Daily Archives: Sunday, July 8, 2012

New Report: I’d Rather be in Prison: Experiences of African in Immigration Detention in the UK

A new report by the African Health Policy Network and entitled, I’d Rather be in Prison: Experiences of African in Immigration Detention in the UK.

A Full Report and an  Executive Summary can be downloaded from the African Health Policy Network.

 

New Publication: Women’s Rights in Uganda

Women’s rights in Uganda: gaps between policy and practice

Women’s rights in Uganda: gaps between policy and practice

A new report by The International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) entitled Women’s rights in Uganda: gaps between policy and practice.

The report, based on findings of an investigation mission conducted in December 2011, highlights that the adoption of legislation to regulate marriage and divorce has been pending for over 14 years and that, in the absence of such a law, protection is piecemeal and fractured and significant gaps exist. The Marriage and Divorce Bill, which is pending before Parliament, fixes the minimum legal age for marriage for both sexes at 18, grants women the right to choose their spouse and the right to divorce spouses for cruelty and prohibits the customary practice of “widow inheritance” (allowing men to “inherit” the widows of their deceased brothers (levirat)). It also defines matrimonial property, provides for equitable distribution of property in case of divorce and recognises some property rights for partners that cohabit. However, the Bill does not apply to Muslim marriages, nor does it prohibit polygamy or payment of the “bride price”.

To download the full report click on the link below:

New Publications on Sanctuary; Children; Humanitarian Assistance

Sanctuary in the city?

Sanctuary in the city?

Sanctuary in the city? Urban displacement and vulnerability in Kabul
HPG Working Papers, June 2012
By Victoria Metcalfe and Simone Haysom, with Ellen Martin.

This study explores the phenomenon of displacement in the urban environment and the implications and challenges it poses for humanitarian action in Kabul, Afghanistan.Published by ODI as part of the HPG Working Papers series.

[Download Full Report]
(Source: Humanitarian Practice Network)

Age Assessment (Scottish Refugee Council, June 2012) [access]
– Practice Guidance and an Information Guide are available.
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog)

Arrested Development: Colombian Youth in Panama (Women’s Refugee Commission, June 2012) [text via ReliefWeb]
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog)

A Framework for the Protection of Children (UNHCR, June 2012) [text]
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog)

A Framework for the Protection of Children

A Framework for the Protection of Children

New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, vol. 2012, no. 136 (Summer 2012) [contents] [Google preview]
– Special issue on “Independent Child Migration—Insights into Agency, Vulnerability, and Structure.”
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog)

Position Paper on Age Assessment in the Context of Separated Children in Europe (Separated Children in Europe Programme, 2012) [text]
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog)

Annual Report 2011 (ICRC, June 2012) [access]
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog)

Are They Listening? Aid and Humanitarian Accountability (IRIN, July 2012) [access]
– New In-Depth report on aid policy.
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog)

The SG’s Report on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict: A Humanitarian Perspective (International Peace Institute, June 2012) [text via ReliefWeb]
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog)

Talking to the Other Side: Humanitarian Engagement with Armed Non-state Actors, HPG Policy Briefs, no. 47 (ODI, June 2012) [text]
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog)

The first State of the Humanitarian System report was launched yesterday.  Here is part of the blurb:

This report presents a system-level mapping and analysis of the performance of international humanitarian assistance. The pilot report on the State of the Humanitarian System (SOHS) was published in 2010 and focused on the years 2007 and 2008. This report includes descriptive statistics from the following two years, 2009 and 2010, and reviews performance assessments from 2009 to the end of 2011, comparing findings from the two periods. The ‘international humanitarian system’ is defined here as the network of national and international provider agencies, donors and host-government authorities that are functionally connected to each other in the humanitarian endeavour and that share common overarching goals, norms and principles. The system also includes actors that do not have humanitarian assistance as their central mission but play important humanitarian roles, such as military and private-sector entities.

