Daily Archives: Sunday, July 1, 2012

Launch of the State of the World’s Minorities and Indigenous Peoples Report 2012

State of the World's Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2012

State of the World’s Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2012

The Minority Rights Group International organisation have just launhced the 2012 edition of their flagship publication entitled, “State of the World’s Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2012.”

The following information is taken from the organisations website:

Links and Downloads:

Use the Download menu to the right of this page to access a printable PDF of the full text, or download individual chapters by theme or region.

Read the global press release, the Africa press release and the South East Asia press release.

View a video report.

About the Publication

Natural resource development projects such as logging and dams, oil and mineral extraction and large-scale agriculture have been successful in generating vast revenues across the globe. But at what cost to minorities and indigenous peoples?

In its flagship annual publication, State of the World’s Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2012, MRG documents hundreds of case studies about marginalized groups who have been adversely affected by exploitation of the resources found on, or under, their ancestral lands. It also considers land rights around the world.

Read this year’s edition for

  • Discussions on issues such as women’s land rights or corporate responsibility to protect human rights.
  • An examination of the growing body of legal standards and jurisprudence in the area of indigenous peoples’ rights.
  • Interviews and case studies from minorities and indigenous communities, including examples of how they are fighting back and campaigning to protect their rights.
  • Overviews of the human rights situation of minorities and indigenous peoples in every major world region.
  • Peoples under Threat 2012 – MRG’s unique statistical analysis and ranking of countries.

An invaluable reference for policy makers, academics, journalists and everyone who is interested in the human rights situation of minorities and indigenous peoples around the world.

Find untold stories from minorities and indigenous peoples affected by natural resource extraction and land rights issues in the Minority Voices Newsroom.

Subscribe to MRG’s publications here.

Follow MRG on Facebook and Twitter.

State of the World’s Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2012

New Publications on Climate Change; Humanitarian Engagement; Asylum; Palestinian Refugees; etc

UNHCR launched the report, “Climate Change, Vulnerability and Human Mobility: Perspectives of Refugees from the East and Horn of Africa” (UNHCR & UNU-EHS, June 2012), at the recent Rio+20 conference.  For more information, view the video report and read the related press release and news story.
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog).

Talking to the other side: Humanitarian engagement with armed non-state actors
HPG Policy Briefs 47, June 2012.
By Ashley Jackson.
[Download Here]
(Source: Humanitarian Practice Group).
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog).

Asylum Under Threat: Assessing the Protection of Somali Refugees in Dadaab Refugee Camps and along the Migration Corridor (Danish Refugee Council) [access]
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog).

New Threats, Existing Solutions: Palestinian Refugees 64 Years On (Palestinian Human Rights Organizations Council) [access]
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog).

How Much Further? (ECRE) [access]
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog).

The Search: Protection Space in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, The Philippines and Cambodia in Practice (JRS Asia-Pacific) [access]
(Source: Forced Migration Current Awareness Blog).

 

New Journal Articles on Refugee Issues (weekly)

