Daily Archives: Sunday, July 22, 2012

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • The issue of South–North migration, especially Africa–European Union (EU) migration, has moved to the center stage of international development debate. Unfortunately, however, interests and arguments by policy-makers, development agencies, and citizens of the EU mainly focus on the consequences of migration on the “receiving” societies. The real causes of migration from Africa and migrants’ contribution to the social and economic development of both the “sending” and “receiving” countries have not been objectively discussed. Provision of labor to EU member countries, remittances, and financial transfers to and investments made by African migrants in their respective home countries are essential elements in the African–EU migration and development cooperation debate. It is estimated that South–North migrants’ remittances to developing countries increased from US2billionin1970toUS71 billion in 2001. Moreover, financial flows emanating from African migrants in the developed countries significantly contribute to the development of the continent. In order to concretize and objectify the discussion, a socio-economic survey was conducted on a representative sample of Ghanaian migrants and their families in the Flemish Community in Belgium. Extensive literature review on migration, administration of questionnaires to Ghanaians resident in Flanders, Belgium, and consultations with African and international experts on migration and international development cooperation were the methods used for this investigation. The paper identifies and analyzes the factors that “push” and “pull” Ghanaians to migrate to Belgium, the EU, and the developed countries in general. The socio-economic situation of Ghanaian migrants in Flanders and their contribution to the sustainable development of Belgium, the EU, and Ghana are rigorously analyzed. Furthermore, the challenges posed by South–North migration are identified and appropriate and effective win-win mitigation strategies proposed for redressing the problematic in a sustainable way.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines the effects of multiculturalism of the 198s and 199s on the organisational patterns of immigrant populations in the Netherlands. This is a controversial topic in this country since politics of multiculturalism have allegedly excessively sponsored migrant organisations causing their ‘fragmentation’ and having adverse consequences for these organisations’ role in the integration process. Based upon a systematic survey of the available data about postcolonial migrant organisations from 1945 to 28, our conclusion is that the growth in postcolonial migrant organisations from the 198s onwards has been impressive. For this specific category of immigrants, there is, however, little in the way of evidence that links this growth, or fragmentation of the landscape of migrant organisations for that matter, to Dutch multicultural minorities policies. Much of the growth should be related to the global phenomena of emerging identity discourses and increasing levels of identity politics. The policy implication is that, at least for the Netherlands, government policies creating favourable conditions for migrant organisations have been discarded without proper justification as counterproductive.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Using data from the 2002 Ethnic Diversity Survey (EDS), this paper compares fertility behavior across four groups of generations: recent and long-term immigrants of 1st generation, plus second and third generations. Several important findings emerge from this study: First, consistent with previous studies, we have documented higher current fertility among recent immigrants, but childbearing is lowest in the second generation. Second, although cumulative fertility tends to be significantly higher among long-term immigrants than recent immigrants, it becomes more similar to that of second and successive generations after adjusting for socio-demographic composition. This suggests that it is not generation per se, but compositional characteristics associated with generation groups that underlie fertility differentials. It can be argued that differences in the fertility patterns of long-term immigrants in Canada are likely to diminish as their socio-economic and cultural characteristics converge to those of the Canadian-born. This study also documents ethnic minority and age at arrival differences, suggesting higher fertility for those who are less acculturated or assimilated into the society.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • As research reveals that the healthy immigrant effect, whereby the health of immigrants at the time of arrival is high but subsequently declines and converges toward that of the native-born population, also extends to mental well-being, this paper aims to examine the barriers to mental health care for immigrants in Hamilton, Ontario. Through the use of face-to-face interviews with eight service providers, barriers to care were revealed to include cultural insensitivity, stigma and shame, and limited resources. Suggestions for improvements to mental health care are also discussed.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Abstract
    OBJECTIVE:

    To compare intrapartum outcome between ethnic Ethiopian women and the general obstetric population in Israel.
    METHODS:

    In a retrospective study, computerized data from all Ethiopian women who delivered between January 2004 and August 2011 at a university teaching hospital in Afula, Israel, were assessed. The control group comprised non-Ethiopian Israeli women, who were matched at a ratio of 1:2 on the basis of deliveries that took place immediately before and after delivery by an Ethiopian woman. The primary outcome was incidence of operative delivery.
    RESULTS:

    During the study period, 576 Ethiopian women delivered along with 1152 matched control women. Ethiopian women had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia (6.8% versus 4.0%, P=0.01) and early postpartum hemorrhage (4.3% versus 1.6%, P=0.003) than control women. After adjustment for potential confounders, the incidence of vacuum or cesarean delivery was significantly higher among Ethiopian than among control women (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.20; P=0.002). The incidence of composite major perinatal morbidity, including Erb palsy and cord pH less than 7.1, tended to be higher among Ethiopian women than among control women (2.3% versus 1.1%; P=0.053).
    CONCLUSION:

    Although prepartum and intrapartum care are standardized, Ethiopian women had a less favorable intrapartum outcome.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “An estimated 30–70% of Nairobi’s population lives in informal settlements with very poor access to basic services, yet children are notably absent from the informal settlements. This paper combines qualitative research with three micro data sets and finds that the presence of urban basic services is importantly linked to child residence of migrant parents. This finding is critical for policy debates on slum improvements. It predicts that improvements in services need to be accompanied by appropriate social and educational improvements servicing children and supports recent calls for a more multi-sectoral, participatory, and child-centered approach to urban informal planning.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight the situation on the unaccompanied foreign minors in the Italian legal system, paying special attention to the Lampedusa humanitarian emergency in 2011.

    Design/methodology/approach – The legal treatment of these subjects is on the borderline between two distinct sets of laws: those for minors, based on principles of protection and support; and those for immigrants based on public security and therefore inspired by principles of control and defense. For this reason the question of the legal treatment of unaccompanied foreign minors is a decidedly complex matter because it requires the assumption of a clear responsibility on the part of the host State that, in accordance with international conventions, must provide for the welfare of a child by ensuring a healthy development and securing their fundamental rights.

    Findings – The paper examines the legal measures regulating the status of unaccompanied foreign minors in the Italian legal system, in order to understand if they are efficient in giving protection and offering integration to these minors.

    Originality/value – The paper offers insights into the most vulnerable category of illegal immigrants.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “As people taking risks to refashion their lives in new locations, and as super-creative persons who innovate in the cultural realm, immigrant cultural workers would seem ideal recruits for cities eager to pursue the creative city agenda for growth. Cultural workers immigrate because of personal connections, individual choices and serendipitous circumstances. Their ability to continue to work in the cultural sector in smaller urban regions depends on factors such as the market response to their artistic medium, the permeability of local social networks and family circumstances. Even as public policy celebrates innovation and diversity, immigrant cultural workers experience precarious creativity. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.