(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog)

Table of Contents: Disasters Journal

Disasters

Disasters

The latest table of contents for the journal Disasters, namely Volume 36, Issue 3 Pages 365 – 558, July 2012 has just been published.  Further details of the articles included are outlined below:

Disaster risk reduction capacity assessment for precarious settlements in Guatemala City (pages 365–381)
Scott B. Miles, Rebekah A. Green and Walter Svekla
Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01267.x

Enhancing disaster management by mapping disaster proneness and preparedness (pages 382–397)
Vishal Mishra, Sanjay Fuloria and Shailendra Singh Bisht
Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01269.x

Social, not physical, infrastructure: the critical role of civil society after the 1923 Tokyo earthquake (pages 398–419)
Daniel P. Aldrich
Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01263.x

Effects of the Bam earthquake on employment: a shift-share analysis (pages 420–438)
Nader Mehregan, Ali Asgary and Rouhollah Rezaei
Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01268.x

Emotional and behavioural reactions to tremors of the Umbria-Marche earthquake (pages 439–451)
Gabriele Prati, Valeria Catufi and Luca Pietrantoni
Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01264.x

Long-term gendered consequences of permanent disabilities caused by the 2005 Pakistan earthquake (pages 452–464)
Humaira Irshad, Zubia Mumtaz and Adrienne Levay
Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01265.x

An analysis of seismic risk from a tourism point of view (pages 465–476)
P[a WITH DIAERESIS]ivi M[a WITH DIAERESIS]ntyniemi
Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01266.x

Inequalities in exposure and awareness of flood risk in England and Wales (pages 477–494)
Jane L. Fielding
Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01270.x

The living environment and children’s fears following the Indonesian tsunami (pages 495–513)
Ye Beverly Du, Christopher Thomas Lee, Desy Christina, Myron L. Belfer, Theresa S. Betancourt, Edward James O’Rourke and Judith S. Palfrey
Article first published online: 21 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01271.x

An adaptive governance approach to disaster-related behavioural health services (pages 514–532)
Simon A. Andrew and James M. Kendra
Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01262.x

Substance use among populations displaced by conflict: a literature review (pages 533–557)
Nadine Ezard
Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01261.x

Table of Contents: Development and Change

Development and Change

Development and Change

The latest edition of the the table of contents for the journal Development and Change, namely Volume 43, Issue 4 Pages 823 – 998, July 2012, has just been published.  Details of the articles included within are outlined below:

Original Articles

Counselling Citizens and Producing Patronage: AIDS Treatment in South African and Ugandan Clinics (pages 823–845)
Lisa Ann Richey
Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.2012.01782.x

Reforming Land and Water Rights in South Africa (pages 847–868)
Philip Woodhouse
Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.2012.01784.x

The IMF, the World Bank, and the Global Economic Crisis: Exploring Paradigm Continuity (pages 869–898)
Ali Burak Güven
Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.2012.01781.x

Consistent and Transparent? The Problem of Longitudinal Poverty Records (pages 899–918)
Bernard Walters, Richard Marshall and Frederick Nixson
Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.2012.01785.x

Child Trafficking: ‘Worst Form’ of Child Labour, or Worst Approach to Young Migrants? (pages 919–946)
Roy Huijsmans and Simon Baker
Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.2012.01786.x

The Expansion of Industrial Tree Plantations and Dispossession in Brazil (pages 947–973)
Markus Kröger
Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.2012.01787.x

Greening the Counterinsurgency: The Deceptive Effects of Guatemala’s Rural Development Plan of 1970 (pages 975–998)
Nicholas Copeland
Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.2012.01783.x