  • “Since the introduction of mandatory detention of unauthorized non-citizens in Australia in 1992, there has been considerable public debate on the wisdom of such policy. The negative impact and long-term implications of indefinite detention on the health of detainees have been raised by medical practitioners and human rights advocates, with more strident argument emerging over the last five to six years. This article contributes to this debate through a methodical review of the Commonwealth Ombudsman’s Immigration Reports over the four-year period 2005 through 2009. From such reporting it has been possible to produce a systematic analysis which can be related to and positioned with respect to previously published research evidence. What emerges from this analysis is evidence of the significant parallels between immigration detention and the criminal justice system with regard to the conditions and longer-term mental health implications for those held in the two estates. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article aims to explore the practices relief workers employed in their efforts to rehabilitate refugees in postwar Europe. It argues that the objectives and methods UNRRA’s officers adopted to manage the phenomenon of mass displacement drew on a longer tradition of humanitarianism. Furthermore, these methods took shape as a result of the different ways staff in the field interpreted the organization’s mandate. The article looks at UNRRA’s aspirations to transform international relief into a modern profession, and analyses the obstacles that stood in the way of this endeavour. Particular attention is given to forms of assistance and entertainment organized in the camps. Aspects such as these provide strong evidence of the emergence of a construct that tended to represent relief workers as ‘rescuers’ and displaced persons as ‘recipients’. One striking feature of this emerging construct was that refugees came to be labelled as apathetic and unable to assume a role in society. The article attempts to shed light on the complex nature of the rehabilitation activities carried out in European Displaced Person (DP) camps in the hope of tracing the historical pathway taken by transnational humanitarian action. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “There is relatively little research into the housing experience of refugee immigrants to Australia as a category or into variations in their housing careers according to cultural backgrounds. To address this issue, data from the 1999/2000 Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia, the most recent available survey to include refugee immigrants, are used to examine the housing and related circumstances of the nine largest groups of refugees during their first 18 months of resettlement. Most resettled into the private rental market and were satisfied with their housing situation. Statistical analysis suggests that differences in individual characteristics rather than cultural backgrounds are for most groups the major cause of variations in housing experience. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article uses ‘national refugees’ in Italy after 1945 as a starting point for broader reflections on the classifications of displaced persons (DPs) employed in both international refugee law and historical accounts of the refugee in the postwar world. After 1945, Italy became temporary home to many persons displaced by the war and the consolidation of socialist regimes in Eastern Europe. At the same time, Italy had its own refugees forced to leave territories (including African colonies) lost with the collapse of fascism. Scholarship on flows resulting from decolonization (including settler returns) has remained distinct from that on post-war DPs. The analysis demonstrates the productiveness of conceptualizing these various experiences of displacement as ‘entangled histories’ marked by asymmetries of various types. In addition to reconsidering these global population movements as ‘entangled’, scholars might reframe the histories of imperial displacements as ‘extruded’. The notion of extrusion highlights the ways in which these histories and their bearers (particularly colonial repatriates) often prove uncomfortable, as in the Italian case. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Preliminary objections are a frequent first defence used by Defendant States before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. Despite this, the topic remains largely unexplored by legal authors. This article will conduct a systematic empirical analysis of all preliminary objections that the Court has examined during its 25 years of existence. Drawing on the analysis of primary data, the article will illustrate how the Court has actually dealt with 246 preliminary objections presented by the Defendant States. The purpose of the article is to use empirical evidence in order to identify those preliminary objections that are generally admitted by the Court, thus proving to be a valid defence; as well as those that are not successful, raising the question of the reasons behind their use by States. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Drawing on oral histories and British, Indian, and Pakistani archives of the post-Partition era, this article considers the historical subjectivity of refugees to Pakistan who came from the minority-Muslim provinces of India. In contrast to Muslim refugees who arrived under the cover of a bilateral transfer of population, Pakistan’s leadership discouraged residents of the minority-Muslim provinces from leaving India. I trace how migrants (muhajirs) from the minority-Muslim provinces imagine their migration in terms of the theologically informed concept of ‘sacrifice’. I contend that the sacrificial imaginary mediates the rupture that Pakistan’s sovereignty created between membership and inclusion within the Muslim nation. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines the perceptions and practices of Children’s Case Workers (CCW), employed at the Swedish Migration Board to safeguard children’s interests within the Swedish asylum reception system. The extensive discretionary powers that CCWs enjoy in interpreting and implementing policies are of particular significance. This qualitative study highlights the challenges experienced by CCWs at a regional branch, in their position at the intersection between conflicting policy objectives, and given the contradictions inherent in their professional role as street-level bureaucrats. It outlines the strategies employed by CCWs to manage contradiction and ambiguity, such as adapting to organizational pressures and restrictive norms, and exercising restraint in using their discretionary powers, but also finding ways of resisting when the discord between established practice and personal ethics becomes too great. These strategies shape the ways in which policy gets implemented in everyday practice. While a boost to the new image of the Migration Board as an institution promoting human rights, the CCWs find it difficult to implement children’s rights in the proactive ways envisioned. As a result, in CCWs’ experience, rather than being placed at the centre, children tend to be deported to the margins of daily organizational practice. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article contrasts three different refugee populations in Asia in order to draw attention to an aspect of the early UNHCR that has so far escaped the attention of refugee scholars. Existing research on the history of UNHCR emphasizes the agency’s Cold War origins and its evolving role in international politics. However, this article suggests that when it comes to understanding the UNHCR response to refugee crises in Asia in the 1950s, a Cold War perspective alone is insufficient. What emerges from this study is that the early UNHCR was both a Cold War era institution and a colonial era institution. UNHCR’s approach to refugee problems in Asia in the 1950s was shaped not only by a Cold War calculus but by a lingering colonial atmosphere, one in which it was taken for granted that ethnic Chinese were both unwelcome and barred from most western countries, and in which solutions to refugee problems in Asia were instead sought in older colonial understandings of the mass deployment of Chinese labour on a global scale to meet the needs of distant economies. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The modern migration pattern of international migration in the Arab Gulf States (AGSs) began to take shape with the discovery of oil resources. The early development of the oil industry in the 1930s became the driving force behind the first organized import of foreign workers to the oil-producing countries of the AGSs. The historical approach of this article explains the impact that the early oil concessions had on the migration patterns in the AGSs. The nationality clause provoked, not only a circulation of manpower from one sheikhdom to another and international migration, but also created a segmentation of the labor market on the grounds of nationality.