, the Canadian state is participating in the bio-political regulation of foreign nationals.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Latino immigrants are remaking residential landscapes in Phoenix, Arizona. This case study explores Garfield, a Mexican immigrant neighborhood, where transformations to residential landscape have altered existing community space creating Latino cultural space. Landscape study and visual documentation in Garfield demonstrate how Latino immigrants transform the living environment of a once decayed inner-city neighborhood. Findings suggest that placemaking changes brought by Latino immigrants, particularly residential housescapes, can be a culturally sustainable practice that enhances the neighborhood aesthetic. It remains problematic whether Mexican housescapes can be successfully incorporated into Latino Urbanism because the creation process carries social meaning that is difficult to reproduce.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “State terror in Argentina in the late 1970s was aimed at dismantling social relationships of mutual commitment and solidarity and imposing in their stead practices of fear, isolation and mistrust. A permeating network of clandestine detention centers and illegal burial sites played a key role in spreading localized state terror to the whole of society. After describing the broader context of the dictatorship’s urban space restructuring policy, this article explores various practices currently taking place in former clandestine detention centers ‘recovered’ by civilians. The author suggests that the opening of these centers allows the emergence of narratives and everyday practices that can counteract the ones that prevailed under the dictatorship, fostering the opposite effect – active citizenship, counternarratives of terror and restored social networks. This approach highlights potential uses of memorial sites that have not received enough attention to date. Moreover, it can act as a bridge between the paradigm of transitional justice and the developments and aims of spatial justice. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Non-indigenous migrants dominated the African population of Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia’s capital city, until the mid-1950s. ‘Nyasa’ labour migrants (from British colonial Nyasaland, now Malawi) enriched urban popular culture and played a major role in the development of the country’s industrial and rural economies. Despite this, people of Malawian origin have been marginalised from political life during both the colonial and postcolonial periods, and neglected in Zimbabwe’s urban historiography. This article foregrounds ‘Nyasa’ migrants in the city, highlighting three of their religious expressions that emerged in Salisbury and became a prominent feature of the city’s urban culture and religious landscape. The ‘Church of Central Africa, Presbyterian’ (CCAP), Yao or ‘Chawa’ Muslim associations and the ‘Nyau’ society became well established in colonial Salisbury and continue to be associated with people of Malawian ancestry in contemporary Harare. These religious groups played a role in the construction of new urban identities and helped migrants to create a sense of belonging in the city particularly during periods of rapid urbanisation and political change. By exploring life histories and archival sources, this study furthers our understanding of Zimbabwe’s urban past while informing current debates on identity politics, citizenship and belonging in the region. It raises two new issues: firstly, ‘Nyasa’ labour migrants were among the first Africans to work and settle in Salisbury during the colonial period, and many used religious networks to establish themselves within new urban communities. Secondly, despite the longevity and depth of their commitment to urban life in Salisbury (and later Harare) these migrants have been targeted by exclusionary state policies at moments of political and economic crisis, during both the colonial period and since 2000. The Zimbabwean government’s selective accounts of national identity ignore these histories of migration and marginalise important minority groups because they lack cultural ties to the land, despite their central role in the shaping of Zimbabwe’s cities.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Rapidly growing migration and entertainment industry in China since the 1980s have resulted in numerous rural migrant women working as prostitutes. Previous studies have identified a number of factors contributing to women’s involvement in prostitution. It is unknown, however, whether these factors apply to Chinese women’s situation. The current study’s findings show that the presence of friends and/or coworkers, the prevalence of entertainment establishments, and advertisements appear as indispensable factors in women’s involvement in prostitution. It is suggested that future studies pay attention to the effects of situational factors on women’s involvement in prostitution. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Objective: The present study seeks to examine the impact of therapeutic

    interventions for people from refugee backgrounds within a naturalistic setting.

    Methods: Sixty-two refugees from Burma were assessed soon after arriving in

    Australia. All participants received standard interventions provided by a resettlement

    organisation which included therapeutic interventions, assessment, social assistance, and

    referrals where appropriate. At the completion of service provision a follow-up assessment

    was conducted.

    Results: Over the course of the intervention, participants experienced a

    significant decrease in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and

    somatisation. Pre-intervention symptoms predicted symptoms post-intervention for

    post-traumatic stress, anxiety and somatisation. Post-migration living difficulties, the number

    of traumas experienced, and the number of contacts with the service agency were unrelated

    to all mental health outcomes.

    Conclusions: In the first Australian study of its kind, reductions in mental health

    symptoms post-intervention were significantly linked to pre-intervention symptomatology and

    the number of therapy sessions predicted post-intervention symptoms of post-traumatic

    stress. Future studies need to include larger samples and control groups to verify