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “The modern migration pattern of international migration in the Arab Gulf States (AGSs) began to take shape with the discovery of oil resources. The early development of the oil industry in the 1930s became the driving force behind the first organized import of foreign workers to the oil-producing countries of the AGSs. The historical approach of this article explains the impact that the early oil concessions had on the migration patterns in the AGSs. The nationality clause provoked, not only a circulation of manpower from one sheikhdom to another and international migration, but also created a segmentation of the labor market on the grounds of nationality.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article studies repeat or circular migration between the host and home countries using panel data for Germany, distinguishing between factors generating single moves, circular migration, and absorption. Migrants are more likely to leave early after their first arrival in Germany, and when they have social and familial bonds in the home country, but less likely when they have a job in Germany and speak the language well. Once out-migrated, the return probability is mainly affected by remittances and family considerations. Circular migration is fostered by vocational training in the host country and older age. Whereas male migrants are 9 percent more likely to return to their home country than female migrants, gender is not significant for predicting the return to move back to Germany.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Resettled refugees living in Western countries frequently report high levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This study sought to measure levels of physiological arousal in a group of resettled Iraqi refugees in Australia receiving psychological treatment. A continuous recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) data was used to examine baseline heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in refugees (n = 25) and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 23). Descriptively, PTSD (48%) was the most commonly noted disorder followed equally by major depressive episode (36%) and dysthymia (36%) in the refugees. Examination of the physiological data indicated that the refugee group had increased resting HR compared with healthy controls (78.84 vs. 60.08 beats per minute, p < .001). No significant differences were noted in the HRV data with age, gender, and years of education included in the model. This finding highlights the importance of examining levels of arousal in refugees presenting with mental health complaints to provide appropriate treatment strategies.

    Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies."

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The City of London’s competitiveness is founded on its global talent pool and ability to attract and retain workers of all nationalities. Drawing on ONS Long-Term International Migration data and fieldwork-based studies of banking, professional services and business education, the argument of this paper is 2-fold: that the City’s competitiveness is significantly dependent on the functioning of its global labour market, of which a key factor is the immigration of European Economic Area (EEA) and non-EEA talent, and that a central determinant of the City’s position as a leading international financial centre based around a highly competitive global labour pool will be UK immigration policy in the wake of the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and ensuing recession. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The fertility of immigrants’ children increasingly shapes the ethnic diversity of the population in Western Europe. However, few data are available on the fertility patterns of immigrants and their offspring. This article provides new fertility estimates of immigrants and immigrants’ children by ethnic group in the United Kingdom that may provide better-informed fertility assumptions for future population projection models. The impact of migration-specific tempo effects on the period TFR of immigrants is analyzed. Among the results, intergenerational fertility transitions strongly contribute both to fertility convergence between ethnic groups and to fertility “assimilation” or “intergenerational adaptation” to the UK mainstream childbearing behavior. Ethnic fertility convergence, particularly marked for populations originating from high-fertility countries, reflects in part decreasing fertility in sending countries and in part intergenerational adaptation to the UK mainstream. Higher educational enrollment of the daughters of immigrants may partly explain their relatively lower fertility.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

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  • “This paper explores the way in which service providers in East Anglia, a region of the United Kingdom, in 2002–2003 represent asylum seekers as problematic, isolated, and largely vulnerable dependents. In doing so, support organizations assume an exclusive position of expertise and knowledge of asylum seekers’ predicaments. This exclusivity can be understood as the ‘official explanation’ [Spivak, G. C. (1987) In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics, Methuen, New York/London, p. 114] put forth by organizations in order to ensure that they maintain a degree of influence in government policy, as well as to ensure a competitive edge in the arena of service provision, and to lobby and advocate the needs of asylum seekers. This paper explores the paradox of an organized system of support that works to assist asylum seekers to be independent and yet in doing so represents asylum seekers as dependent and excludes them from decision-making processes. However, by considering asylum seekers’ speech-acts, we can recognize that what they talk about is in itself a strategy employed to push the boundaries of their predicament and to negotiate a possible future. In doing so, the development of an active dialogue between asylum seekers and the services that assist them can be considered. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In November 2011, Human Rights Watch (“HRW”) released, to great media attention, a report documenting the abuses by Chinese state-owned enterprises (“SOEs”) against local miners in Zambia. 2 A sweeping indictment of their labor practices, the report charges that, among other things, Chinese mine operators routinely coerce Zambian workers to toil in unsafe and unhealthy conditions for long hours at low wages in violation of domestic and international law. 3 This is one of the only in-depth studies by a nongovernmental organization (“NGO”) to focus on China’s human rights record in Africa thus far. 4 Its authors, however, are certainly not the first to allege widespread labor violations by Chinese firms throughout the continent. 5 A growing body of literature is exposing similar abuse of African workers at the hands of Chinese employers across countries and industries. 6