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study reexamines the engagement of U.S. and French courts with immigration politics, aiming to provide a fuller accounting of how law and immigration politics shape one another. Jurisprudential principles are placed in national and historical context, elucidating the role of rights-oriented legal networks in formulating these arguments during the 1970s and early 1980s. The analysis traces how these judicial constructions of immigrants subsequently contributed to catalyzing a transformation of immigration politics in both countries. Immigrant rights jurisprudence is shown to be produced by, as well as productive of, broader political values, agendas, and identities.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The Tiananmen Square protests in 1989 and ensuing government crackdown affected Chinese nationals not only at home but also around the world. The U.S. government responded to the events in China by enacting multiple measures to protect Chinese nationals present in the United States. It first suspended all forced departures among Chinese nationals present in the country as of June 1989 and later gave them authorization to work legally. The Chinese Student Protection Act, passed in October 1992, made those Chinese nationals eligible for lawful permanent resident status. These actions applied to about 80,000 Chinese nationals residing in the United States on student or other temporary visas or illegally. Receiving permission to work legally and then a green card is likely to have affected recipients’ labor market outcomes. This study uses 1990 and 2000 census data to examine employment and earnings among Chinese immigrants who were likely beneficiaries of the U.S. government’s actions. Relative to immigrants from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and South Korea – countries not covered by the post-Tiananmen immigration policy measures – highly educated immigrants from mainland China experienced significant employment and earnings gains during the 1990s. Chinese immigrants who arrived in the U.S in time to benefit from the measures also had higher relative earnings in 2000 than Chinese immigrants who arrived too late to benefit. The results suggest that getting legal work status and then a green card has a significant positive effect on skilled migrants’ labor market outcomes.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Undocumented immigration has been linked to a wave of anti-immigrant legislation during the early 1990s. California led the way by passing Proposition 187, which many suspect led legal immigrants to naturalize. No research has confirmed this suspicion. I argue that the years before, during, and after the legislation’s passage and the strength of the labor market represent two contexts of reception in which immigrants reside, which determine naturalization decisions. Event history models show that California’s naturalization rates dramatically increased after the legislation’s passage, a pattern that is most pronounced among Latinos, while rates declined during difficult times, a pattern more pronounced among Asians. Thus, Latinos’ naturalization rates are affected more by the state policy climate, while Asians rates are affected more by long-term economic health.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study is about the multifaceted nature of language use in immigrant families. Following earlier explorations of language in the segmented assimilation framework and using adolescent and parental data from the 1995 wave of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, this article examines how adolescents’ use of English with their parents relates to their proficiency in English and ethnic languages, and their personal language preferences, as well as their parents’ language proficiency and use. The findings suggested that adolescent language choice in child–parent interactions reflected the family’s ways to negotiate the distinct linguistic repertoires of immigrant parents and their children. The adolescent use of English was not necessarily associated with social and emotional estrangement between generations. Even when adolescents generally preferred English, they were less likely to use English in child–parent interactions if their parents, particularly their mothers, were less proficient in English. On the other hand, adolescents were more likely to speak English to their parents if their mothers were proficient in English, regardless of what language parents used with the children. Parents who spoke to their children in English likely responded to their children’s doubts about their ethnic language proficiency and were linguistically and emotionally ready to make that transition.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper explores the way in which service providers in East Anglia, a region of the United Kingdom, in 2002–2003 represent asylum seekers as problematic, isolated, and largely vulnerable dependents. In doing so, support organizations assume an exclusive position of expertise and knowledge of asylum seekers’ predicaments. This exclusivity can be understood as the ‘official explanation’ [Spivak, G. C. (1987) In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics, Methuen, New York/London, p. 114] put forth by organizations in order to ensure that they maintain a degree of influence in government policy, as well as to ensure a competitive edge in the arena of service provision, and to lobby and advocate the needs of asylum seekers. This paper explores the paradox of an organized system of support that works to assist asylum seekers to be independent and yet in doing so represents asylum seekers as dependent and excludes them from decision-making processes. However, by considering asylum seekers’ speech-acts, we can recognize that what they talk about is in itself a strategy employed to push the boundaries of their predicament and to negotiate a possible future. In doing so, the development of an active dialogue between asylum seekers and the services that assist them can be considered. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Academic debate on Rwanda has significant thematic gaps, and does not usually make use of a theoretically informed comparative framework. This article addresses one thematic gap – the distinctive approach of the RPF-led regime to political involvement in the private sector of the economy. It does so using the framework of a cross-national study which aims to distinguish between more and less developmental forms of neo-patrimonial politics. The article analyses the RPF’s private business operations centred on the holding company known successively as Tri-Star Investments and Crystal Ventures Ltd. These operations are shown to involve the kind of centralized generation and management of economic rents that has distinguished the more developmental regimes of Asia and Africa. The operations of the military investment company Horizon and of the public–private consortium Rwanda Investment Group may be seen in a similar light. With some qualifications, we conclude that Rwanda should be seen as a developmental patrimonial state. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Drawing on oral histories and British, Indian, and Pakistani archives of the post-Partition era, this article considers the historical subjectivity of refugees to Pakistan who came from the minority-Muslim provinces of India. In contrast to Muslim refugees who arrived under the cover of a bilateral transfer of population, Pakistan’s leadership discouraged residents of the minority-Muslim provinces from leaving India. I trace how migrants (muhajirs) from the minority-Muslim provinces imagine their migration in terms of the theologically informed concept of ‘sacrifice’. I contend that the sacrificial imaginary mediates the rupture that Pakistan’s sovereignty created between membership and inclusion within the Muslim nation. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Since the introduction of mandatory detention of unauthorized non-citizens in Australia in 1992, there has been considerable public debate on the wisdom of such policy. The negative impact and long-term implications of indefinite detention on the health of detainees have been raised by medical practitioners and human rights advocates, with more strident argument emerging over the last five to six years. This article contributes to this debate through a methodical review of the Commonwealth Ombudsman’s Immigration Reports over the four-year period 2005 through 2009. From such reporting it has been possible to produce a systematic analysis which can be related to and positioned with respect to previously published research evidence. What emerges from this analysis is evidence of the significant parallels between immigration detention and the criminal justice system with regard to the conditions and longer-term mental health implications for those held in the two estates. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Herb Usage Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the United States”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Immigrants represent a substantial proportion of suicides in Canada. This study assesses the hypothesis that high immigrant density fosters personal sense of community belonging among immigrants, and in turn, protects against suicide risk. This multilevel cross-sectional study is based on individual-level data from the 2007 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 12,951 participants) merged with area-level data from the 2006 Canadian census (n = 57 health regions). Prevalence of suicidal ideation was 1.3 %. Among rural racial minority immigrants, each 10 % increase in immigrant density associated with 67 % lower odds of suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.33, 95 % CI: 0.14–0.77); sense of community belonging did not mediate this association, but was independently associated with suicidal ideation (AOR = 0.44, 95 % CI: 0.28–0.69). Immigrant density was not associated with suicidal ideation among white immigrants or urban settings. Immigrant density and sense of community belonging may correlate with suicidal ideation through distinct mechanisms of association. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The association between social support and mental health across immigrant groups were examined in this study. A population-based sample was extracted from a 2009/10 Canadian community health survey. Self-reported mood or anxiety disorders and a standardized social support scale were used as outcome and explanatory variables. The association between these variables was measured using logistic regression controlling for sex, age, marital status, education, self-rated health and perceived stress. Stratified analyses were performed to test if the strength of association differed by immigrant status. In comparison with individuals who had moderate levels of social support, individuals with low social support had higher odds of reporting mental disorders and this association appeared strongest among recent immigrants. Using the same comparison group, individuals with high social support had lower odds of reporting mental disorders and this association appeared stronger among long-term immigrants. Findings were discussed within the context of immigration stress and acculturation strategies. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Postpartum depression is a serious condition that can have long lasting traumatic effects on women and their families. Until recently postpartum depression research has focused more on the population as a whole rather than refugee and immigrant women. Informed by Kleinman’s explanatory model and the postcolonial feminist perspective, 30 immigrant and refugee women were interviewed to find out what factors influenced them in seeking postpartum care and what strategies would be helpful in prevention and treatment of postpartum depression. We found that the immigrant and refugee women in our sample: (a) were influenced by both cultural background and socioeconomic factors in seeking support and treatment; (b) were influenced by cultural differences and social stigma when making decisions about health care practices; and (c) employed numerous coping strategies to deal with postpartum depression. Recommendations are provided for more culturally appropriate and equitable mental health care services for immigrant and refugee women living in Canada. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article examines how conflict in the country of origin interacts with other factors in shaping migrants’ remittance-sending practices. Our data come from a survey of 10 immigrant groups in Norway and semi-structured interviews with Somali and Pakistani remittance-senders and receivers. First, we conduct an in-depth comparison to explore the differences in how Somali and Pakistani migrants decide about remittance-sending. Second, we use survey data on all 10 migrant groups to evaluate whether the differences that are not explained by socioeconomic characteristics, may partly reflect whether or not there is ongoing conflict in the country of origin. In our analyses we differentiate between (1) the effect of migrants’capacity to remit and their prioritizing of local and transnational expenditures, and (2) the impact of state collapse and absence of human security on migrants’ and refugees’desire to remit. We find that ongoing conflict in the country of origin exerts an upward pressure on remittance-sending.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This research was supported by grants from Metropolis British Columbia and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. It was made possible through Statistics Canada providing access to the micro-level data through the Research Data Centre program. The data for this study were accessed at the Inter-University Research Data Centre at the University of British Columbia, with the kind support of Lee Grenon and Cheryl Chunling Fu. We would like to thank Irene Bloemraad, Rich Carpiano, Barry Edmonston, Sylvia Fuller, Tomás Jiménez, Karen Kobayashi, Mark Leach, Sharon Lee, and Gerry Veenstra for helpful comments on earlier drafts of the paper. All mistakes remain the responsibility of the authors.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Although there has been a series of devastating natural disasters since December 2004 – from Hurricane Katrina to the 2010 floods in Pakistan – the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami remains the most significant in human history in terms of the number of communities affected and the size of the global response. Yet interest in the lessons of tsunami recovery has faded and there is little evidence to suggest that the global aid ‘industry’ has learnt very much from that experience in terms of moving from relief to long-term social recovery. This paper is based on an intensive four-year study conducted across five local areas of Sri Lanka and India, and presents a new way of thinking about the transitions from short-term relief to long-term social recovery; a more ‘deliberative strategy’. It demonstrates why a community development approach to disaster recovery has more chance than ‘asset replacement’ for delivering on the promise of ‘build back better’. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article looks at the role of NGOs in terms of their capacity for social capital development and community empowerment. The article is based on qualitative research focusing on two NGOs in Bangladesh: Proshika and Practical Action Bangladesh, and their work in two communities, one urban and the other rural. The article also focuses on data obtained from two indigenous occupations: blacksmiths and goldsmiths. It argues that there are specific problems within these communities and that NGOs’ capacities for social capital development and community empowerment were limited. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This paper explores the way in which service providers in East Anglia, a region of the United Kingdom, in 2002–2003 represent asylum seekers as problematic, isolated, and largely vulnerable dependents. In doing so, support organizations assume an exclusive position of expertise and knowledge of asylum seekers’ predicaments. This exclusivity can be understood as the ‘official explanation’ [Spivak, G. C. (1987) In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics, Methuen, New York/London, p. 114] put forth by organizations in order to ensure that they maintain a degree of influence in government policy, as well as to ensure a competitive edge in the arena of service provision, and to lobby and advocate the needs of asylum seekers. This paper explores the paradox of an organized system of support that works to assist asylum seekers to be independent and yet in doing so represents asylum seekers as dependent and excludes them from decision-making processes. However, by considering asylum seekers’ speech-acts, we can recognize that what they talk about is in itself a strategy employed to push the boundaries of their predicament and to negotiate a possible future. In doing so, the development of an active dialogue between asylum seekers and the services that assist them can be considered. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “For the past year, Human Rights Watch has been compiling documents and images found after the fall of Libya’s authoritarian regime in a bid to secure an important passage of the country’s history. Now a selection of these artefacts – named The Gaddafi Archives – is set to go on show at the London Festival of Photography. Olivier Laurent reports “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article charts the difficulties refugee law – and more widely the legal regime governing international protection – has encountered from the outset in dealing with asylum-related claims by persons fleeing armed conflict. It analyses the origins of the prevailing “exceptionality approach”, which regards such claims as unable to succeed unless they can make out a special case. It explains why its opposite, the “normalcy approach”, equally does not resolve underlying problems.