    findings. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper explores a holistic relationship-based approach to promoting the well-being of separated refugee children in the UK. Based on children’s testimonies and case examples gathered over the past 10 years, it provides an overview of the practical and emotional support needs of separated children, including the asylum process, education, social services support, accommodation and health, from the point of arrival in the UK and through the transition to adulthood. Reflecting on practice, the paper explores strategies for supporting children suffering mental distress and considers the critical role that practitioners can play in the healing process by helping children to make sense of their experiences. Finally, the paper discusses the importance of both professional and personal relationships in enabling children to develop a sense of belonging and providing opportunities to share and create positive memories, which can help them move beyond stories of loss towards a more hopeful future. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Racism is a term on which a great deal of discourse does and should turn in all realms of social work theory, practice, policy, and research. Because it is a concept heavily freighted with multiple and conflicting interpretations and used in a wide variety of ways, the idea and action of racism is not easy to teach or learn in a simple and straightforward manner. It is a term the meaning of which has been the subject of so much argument and mutation that its utility as a clear and reliable descriptor of a crucial form of ideology or behavior is less than certain. In this article, an analysis of the dispute over the proper definition of racism is undertaken, and an approach to teaching about the term is offered in an effort to provide both teachers and students with a clear, consistent, and useful understanding of this important and challenging phenomenon. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In the United States, unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are a diverse and extremely vulnerable group served by social workers about whom there is little research. URMs enter the United States from many lands without parents or kin, often having experienced war and other traumatic events. Using a risk and resilience framework, we summarize the research on URMs, illustrating the challenges and issues with a case study of a resilient Lost Boy from Sudan who became a social worker. We discuss strengths, coping strategies, and resilience, exploring the ways in which many URMs are able to effectively meet the challenge of adapting to a new country and culture, thriving despite the extreme adversity they have experienced, as well as sources of resilience within URMs that have allowed them to adapt and even thrive in a vastly different cultural environment despite exposure to multiple risks. These sources of resilience include positive outlook, use of healthy coping mechanisms and religiosity, and connectedness to prosocial organizations. We conclude with recommendations for social work research to better understand the nature of risk and resilience among URMs. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “State terror in Argentina in the late 1970s was aimed at dismantling social relationships of mutual commitment and solidarity and imposing in their stead practices of fear, isolation and mistrust. A permeating network of clandestine detention centers and illegal burial sites played a key role in spreading localized state terror to the whole of society. After describing the broader context of the dictatorship’s urban space restructuring policy, this article explores various practices currently taking place in former clandestine detention centers ‘recovered’ by civilians. The author suggests that the opening of these centers allows the emergence of narratives and everyday practices that can counteract the ones that prevailed under the dictatorship, fostering the opposite effect – active citizenship, counternarratives of terror and restored social networks. This approach highlights potential uses of memorial sites that have not received enough attention to date. Moreover, it can act as a bridge between the paradigm of transitional justice and the developments and aims of spatial justice. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The human rights movement in Argentina has remained steadfast in its demand for retributive justice in addressing the legacies of the Argentine military dictatorship (1976–1983), which disappeared up to 30,000 citizens. One of the most agonizing issues has been the need to locate kidnapped children of the disappeared in the custody of members of the armed forces and the efforts to reunite them with their biological families by a human rights organization, Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo. The process of ‘restitution’ by which their biological identities are restored to them has generated resistance among some of the children, who reject the notion that they are victims of a crime. Through several case studies, this article examines how the everyday lives and interpersonal familial relationships of these children have become battlegrounds for transitional justice. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Transitional justice mechanisms designed to deal with the past can collide with or be amplified by localized ‘everyday’ memory work in divided societies. This article argues that transitional justice actors need to take more account of the rich, dense and pervasive forms of memory in divided societies, which can provide insight into postconflict narratives and how they impact on transitional processes, how memory entrepreneurs can advance claims and how zones of engagement between communities in conflict may function, or fail to function. A series of ‘vignette’ case studies of everyday political memory in Northern Ireland is used to interrogate localized memory making and the corresponding need to obtain a better empirical and analytical purchase on ambiguous transitional environments. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In 2003, a trial of 10 Nazi officers accused of perpetrating a massacre in Sant’Anna di Stazzema began in Italy. The trial took place almost 60 years after the massacre, in which approximately 400 civilians, mainly women, children and elderly people, were killed. This article, based on eight years of ethnographic research, analyses these 60 years by concentrating on how the survivors and the relatives of the victims were able to overcome the trauma and accept, at the end, a late reconciliation. The article contends that ‘choral memory’ acted as a strong resistance mechanism, protecting the village community from the destructive power of violence, as well as from later public oblivion, and making possible its material survival and symbolic continuity. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Patient-reported experiences of care are an important focus in health disparities research. This study explored the association of patient-reported experiences of care with race and acculturation status in a primary care setting. 881 adult patients (African-American 34 %; Hispanic—classified as unacculturated or biculturated—31 %; Caucasian 33 %; missing race 2 %), in outpatient Family Medicine clinics, completed a written survey in Spanish or English. Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) Clinician & Group (CAG) Survey Adult Primary Care instrument was used for experiences of care and Short Form-12 survey for health status. Controlling for other variables, race and acculturation were significantly associated with several CAG subscales. Hispanic patients gave significantly higher ratings for care experiences and expressed greater interest in shared decision making. Selected patient-reported measures of care are associated with patients’ race and acculturation status (for Hispanic patients). We discuss implications for both provision and measurement of quality care. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Hostility towards the process of European integration is generally considered to constitute one of the hallmarks of the far right ‘family’ in Europe. This article acknowledges such opposition but it also recognises that the rhetoric is often at odds with actual policy activities and aspirations. Not only have far right parties long advocated greater European inter-party co-operation but they are now actively pursuing engagement with the European Union, especially the European Parliament, as a means of advancing their own strategic interests and boosting their finances. This article focuses on one far right party, namely the British National Party (BNP) and examines the party’s approach towards the EU, its activities within the EP and its efforts to boost pan European cooperation through the new Alliance of European National Movements (AENM). It argues that the party’s engagement with the European Union may have allowed the BNP to take advantage of new political opportunity structures but in turn, opened it up to Europeanization and made it increasingly dependent on the EU. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article critically analyses the European Court of Human Rights’ case law on anti-Roma violence. Its reluctance to recognise Article 14 violations in almost all involved cases stands in stark contrast with the Court’s strong rhetoric against racial discrimination. After demonstrating how the Strasbourg judges maneuvered themselves into this position, the author shows how they could change their jurisprudence. Thus, they would finally stop contributing to presenting and legally constructing Europe as a place where racial discrimination exists only in the rarest cases. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Hirsi Jamaa and Others v Italy or the Strasbourg Court versus Extraterritorial Migration Control? “

    tags: newjournalarticles

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