    Less documented, however, are the conditions that Chinese nationals face while working for many of the same private and state-run firms that are under scrutiny for mistreating locals. 7 Chinese corporations tend to hire more of their own nationals than any other foreign firms operating in Africa. 8 Although the numbers vary, sources estimate that between five hundred thousand and one million Chinese citizens currently live on the continent, with migrant contract workers comprising the largest portion of this group. 9 While the literature on African workers commonly invokes international and domestic labor standards, it is unclear what domestic protections and remedies are available to Chinese workers in Africa …”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “In late 2011 to early 2012 the four UK Boundary Commissions published their provisional recommendations for new parliamentary constituencies. These were produced according to new rules for redistributions legislated in 2011, which make electoral equality the paramount criterion; organic criteria—such as continuity of constituency boundaries and fitting those within the maps of communities represented by local government territories—could only be taken into account so long as the arithmetic criterion that all constituencies have electorates within ±5 per cent of the UK quota is met. Those recommendations were much more disruptive to the pre-existing constituency map than many had anticipated, and the outcome—should the proposed constituencies (or some variant of them) be finally adopted—will see much less continuity and reflection of community identities than previously. That fracturing is particularly extensive in urban England because of that Boundary Commission’s decision not to split wards between constituencies; if that had been done, as illustrated here, the outcome could have been much less disruptive overall. As it stands, the outcome suggests that the underpinning theory of British representative democracy—that Members of Parliament represent places with clear identities—is being undermined.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • This article is based on an ethnographic study conducted in a South African church following the May 2008 xenophobic violence and subsequent displacement of over 100,000 foreigners. It explores the relationships between a group of established, privileged members of the church and a group of displaced refugees, who had found shelter in the church. Our aim is to contribute to an enriched conceptualisation of social justice for social work with refugees and other vulnerable groups the context of a South Africa’s unequal and polarised society. The study’s theoretical framework comprises feminist and relational approaches social justice. The data were analysed using a combination of critical discourses analysis and grounded theory. Our findings depict a deepening web of relationships, in which antagonistic ways of relating affirmed pre-existing hierarchies of race, socio-economic status and citizenship, working at cross-purposes with respectful and dignifying forms of mutual engagement between the two groups. We conclude by reasserting the need for social workers to engage continuously and critically with those expressions of injustice as are specific to the particular contexts in which we may find ourselves. This involves a reflexive engagement with our own implication in these structural and relational constellations.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • This paper examines the impact of private, quasi-market versus public steering of educational systems on European youngsters’ attitudes towards immigrants. There has recently been a drive for a quasi-market strategy in the provision of education, inspired by the hope that this will increase both quality and cost-effectiveness. However, research has shown that this policy leads to greater inequality between schools and individual pupils. In this paper we use the data from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS 2009) to see whether the extent of market steering lessens support for immigrants’ rights. Such an effect is expected because market steering is thought to increase the inequality between schools and to lead to a concentration of immigrant children in schools where pupils with weak socio-economic backgrounds are concentrated. The focus of the analysis is on the country level variation in the attitudes towards immigrants. Controlling for overall immigration pressure, quasi-market systems are observed to lead to less support for immigrants’ rights, and this is largely due to the higher concentration of immigrant children in low SES schools in such systems. These characteristics of the educational system explain about half of the cross-national variation in attitudes towards immigrants among the 21 countries observed.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Chinese migrant workers form a substantial body of people who move to large cities from rural areas to seek employment. As they settle into the large urban cities, these internal migrants experience challenges that are similar to those of international migrants, and of members of ethnic groups who engage in the process of acculturation. Many see this flow as a problem, one that needs to be understood through research using evidence based on concepts and methods used in international acculturation research. In the present study, we examine the Urban Identity of 787 migrants, using the Migrant Workers’ Urban Identity Questionnaire developed by Gui (2010). This instrument distinguishes two aspects of urban identity: social identity and place identity. In addition, 328 of these respondents were tested with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larson, & Griffin, 1985) and the Global Self-Worth Scale (Huang & Yang, 1998). Findings show that the acculturation strategies model based on international immigrants’ identity can apply to the seasonal migrant workers’ identity. With respect to their acculturation strategies: (1) different operationalisations of the second dimension in the two dimension model lead to a different classification of acculturation strategies; the ‘deeper’ the psychological phenomena the less migrant workers want to engage the national society; (2) different acculturation strategies were favored in social identity and place identity domains; (3) data from the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Global Self-Worth Scale shows, by and large, that integration is the best acculturation strategy (and the marginalization the worst) for achieving wellbeing in both social identity and in place identity. This corresponds to findings and conclusions of much of the previous research on acculturation based on international migration.