    The “war-flaw” is seen to consist in the failure of international protection to analyse claims by persons fleeing armed conflict by reference to the correct international law framework. Whilst the development within refugee law of a human rights approach has been a major achievement, its inability to deal effectively with armed conflict-related claims is located in its conspicuous failure, or unwillingness, to recognize that international law regards international humanitarian law as the lex specialis in situations of armed conflict. Curiously, despite the increasing acknowledgment of the complementarity of international human rights law and international humanitarian law by human rights bodies, the human rights paradigm remains stuck trying to analyse such situations exclusively in international human rights law terms. It is argued that this “war flaw” afflicts not only contemporary refugee law but also current human rights jurisprudence dealing with problems of refoulement, and regional protection schemes such as subsidiary protection within the European Union. Tentative suggestions are made as to how the prevailing international human rights law paradigm can be revised to take account of international humanitarian law and as to how the two branches of international law can be applied in tandem. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Background Unprecedented changes in both the scale and the complexity of international migration have led to international concern and controversy over the assessment of age in children and young people subject to immigration control or seeking asylum who say they are children yet have no documents to prove their stated age.

    Sources of data The article reviews the existing evidence on the reliability of medical and non-medical techniques for the assessment of chronological age.

    Areas of agreement There is evidence that radiography (X-rays) of bones and teeth, which is increasingly relied upon by immigration authorities, is imprecise, unethical and potentially unlawful, and should not be used for age assessment.

    Areas of controversy Medical techniques including X-rays continue to be relied upon in the absence of an alternative approach resulting in legal challenges and uncertainty for children and young people.

    Areas timely for developing research Further work is needed to establish a process for age assessment based on a ‘holistic’ multi-disciplinary approach which focuses not on chronological age exclusively but rather on the needs of children and young people subject to immigration control. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study uses national survey data in federal election years from 1996 through 2004 to examine voter registration and voting. It shows that racial/ethnic disparities in socio-­economic resources and rootedness in the community do not explain overall group differences in electoral participation. It contradicts the expectation from an assimilation perspective that low levels of Latino participation are partly attributable to the large share of immigrants among Latinos. In fact net differences show higher average Latino participation than previously reported. The study focuses especially on contextual factors that could affect collective responses of group members. Moving beyond past research, significant effects are found for the group’s representation among office holders, voting regulations and state policies related to treatment of immigrants. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Abstract

    This qualitative study examines the resources that Vietnamese refugee parents use in raising their adolescent youth in exile and how they, and their adolescents, regard their experiences of different parenting styles. The study is based on 55 semi-structured interviews and several focus groups performed with a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescent children. Three main themes from the interviews were identified: the role of the extended family and siblings in bringing up children; language acquisition and cultural continuity and, finally, religion and social support. Our findings suggest extended kin are involved in the raising of adolescent children, providing additional family ties and support. Parents regarded Vietnamese language acquisition by their youth as facilitating both communication with extended kin and cultural transmission. Several parents stressed the importance of religious community to socializing and creating a sense of belonging for their youth. Vietnamese refugee parents seek a balance between Vietnamese values and their close extended family social networks, and the opportunities in Norway to develop autonomy in pursuit of educational and economic goals. Together these parenting practices constituted a mobilization of resources in support of their youth. These findings may have important implications for future research on resiliency and the role of these strategies as protective factors mediating mental health outcomes. They may also have implications for treatment, in terms of the types of resources treatment can access and for prevention strategies that maximize key cultural resources for Vietnamese refugee youth.
    Keywords