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Two studies examined how members of Chinese subgroups, namely Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese, perceived attributes reflected by acts in positive and negative news about the Sichuan earthquake in China as prototypical of the superordinate category of Chinese as a whole. Mainland Chinese, but not Hong Kong Chinese, perceived positive acts as more prototypical of Chinese than negative acts, and identification with the superordinate category mediated this effect of subgroup membership on perceived prototypicality. In addition, cynical beliefs moderated the interaction between group identification and event valence on perceived prototypicality. When social cynicism was high, positive versus negative acts were considered as more prototypical of Chinese among high identifiers whereas the reverse pattern was found among low identifiers. However, when social cynicism was low, positive and negative acts were considered as equally prototypical regardless of Chinese identification. These results revealed the motivational and cognitive forces underlying the construction of group prototypes, and underscored the added value of social axioms in understanding perceptions of culturally salient events.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Research on adolescents’ interethnic relations indicates that parents can resist their children’s ethnic outgroup relations. However, there is little insight into the underlying reasons for this. The current study examines how cultural groups differ in parental acceptance of their children’s outgroup relations, and it examines the role of perceived family reputation vulnerability as well as parents’ religiosity. In addition, it was investigated whether parental acceptance of outgroup relations differs for different outgroups. This was studied among Turkish (n = 49) and Dutch (n = 73) parents of first grade middle school students. Parental acceptance of intimate ethnic outgroup relations was lower among Turkish–Dutch than among Dutch parents. This difference was explained by group differences in perceived family reputation vulnerability and religiosity. It is concluded that concerns about culture transmission and family reputation are related to parental acceptance of outgroup contact, which explains differences in parental acceptance between cultural groups. In addition, status considerations seem to explain differences in parental acceptance of their children’s close contacts with different outgroups.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • This study examined the cultural identity of third culture individuals, defined as people who lived outside their passport country during their developmental years. A qualitative approach utilizing in-depth interviews with 19 participants from six different countries and with varied intercultural experiences was employed in order to explore their perceptions of identity, sense of belonging, multiculturalism, intercultural communication competence, as well as positive and negative factors attributed to their experiences of a life on the move. Results show that third culture individuals are more apt to possess multiple cultural identities or a multicultural identity than a confused cultural identity, as previous research had indicated. Additionally, results suggest that while they lack a clear sense of belonging, they are competent intercultural communicators and perceive their experiences as mainly beneficial.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cultural intelligence (CQ) and emotional intelligence (EI) on an individual’s adjustment in a different cultural environment. A paper-based survey, with a return rate of 42.1%, was completed by 295 international college students who studied for a degree or were interested in learning Chinese as a second language in Taiwan. The data were analyzed using hierarchical regression to test the effect of CQ on cross-cultural adjustment, and the moderating effect of EI on the relationship between CQ and cross-cultural adjustment. The results showed that CQ had a positive effect on cross-cultural adjustment after controlling for gender, age, previous overseas experience, English ability, and host-country language ability. In addition, we found that EI positively moderated the relationship between CQ and cross-cultural adjustment. The present study demonstrates the importance and utility of CQ and EI in understanding the links relating to cross-cultural adjustment. The results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of cross-cultural research, and it provides practical implications for individuals seeking to improve their cross-cultural effectiveness.