    Vietnamese;
    Refugees;
    Parenting;
    Well-being;
    Resilience;
    Qualitative method”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Many authors have commented on the increasing resistance of Western States to accepting large numbers of asylum seekers. However, the literature lacks a coherent theory about the specific mechanisms behind the rise of deterrence policies in individual States. Based on 52 interviews and a media database of 444 articles, I examine the arc of American asylum policy over many decades. I argue that when the Cold War ended, the anti-communist hold on the American asylum programme was loosened, and the early 1990s ushered in a flurry of reforms designed to expand the programme and make the decision-making process more rich and transparent. However, these changes coincided with an asylum boom that placed heavy administrative costs on receiving States just as the power of granting asylum to people in exile lost its strategic geo-political appeal. The regime that eventually developed became closely aligned with the domestic politics of border control, as opposed to either foreign policy concerns or the guidelines of international law. Thus, both institutional and ideological strains led to the sudden demise of the dominant policy-making regime, and made room temporarily for another, only to be quickly trumped by a third – the regime of deterrence.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article focuses on asylum-seekers’ perspectives on work including the Norwegian policy tightening concerning asylum-seekers’ right to work. The new policy states that asylum-seekers must prove their identity to be granted the right to work. However, beyond this short-term work opportunity, more fundamental factors affect asylum-seekers’ evaluations of their destination country and social practice. Asylum-seekers’ perspectives on work, as well as assessments of whether they should submit identity documents can be viewed in light of their assessment of costs and benefits of various actions. At the same time, asylum-seekers’ choices are characterised by uncertainty, lack of knowledge and very limited possibilities of action including the fact that some asylum-seekers really lack and really cannot produce identity documents. Our focus is directed towards conditions in Norway, but the questions that we address are also indirectly relevant to other Nordic countries. The Norwegian experience is directly relevant to Denmark since Danish authorities are also posing strict identity requirements as a condition for being granted the right to work. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Over the last decades, Sweden has liberalized its citizenship policy by reducing the required number of years of residency to five for foreign citizens and only two for Nordic citizens. Dual citizenship has been allowed since 2001. During the same period, immigration patterns by country of birth changed substantially, with an increasing number of immigrants arriving from non-western countries. Furthermore, immigrants were settling in larger cities as opposed to smaller towns as was the case before. Interestingly, the employment integration of immigrants has declined gradually, and in 2006 the employment rate for foreign-born individuals is substantially lower compared to the native-born. The aim of this paper is to explore the link between citizenship and employment probabilities for immigrants in Sweden, controlling for a range of demographic, human capital, and municipal characteristics such as city and co-ethnic population size. The information we employ for this analysis consists of register data on the whole population of Sweden held by Statistics Sweden for the year 2006. The basic register, STATIV, includes demographic, socio-economic and immigrant specific information. In this paper we used instrumental variable regression to examine the “clean” impact of citizenship acquisition and the size of the co-immigrant population on the probability of being employed. In contrast to Scott (2008), we find that citizenship acquisition has a positive impact for a number of immigrant groups. This is particularly the case for non- EU/non-North American immigrants. In terms of intake class, refugees appear to experience substantial gains from citizenship acquisition (this is not, however, the case for immigrants entering as family class). We find that the impact of the co-immigrant population is particularly important for immigrants from Asia and Africa. These are also the countries that have the lowest employment rate. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Conceptual changes in the classical understanding of citizenship in connection with marked shifts in citizenship regimes have been widely studied in recent decades. Most of this work has been developed to explore legal and institutional aspects, thus giving citizenship a static framework. By turning to individuals perceptions, a new picture of citizenship is discovered. The present study pays attention to a group that has not hitherto been central in discussions about citizenship, namely immigrants descendants or so-called second-generation immigrants. This group is regarded as being in-between their parents native country and the country in which they were themselves born, which could result in an ambiguous membership and potentially divided allegiance, especially for those having dual citizenship. This article introduces the experiences of Turkish descendants in France and Sweden. Qualitative work complemented by survey data shows how dual citizens prioritize one country or both in order to develop new and traditional aspects associated with citizenship. Two dimensions are explored: a civic dimension composed by traditional elements associated with legal status such as rights and duties and a subjective dimension that is defined by the personal elements that link individuals with the country, city, or community to which they belong. Citizenship regimes and paradigms of integration are also problematized in this article in order to capture the context and possible influence over peoples narratives.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The objective of this paper is to obtain new empirical insights into the integration of naturalized immigrants in Switzerland. In particular, we focus on a comparison of first-generation immigrants with and without Swiss citizenship. The analysis on the basis of the 2008 wave of the Swiss Labor Force Survey is motivated by findings in the literature highlighting the role of the acquisition of citizenship in the integration process. In line with those findings, our results demonstrate that naturalized first-generation immigrants tend to have higher wages than non-naturalized immigrants. An applied Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition technique demonstrates that this result is strongly connected to the higher human capital endowments of immigrants who have attained Swiss citizenship. The findings are in line with other case studies stating that immigrants positively select into citizenship.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Previous research has shown that immigrants’ approach orientation positively predicts their attitudes towards contact with host nationals (Matschke & Sassenberg, 2010). The present research builds on this previous work by investigating the extent to which immigrants’ independent vs. interdependent problem-solving style moderates the relation between approach–avoidance orientation and social integration. Interdependent problem-solvers rely on other people to achieve their goals. This interdependence was expected to reduce the influence of approach–avoidance orientation on integration amongst immigrants. Immigrants to Australia (N = 137) completed a questionnaire that included measures of approach–avoidance orientation and problem-solving style. Participants also completed three measures of social integration: (1) proportion of Australian friends, (2) feelings of inclusion in Australian society, and (3) satisfaction with employment, accommodation, and life in Australia. Consistent with previous research, there was a positive relation between approach and social integration and a negative relation between avoidance and social integration. Consistent with predictions, problem-solving style moderated the relation for approach orientation: Only immigrants who were independent problem-solvers showed a significant positive relation between approach and social integration. The results are discussed in relation to Gable’s (2006) model of approach and avoidance social goals and motives, and the implications for immigration services are considered.