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • This study explored the influence of five multicultural personality traits (i.e., social initiative, emotional stability, open-mindedness, flexibility, and cultural empathy) in predicting international students’ openness to diversity and cross-cultural adjustment. Data from 341 international students indicated that emotional stability and social initiative contributed directly to international students’ adjustment in the United States. In addition to these direct effects, the data also supported indirect effects of open-mindedness, flexibility, and cultural empathy via their influence on openness to diversity. Specifically, students who were more open-minded, flexible, and empathic also demonstrated greater openness to diversity, which in turn led to better adjustment.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Islamophobic sentiments in the Western world have gained scientific attention, particularly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. However, the effects of religious stigma on Muslim minorities’ identity formation have rarely been studied. Using structural equation modeling, this cross-sectional study examined direct and indirect effects of different forms of religious stigma on the national affiliation of 210 Norwegian-Pakistani and 216 German-Turkish Muslims. Furthermore, the study examined the mediator role of religious identity. Our results suggest that being a Muslim in Norway is more reconcilable with affiliating with the nation than being a Muslim in Germany. However, across the samples, the results indicated that various forms of religious stigma affected Muslims’ national identity and engagement in the public and private sphere in distinct ways. These effects were both positive and negative, differed between the two samples, and in Germany, were mediated by the participants’ religious identity. The findings indicated that the ways in which religious stigma influences Muslims’ national affiliation is context and culture bound.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Results from a nationally representative sample of the New Zealand European majority and Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand) indicated that dual ideologies of symbolic exclusion and historical negation were differentially ameliorated and heightened through ingroup and outgroup contact (N = 4718). For New Zealand Europeans, contact with Māori friends increased the symbolic projection of Māori culture as representative of the national category. For Māori, contact with New Zealand European friends decreased the symbolic projection of ingroup culture as representative of the nation. Ingroup contact, in contrast, heightened support for the symbolic exclusion of Māori for New Zealand Europeans, and promoted symbolic projection for Māori. For both groups, outgroup contact was unrelated to levels of historical negation, an ideology relating to material reparation for colonial injustice. These results indicate that post-colonial ideologies relating to the symbolic promotion versus exclusion of indigenous culture are more amenable to change via contact than ideologies linked directly to reparative attitudes based on historical injustice. Furthermore, for indigenous peoples, contact with the majority group may increase system-favoring ideologies that exclude their own culture from representations of the nation.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • This study examined the similarity of immigrant and minority adolescents’ cultural values to those shared by the majority of the country they live in, i.e. the cultural value fit. It was hypothesized that immigrant and minority individuals who show different acculturation orientations differ in their cultural value fit. The highest cultural value fit was expected for individuals pursuing an assimilation orientation, the lowest fit for individuals with a separation orientation. Individuals with a marginalization or integration orientation were expected to take a mid position. Survey data were used from immigrant and minority adolescents: Immigrants from countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Germany (N = 862) and Israel (N = 435), immigrants from Turkey to Germany (N = 664), and members of the Arab minority in Israel (N = 488). Results of Analyses of Variance showed similar patterns in all four samples in line with the hypothesis but pointed also to stronger effects among FSU immigrants as opposed to Turkish immigrants and Arab Israelis. Results are discussed with regard to the general contribution of the cultural fit research for the acculturation research and with regard to the role of cultural value fit for psychological well-being of immigrants and minority members. The stronger effects found among the FSU samples as opposed to the Turkish respectively Arab Israeli sample are discussed against the background of the fact that the former are mainly diaspora-immigrants for which cultural value adaptation to the receiving country might be easier compared to the latter.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Berry (1990) distinguished four acculturation attitudes (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) arising from two acculturation questions (concerning cultural maintenance and cultural contact). This research examines the distributions of acculturation attitudes based on his original cultural maintenance–cultural contact conceptualization and on a later cultural maintenance–cultural adoption model. In line with the Relative Extended Acculturation Model it also compares the outcomes of real (self-reported behavioral) and ideal (attitudinal) assessments of acculturation. Two hundred and eighty-nine first generation immigrants in New Zealand participated in the study. In line with the hypotheses, integration occurred more frequently when derived from cultural contact than from cultural adoption and when acculturation was framed in attitudinal, rather than behavioral, terms. The findings point to the necessity of clearly defining the dimensions of acculturation, ensuring they are appropriately operationalized, and differentiating attitudinal and self-reported behavioral measures. The consequences of the operationalization of acculturation for its relationship to adaptation are also reported and discussed.

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  • Over the past decade, in Europe the attention of scholars, as well as the focus of the political debate on the ‘urban social cohesion’, has become increasingly oriented to the issue of immigrants’ spatial segregation. This concern has gradually led to the promotion of urban policies oriented to fight against the residential segregation on ethnic basis, although the effects of residential concentration per se and social inclusion are not clearly identified, and minor attention has been devoted to understand and fight against the casual factors leading immigrants to occupy the most residual part of the social and physical urban space. By proposing a comparative analysis of two urban contexts – Copenhagen, Milan – that are different in terms of immigrants’ presence and legal status, as well as labour market integration and general welfare regime, the study explores some mechanisms promoting the social and spatial marginalization of immigrants in Europe. It also analyses the most important urban policies dealing with residential segregation, evaluating their capacity of facing the phenomenon or promoting (unexpected) negative consequences.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • The war in Iraq began on 20 March 2003 and officially ended in 2011. The Iraqi refugee crisis that ensued has led to the displacement of more than 4.2 million people.1 More than 2 million Iraqi refugees are resettled abroad.2 Many Iraqi civilians seek humanitarian assistance in the countries to which they flee and require health services in the countries in which they resettle. In the surrounding regions of Iraq, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) often assumes primary responsibility for ensuring access to health care for refugees and asylum seekers (people whose refugee status has yet to be determined by the UNHCR). This includes surveillance of disease and provision of appropriate medical treatments.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • The issue of immigration is highly salient to citizens of industrialised democracies. Globalisation and the emergence of an international human rights regime, among other reasons, led to high levels of immigration to industrialised countries in recent decades. Immigrant-receiving states have shown only limited ability to control the size and composition of their immigrant population. Immigration has therefore emerged as a prominent political issue in practically all economically developed countries, and there are raising concerns over anti-immigration sentiments and nationalist tendencies that seem to be taking hold among modern publics. We argue that anti-immigration attitudes are not merely a response to increased immigration, but rather that these attitudes mirror governments’ nationalistic and anti-immigration stance. In addition, people who are interested in politics are expected to be more influenced by their governments’ policies than those who show less interest. We use data from the European Social Survey and the Comparative Manifesto Project to test these claims. Results from our multilevel models show that people living in countries where the government is right wing are more opposed to immigration than people living in countries where the government exhibits less right-wing tendencies. The effect of government policy positions is also found to be conditioned by political interest at the individual level.

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • Somali migrants fleeing the civil war in their country face punishing journeys, the loss of homes, possessions, and bereavement. On arrival in the host country they encounter poverty, hostility, and residential instability which may also undermine their mental health.

    tags: newjournalarticles

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