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This study examined the similarity of immigrant and minority adolescents’ cultural values to those shared by the majority of the country they live in, i.e. the cultural value fit. It was hypothesized that immigrant and minority individuals who show different acculturation orientations differ in their cultural value fit. The highest cultural value fit was expected for individuals pursuing an assimilation orientation, the lowest fit for individuals with a separation orientation. Individuals with a marginalization or integration orientation were expected to take a mid position. Survey data were used from immigrant and minority adolescents: Immigrants from countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Germany (N = 862) and Israel (N = 435), immigrants from Turkey to Germany (N = 664), and members of the Arab minority in Israel (N = 488). Results of Analyses of Variance showed similar patterns in all four samples in line with the hypothesis but pointed also to stronger effects among FSU immigrants as opposed to Turkish immigrants and Arab Israelis. Results are discussed with regard to the general contribution of the cultural fit research for the acculturation research and with regard to the role of cultural value fit for psychological well-being of immigrants and minority members. The stronger effects found among the FSU samples as opposed to the Turkish respectively Arab Israeli sample are discussed against the background of the fact that the former are mainly diaspora-immigrants for which cultural value adaptation to the receiving country might be easier compared to the latter. ⺠Tested the relationship of migrants’ acculturation orientations with value similarity to host culture. ⺠Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Turkish migrants in Germany, FSU migrants and Arab Israelis in Israel. ⺠Country samples from European Social Survey taken for value fit measure. ⺠Hypothesis confirmed, but strength of relationship differed between groups. ⺠Adds new perspective to acculturation research by intertwining it with cultural fit research.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The effects of the two dimensions underlying immigrants’ perceived acculturation strategies conceptualized respectively as Intercultural Contact or as host Culture Adoption were examined. Host members’ attitudes and perceptions of immigrants’ adjustment to the host society were assessed in two experimental studies (N = 251; N = 124). Participants were presented with a fictitious interview with an African immigrant whose generational Status, desire for Culture Maintenance and Intercultural Contact (Study 1) or host Culture Adoption (Study 2) were manipulated (2 × 2 × 2 design). Results showed that both perceived desire for contact and for culture adoption positively affected host members’ attitudes, and that the culture adoption–attitudes relationship was partially mediated by perceived threat. These effects were stronger than those attributable to perceived Culture Maintenance. The latter variable moderated the Desire for Contact but not the Desire for Culture Adoption main effect. Moreover, Contact and Culture Adoption and generational Status all influenced the way in which host members perceived immigrants’ sociocultural adjustment. We conclude that more similarities than differences exist between the Contact and the Culture Adoption frameworks, at least in terms of their effects on majority attitudes towards immigrants. ⺠Different conceptualizations of immigrants’ acculturation strategies are compared. ⺠Immigrants’ generational Status and acculturation preferences are manipulated. ⺠Many similarities exist between the Contact and the host Culture Adoption frameworks. ⺠Only minor differences between the two conceptualizations emerge.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Almost 20 years ago, Jürgen Habermas launched the idea of constitutional patriotism as a proposed solution to the tension between citizenship and national identity in the European Union. Since then, constitutional patriotism has remained a key concept in debates on European Union (EU) citizenship and democracy. This article, as so many before it, scrutinizes the meaning and viability of the concept. Unlike most others, however, it focuses less on the content of the concept and more on the subjects to which it is assumed/supposed to apply. I argue, firstly, that constitutional patriotism is not a viable or even desirable ideal for the European demos in its totality. The potential patriots of the EU are not the large majority of European Union citizens who live in their home country but migrants from other member states and nonmember states who are foreigners in their host countries. Secondly and accordingly, I argue that advancing constitutional patriotism means improving the status of foreign nationals in general and third-country nationals in particular. Connecting the acquisition of EU citizenship to domicile as opposed to member state nationality is one venue for such improvement. I discuss what this could imply and defend it as a means of building a truly European demos.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “Research data on the dynamics of ethnocultural adaptation of migrant family students in Moscow schools shows a tension between assimilation and retention of one’s cultural background. Ethnic differences create barriers between those of Russian and non-Russian ethnicity, including difficulties with language and the widespread phenomenon of withdrawal into their own culture and narrow circle, as well as lack of a tolerant social and educational environment. Helping children overcome these barriers could guarantee their successful adaptation and reduce cultural distance. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children’s social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports on 541 (286 boys and 255 girls) immigrant and Swiss native 5-to-6 year-old kindergarteners. Results showed the immigrant children were less fluent in the local language compared to native Swiss classmates. Moreover, results from structural equation models, with bootstrap tests of indirect effects, indicated that social behaviors mediated the link between LLC and the quality of children’s peer relationships. Implications of these findings for school professionals are discussed, such as the need to help immigrant children make a smoother transition to their host communities by providing additional language and social supports while children acculturate and acclimate to their new surroundings and peer group.”

    tags: newjournalarticles

  • “This article looks at the history of Jewish refugees in Germany and their place in the formation of the postwar refugee regime from the perspective of space. Focusing on the US occupation zone, it examines the spatial practices of refugee management employed by the occupation authorities and considers how Jewish ‘displaced persons’ (DPs) themselves related to postwar German space. Fundamental policy contradictions structured the lives of DPs in American-occupied Germany. Although the US occupation authorities preferred to segregate displaced persons in camps, they also felt the need to demonstrate that they were not reproducing the Nazi camp regime. These competing objectives led to spatial ‘indeterminacy’ inside and outside the camps. A fundamental ambivalence also structured Jewish spatial practices. Jewish refugees desired the protection and separation that camps afforded, but they also wanted access to German space. These competing desires framed the emergence of Jewish ‘spaces of exception’ in the DP camps and in what was officially considered ‘Germany’. “

    tags: newjournalarticles

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